The method of controlling the operation of the catalyst of the internal combustion engine, the device for its implementation and catalytic converter

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in internal combustion engines. The inventive method of controlling the operation of the catalytic Converter for exhaust gases of internal combustion engine to the exhaust system, and at least two spatially at a distance from each other, the cross-sectional areas of the exhaust system to measure the temperature of the temperature probes and control electronic control unit. When this temperature measurements produced integrally and temperature probes are made flat or linear, between which is placed a catalytic Converter, the latter is partially heated. Exothermic reaction in the catalytic conversion of harmful substances in the exhaust gas with the right system creates a temperature difference between both the measuring points, which can be controlled. Sign and/or absolute value and/or the time characteristic of the temperature difference can make a conclusion about the work of the catalytic Converter and/or motor and/or electronic control unit. 3 C and 18 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention concerns a method of controlling the operation kataliticheskogo for this device and the catalytic Converter, made specifically for this.

According to standard exhaust many internal combustion engines, in particular in vehicles equipped with a catalytic Converter. This neutralizer is flown exhaust gas and in its catalytically active volume, which has a large surface area that comes in contact with the exhaust gas turns the harmful substances in the exhaust gas catalytically in the neutralized substance. As phone carriers catalytically active material known different body, partially made of ceramic, and partly of metal. In General we are talking about bodies with a honeycomb structure, which contain a large number of channels through which flows exhaust gas. Metal catalysts generally layer structured sheet, spiral retracted or otherwise sbivautsa.

To facilitate catalytic conversion to further reduce harmful substances directly after starting the engine have been proposed to electrically heated catalysts, which are more quickly reach the required for catalytic conversion of temperature [1]

The heated body of the neutralizers odniesienie as a temperature probe they measure the temperature integrated over the entire heated area, in particular, the area of the cross section. However, the measurement accuracy especially when transient is small. Control of one such Converter with only one measuring the resistance through the body is only a limitation on the content.

As the addition of known systems was considered desirable possibility to continuously monitor the health of exhaust gas during operation, in order to proactively detect and eliminate improper actions. It was investigated, for example, by measuring the temperature at two locations and observed temperature difference [2]

The objective of the invention improve the accuracy and breadth of the control functions of the catalytic Converter during operation.

The problem is solved by a method of controlling the operation of the catalytic Converter for exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine to the exhaust system, in which at least two, spatially located from each other at a distance of stations of the cross-section of the exhaust system to measure and control the temperature, and between the two measuring points is at least one part corresponding to the catalytic premere in one place measure not point, and integrally through one equivalent of the area of the cross section.

The basis of the invention is theory, namely, that the transformation of toxic substances in the catalyst is an exothermic reaction, in which, consequently, energy is released. This energy leads to the fact that loaded with harmful substances of the exhaust gas before the catalytic Converter (at least in a quasi-steady state), has a lower temperature than the purified exhaust gas in the Converter. In the invention, this effect should be involved to monitor the health of the neutralizer and have yet to identify other information. In addition, the temperature is measured in the gas system in the two plots cross section, between which there is at least one part is specified for the catalytic conversion of volume Converter. To achieve significant results measurement is not absolutely necessary that the entire volume of the catalyst lies between measured points. So take into account the different locations of the measurement, which may vary depending on spatial data separate exhaust system. In the heart of the m and beyond. So how does one flue system is no homogeneous temperature distribution through the whole cross-section of flow, in particular not within the body of one of the neutralizer, it makes sense to measure the temperature in certain areas of measurement is not the point, and after almost one equivalent of the area of the cross-section integrally. As a consequence, increases the accuracy of control. This is equivalent to one dimension, which contains information on the marginal areas of streams, as well as from the Central areas. The plot of the cross-section represents one lying almost in the same plane of the cross section of the disc from the gas system, in which the measurement.

For integral dimensions are suitable, for example, known flat or approximately linear temperature probes. In particular, taking into account the measuring probes with a single temperature-dependent resistance, preferably in the form of a single wire. The measurement temperatures are the most accurate and best dominant dimensions in technology and therefore can be applied. In addition, they respond to relatively small changes quickly.

In each case, the energy generated in the Converter, so high that significant temperature difference should be easily measured. Therefore, it is also sufficient when measured is not the entire active volume of neutralizer, and only more than 50%, preferably more than 70%

The measurement accuracy is increased also due to the fact that in one electronic control device is formed by a temperature difference between at least two measured values at the measuring points. The sign of the absolute value and/or the time characteristic of the temperature difference can be concluded about the operation of the Converter, and/or even control the internal combustion engine, or the regulation of the Converter (if available).

If the form of the temperature difference T T1T2where T1the measured value in one of the front and place of measurement, and T2the measured value in one of the rear area of ismo in the neutralizer is not turning so that should be followed by the message "the Converter failed;

if D T is negative and within a particular field of tolerance, then all systems are in order and should not be the message;

if D T is negative and very large, it is obvious that a large proportion of pollutants or unburned fuel remains fall into the flue system, resulting in the neutralizer is a strong reaction; in this case should be followed by the message "control of internal combustion engine failed.

The proposed measurement system is extremely sensitive to the appearance of the remnants of unburned fuel in the exhaust gas. Therefore, a system with high sensitivity to diagnostirovalsya errors in the management of the internal combustion engine, in particular rare periodic or occasional misfiring in engines with direct fuel injection.

The method can be improved by the fact that in internal combustion engines with electronic control is created informational link between the electronic control device and the control device of the engine. Thus, the control system can be wired data on the number of revolutions of the engine in order to yatsa expected temperature difference D T when appropriate (correct) action install in certain limits. Thus, using a conventional microprocessors quality diagnosis, described above, can be improved in one precise quantitative diagnosis. However, if necessary, can also be processed measured values or one or more l-probes in the gas system. In addition, perhaps the reverse of an electronic control device for motor control, while under certain operating conditions of the Converter (for example to reach operating temperature or exceeds a given maximum temperature) affect the corresponding control commands to the device management engine. Temporal measurement of the temperature probes can be aligned by means performed by the electronic control device random re-calibration. After a prolonged stop of the internal combustion engine all temperature probes should be at the same temperature so that in this state one possible additional calibration, if necessary in relation to the otherwise measured ambient temperature. Maintenance or action from the outside it does not need.

To achieve the stated least two temperature probe in at least two contiguously in the direction of the flow areas of the cross section of the flue system, and between the two parts of the cross-section lies at least one part corresponding to the size of the catalytic conversion of harmful substances in the exhaust gas volume of the catalyst and at least one of the temperature probes (TF, TF1, TF2, TF1', TF2') is planar or nearly linear and integral measures the temperature through approximately one equivalent of the area of the cross section on which it is located. In addition, you need one electronic control unit for processing measured values of the temperature and one indicator device for the processing. Further details of such devices are described in more detail below using the drawing.

This control system is particularly suitable in connection with electrically heated converters. When electrically heated netresearch preferably, as necessary, to measure actually really temperature achieved, in order thereby to regulate the heat and, if necessary, to release the engine start after reaching the starting temperature. For this purpose, can be employed intended for desktop monitoring temperature probes, all or part of sredstv Elektricheskie glands it is also preferable to provide, there are inputs for the instrumentation, so that in addition to cable connections one possible l probe, only one additional cable branch leads to the flue system.

The invention concerns also one specially made catalytic Converter, which at least in one area of the cross section about at least one of its end surfaces includes at least one integrated temperature probe, which is integrally measures temperature through one, almost the equivalent of the area of the cross section.

One such catalyst is suitable, in particular, for the previously described devices for implementing the method of control. In addition, it is also suitable, regardless of this application for other systems that require such measured temperature values. In particular, the heated catalysts can be so equipped when they are not provided with a device for controlling the operation. Special embodiments of the integrated temperature probes are described below using the drawing.

In Fig. 1 shows a control system of the engine and according to the invention of the catalytic Converter in the plane of one of the temperature probe; in Fig. 3 and 4 the construction of one suitable temperature probe in the longitudinal (Fig. 3) and transverse (Fig. 4) the cross sections of Fig. 5 is an example of one of the temperature probe in the body of the Converter.

In Fig. 1 shows an engine 1 of an internal combustion engine with one of the electronic control device 2 controls the motor through line 3 for supplying measured values receives information from the outside and then through the supply line 4 controls the engine. Of the engine 1, the exhaust gases in the direction of the arrow fall into one exhaust line 5, which is one of the l-probe 6, which in turn through the line 7 measured value is in communication with the device 2 motor control. In-line exhaust gases is one catalytic Converter 8, adjacent one Gazovaya line 9. Converter 8 may consist of one or more disks, the gas system can be built also multithreaded, however, this invention does not play a decisive role. Converter 8 can also be electrically heated, at least in private areas and contain corresponding to this electrical inputs 17 and 18.

According to the invention in the gas Are one part of a catalytically active amount. For the front of the temperature probe of Fig. 1 shows two variants, namely temperature probe TF1 in the front end zone of the catalytic Converter 8 and a temperature probe TF1' in line 5 of the exhaust gases. To the rear of the temperature probe is also shown in two versions, namely the one integrated in the rear section of the catalytic Converter 8 temperature probe TF2 and one located in the gas line 9 temperature pike FT2'. Which of these choices would preferably be combined with each other depends on the geometrical data and other factors. It is important first of all what is between the measuring points runs a significant part in catalytic reactions. The measured values of the temperature measuring lines 13 and 14 are fed into the electronic control unit 10, which processes the measured parameters, and, if necessary, treatment can involve data from device 2 controls the engine through line 11 filing data. You may also reverse the action of the electronic control unit 10 to the control unit 2 via line 12 of the data tap. The result of control over one diagnostic line 15 is passed in one device 16 for display of the diagnosis (indicator devices.

For the case when the temperature probes are integrated in one Converter 8, Fig. 2 clearly explains one possible example implementation. In this Fig. 2 is a partially schematic cut neutralizate 8 in the plane of one of the temperature probe TF. When Fig. 2 we are talking about one itself known from WO 89/1047 one embodiment, the electrically heated metal catalyst carrier, which consists of twisted in the opposite direction of sheet layers and in the plane of its cross-section is divided insulating layers so that there is suitable for heating the electrical resistance and the current path. This Converter 8 is composed of alternating layers of corrugated 21 and smooth 22 sheets and in its internal cavity is supplied shown here only schematically spiral passing into the insulation layers. Layers of leaves surrounded by a single membrane, which consists of two pelucas 23 and 24, which are insulating sections 25 and 26 are electrically separated from each other. Shell poluchasa 23 and 24 are equipped with an electric inputs 27 and 28 for electrical heating. Inside this Converter 8 runs parallel to the individual layers of leaves EMERAUDE with temperature. For it was not necessary to provide two inputs for temperature probe in different locations, the wire resistance in the inner cavity of the Converter laid U-shape, i.e. it consists of United at the end of the forward and reverse wires, as clearly illustrated in Fig. 3 and 4. Temperature probe TF on one side conducted through the shell 24 to the outside and has inputs 29 for measuring line. The principle of placing one temperature probe in one Converter 8 is merely one example implementation. Valid many other opportunities for otherwise composed of converters, in particular valid spiral winding of one of the temperature probe or the insertion of one transverse hole.

Fig. 3 shows to illustrate one longitudinal section of the end of the temperature probe TF, and Fig. 4 shows one cross-section along the line IV-IV in Fig. 3.

Thermometer probe has a single shell 31, which may consist of, for example, from "Inconel" or one/another counter to the action of high temperatures in steel containing chromium and/or aluminum. In accordance with the requirements of the sheath 31 may also consist of the same material as the sheets neutraliz what about the shell 24. Inside temperature probe TF U-shaped padded wire 33, 34, the wire may consist of, for example, of Nickel or other material, which has a strongly temperature-dependent resistance. The insulating layer 32, for example from a powder of magnesium oxide, a known manner to prevent contact between the two lines 33 and 34 of the wire resistance, with each other and with the shell 31.

Fig. 5 shows to illustrate one small cut from a single wavy or in this case, the composite sheet, as it is used to build the bodies of the media Converter. By sanding awkward one suitable groove transversely move patterns in the waves can be created basing for one temperature probe TF, which allows for layering or to uncoil, or to weave the temperature probe together with a structured sheet 21 in one body media Converter. This groove 51 would not be significant as it is presented here to illustrate more of the cross-section of the temperature probe, and have roughly the dimensions so that the possible spike or at least one fixing temperature TF probe through the groove. Since the groove 51 delays the automatic measures the temperature of the flowing gas and is not the same as the temperature of the structure. Via one of the smallest depth of the groove 51, and possibly one adhesions with adjacent nearest smooth sheet can be achieved that the temperature probe actually measures the temperature of the object structure. Therefore, there is a flexible type of construction in accordance with the requirements.

The invention is particularly suitable for advanced integrated systems diagnosis and control in vehicles that have internal combustion engines with electronic injection and equipped with adjustable catalysts. Particularly the invention is applicable in connection with electrically heated converters.

1. The method of controlling the operation of the catalytic Converter for exhaust gases of internal combustion engine exhaust system, and at least in two areas of the exhaust system using temperature sensors measure the temperature control using the electronic control device, characterized in that the temperature is measured at least two spatially at a distance from each other, the cross-sectional areas of the exhaust system, while temperature measurements produce at least parts of the cross-section integrine temperature probes.

3. The method according to PP. 1 and 2, characterized in that at least one of the temperature measurements is produced inside the Converter.

4. The method according to PP. 1 to 3, characterized in that the first temperature measurement inside the neutralizer produced in the zone of inflow, and the second in the area of the outflow.

5. The method according to PP. 1 to 4, characterized in that the measured temperature values passed into the electronic control unit, which determines the difference between the measured values of the temperature in at least two places of measurement, and to sign and/or absolute value, and/or temporal characteristics determine the efficiency of the Converter and/or the need for regulation.

6. The method according to PP. 1 to 5, characterized in that the periodically perform a calibration of the temperature probes.

7. Device for controlling the operation of the catalytic Converter having front and rear end wall and located in the gas system containing at least two temperature probe, installed in series on at least two sections of the flue system, characterized in that it further comprises an electronic control unit and its associated indicator unit, and elector, temperature probes are made flat or linear and installed in the planes of at least two cross-sections of the flue system.

8. The device according to p. 7, characterized in that the electronic control unit via the electronic control device is connected with the internal combustion engine.

9. The device according to p. 7, characterized in that between the temperature probe, made of at least 50%, mostly 70% of the active volume of the catalytic Converter.

10. The device according to PP. 7 to 9, characterized in that at least one temperature probe is installed in the Converter near its rear end wall.

11. The device according to p. 10, characterized in that at least two of the temperature probe is installed in the Converter, one near the front and the other near the rear wall.

12. The device according to PP. 7 to 11, characterized in that at least one temperature probe is made in the form measuring sensor resistance changes depending on temperature.

13. The device according to PP. 7 to 12, characterized in that the catalytic Converter is partially heated.

14. Device according to one of paragraphs. 7 13, the I internal combustion moreover, the electronic control device at least partially in the electronic control unit functionally related to the temperature difference, in order to ensure an accurate diagnosis of system functions.

15. The device according to p. 14, characterized in that the flue system is provided with at least one probe and the measured values are evaluated in the electronic control unit.

16. Catalytic Converter exhaust gases, comprising a housing with front and rear end walls connected to the gas manifold of the internal combustion engine, formed by layers of smooth and corrugated sheets, rolled, characterized in that it is provided with at least one flat or linear temperature probe mounted in the plane of at least one of the cross-section Converter near one of the end walls.

17. The neutralizer under item 16, characterized in that it further provided with an electric heater installed near the temperature probe.

18. The neutralizer on PP. 16 and 17, characterized in that the wavy sheet groove, and at least one temperature probe placed in the last.

bone cross-section Converter.

20. The neutralizer on PP. 16 to 19, characterized in that at least one temperature probe is designed as one wire with changing depending on the temperature resistance of the covering wire metal shell and located between the electrical insulator.

21. The neutralizer on p. 20, characterized in that the metal shell is made of "Inconel" and/or heat-resistant steel containing chromium and/or aluminum.

 

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