System volume compensation
(57) Abstract:Usage: in nuclear engineering and can be used in nuclear power plants. The inventive system includes a storage tank 9, the electric boiler 11, adjacent placed inside the steam volume compensator 12. The drain pipe 17 is made in the form of a bundle of vertical tubes. A pipe 20 connects the drain pipe 17 with a water displacement of the lower part of the compensator 21 and has a throttle device 22. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The present invention relates to nuclear technology and can be used in nuclear power plants with pressurised water reactors with a steam system volume compensation.Known steam pressure compensator, which is heated to boil some water, limited special casing in the lower part of the compensator 
The disadvantage of this compensator is the high energy consumption caused by the need to compensate for heat losses through the entire surface of the compensator.In a steam system volume compensation along.with.USSR N 505027 electric boiler is made separately from the compensator and can be located at any height above the water level is a cost compensation of heat losses through the surface of the compensator and additional losses from the surface of the electric and connecting pipes.The technical object of the present invention is to reduce energy consumption in the electric by reducing heat loss from the surface of the electric immersion heater, the connecting pipes and the surface of the water level in the storage tanks.This task is achieved by the fact that the system of compensation of the volume containing the compensator is provided with electric immersion heater and coupled with the pressure and suction channels, equipped with a storage tank located inside the receiving pipe and drain pipe, hydraulically connected water and a couple with electric immersion heater and placed adjacent the inside of the steam volume compensator, the electric boiler is thermally insulated, the drain pipe capacity made in the form of a bundle of vertical tubes, the upper ends of which are placed uniformly in a downward spiral, and the total area of the bore of the tubing is selected from the relation:
< / BR>where V is the maximum volume flow of the coolant through the drain pipe;
g the acceleration of free fall;
that is , the coefficient of surface tension, density of liquid and vapor at the saturation line at operating pressure.The pipeline connecting the nozzle with the water part of the compensator, SN is over system design volume compensation due to the relative location of the system elements, the introduction of additional devices, as well as the rational selection of key sizes, which gives the system the new properties that are not present in the known technical solutions, namely, reduction of energy consumption.The essence of the invention illustrated by the drawing, where Fig. 1 shows a system volume compensation, and Fig. 2 in an enlarged scale the drain pipe of a storage tank and a float.System volume compensation maintains a nuclear power plant comprising a nuclear reactor 1, a circulation pump 2, the steam generator 3, United hot 4 and cold 5 pipelines, forming a circulation flow of the water coolant. To the "hot" pipe 4 through the check valve 6 and the intake pipe 7 connected open at the top and surrounded by insulation 8 storage tank 9, the lower part of which there are channels 10, connecting it with the water volume of electric boilers 11, adjacent is available, together with a storage capacity inside the steam volume compensator 12. In the water volume posted by electric heaters 13 and it is surrounded by a layer of insulation 14. At the level of the water 15 in the storage tanks is the float 16. The drain pipe 17 is but a downward spiral. The total area of the bore of the tubing is selected from (1). A pipe 20 connects the drain pipe 17 with a water displacement of the lower part of the compensator 21 and has a throttle device 22, for example, in the form of a local narrowing of the cross section (orifice plates).System volume compensation works scarce.In the initial state of the circuit 1-4-3-5-2 and the lower part of the pressurizer is filled with water. When the pump 2 water from the "hot" pipe 4 through the check valve 6 and the intake pipe 7 enters the storage tank 9, and thence through the drain pipe 17 into the pipe 20 and then through the throttle device 22 in a water volume 21 compensator where they are returned in the "cold" pipe 4. At the same time through the channels 10 are filling electric boilers 11, placed adjacent to 9 inside the steam volume compensator 12. Further included the heaters 13 and put into action the reactor 1. Heated in the reactor water circulates through the main circuit 1-4-3-5-2 and recycle contour 1-6-7-9-17-20-22-21-2:-2-1, supporting equipment circuit when the supply water temperature from the reactor. Underheating to boil water at the outlet of the reactor size 15 20Westside through the channels 10 even in the absence of recirculation due to the supply of water in 9. Reducing energy consumption in the proposed system is carried out by reducing heat loss with 9, 11 and connecting channels, by adjacent placement inside the steam volume compensator 12, the supply 9 and 11 insulation, which minimizes the surface heat transfer, the rate of temperature pressure and heat-transfer coefficients. A further reduction in heat loss is by escaping the 9 surface level 5 float 6, which reduces the intensity of condensation of steam. In addition, the reduction of energy consumption is due to the decrease of the intensity of condensation of steam by being drawn into the downward flow of water in the drain pipe 17 and the pipe 20 when Vorontsovskaya.To prevent Vorontsovskaya the drain pipe 17 is made in the form of a bundle of vertical tubes 18, the upper ends of which 19 are placed uniformly in a downward spiral. At the maximum volumetric flow of coolant through the drain pipe all parallel tube 8 is filled with water, and the velocity of the surge motion of the latter is less than the speed of ascent of bubbles of steam that prevents them from getting into the flow of water, thus reducing the intensity of condensation of steam and energy
that, combined with the continuity equation
V fw (3)
gives the claimed value for the magnitude of the total area of orifice tubes.The experiments conducted on the model of the device showed the effectiveness of the proposed technical solution (the power of steam condensation in 18 decreased by 2.5 to 3 times), and the need to install special throttle device 22, which allows you to adjust the hydraulic characteristics of the route 7-19-18-20-21, to stabilize the latter (decrease self-oscillations of level 15). 1. The compensation system volume that contains the compensator is provided with electric immersion heater and coupled with the pressure and suction channels, wherein the system includes a storage tank located inside the receiving pipe and drain pipe, hydraulically connected water and a couple with electric immersion heater and placed adjacent the inside of the steam volume compensator, the electric boiler is thermally insulated, the drain pipe capacity made in the form of a bundle of vertical tubes, the upper ends of which are placed uniformly in a downward spiral, and the total area of the bore of the tubing from the relation
< / BR>where V is the maximum volume of the t surface tension, the density of liquid and vapor at the saturation line at an operating pressure
and the pipeline connecting the drain pipe with water part of the compensator, provided with a throttle device.2. The system under item 1, characterized in that a storage tank equipped with a float.
SUBSTANCE: sealed cable gland through outer and inner walls of a protective cover for a nuclear power plant comprises an embedded tube 3 in an inner wall 1 with a rigidly fixed input section 44 of the cable 2. In axial alignment with the tube 3 in the outer wall 11 there is a device compensating relative motion between the cable 2 and the outer wall 11. The device compensating relative motion has a pipe 19 with bellows 24 at the outer end 20 and the second identical bellows 25 mounted symmetrically at the opposite end 21 of the pipe 19 near the inner surface 18 of the outer wall 11. Free ends 30 and 31 of both bellows 24 and 25 are made conical, which inner surfaces 28 and 29 are supporting elements for an output section 46 of the cable 2, which is located freely in the pipe 19 with a gap 47 in regard to the inner surface 49 of the pipe 19.
EFFECT: improving the operational reliability of the sealed cable input at the usage of hard-bending high-voltage conductors.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: nuclear power engineering; liquid-metal cooled reactor plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed nuclear power plant has liquid-metal cooled reactor using liquid lead or its alloys as coolant and incorporating reactor core whose space under empty state holds steam generators, circulating means, shielding gas system, and gas mixture inlet device in the form of motor-rotated gas-delivery chamber immersed under coolant empty state in its circulating path that communicates by means of channels with shielding gas system and with circulating coolant space; top and bottom walls of gas delivery chamber function as carrying members of liquid-metal coolant circulators shaping flow toward channel for gas mixture outlet from gas delivery chamber. Such design provides for dispensing with cold traps and with hydrodynamic and mechanical filters.
EFFECT: effective cleaning of reactor unit surfaces, core and steam generator heat-transfer surfaces from deposits of coolant oxides.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: auxiliary equipment for nuclear power plants of spacecraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed nuclear plant includes nuclear reactor, radiation protection, cooler-radiator and deployment system. Plant has frame consisting of three rods located between nuclear power plant and intermediate frame; it also has three rods shifted relative above rods through angle of 60 deg. and located between this frame and spacecraft. Frame is made in form of triangular prism. Each rod consists of two beams; articulations are fitted in joint areas between beams, between beams and nuclear power plant and between intermediate frame and spacecraft. Articulations make it possible to perform angular motion of beams in longitudinal planes of nuclear power plant when it is shifted from launch position to orbital position. Electrical connecting lines are arranged on beams.
EFFECT: reduced mass and launch dimensions of plant due to compact location of components of deployment system around plant.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: nuclear engineering; water-moderated water-cooled reactor plants using steam pressurizer system.
SUBSTANCE: proposed steam pressurizer that incorporates provision for maintaining desired water-gas and chemistry conditions of primary circuit coolant has housing accommodating heaters, cooling sprayer, and shell. Heaters are disposed in pressurizer water space and cooling sprayer, in steam space. Inner space of shell communicates on top with steam space and at bottom, with water space of pressurizer; inner space of shell also houses additional sprayer installed in its top part and made in the form of conical funnel; top part of shell is congruent with sprayer configuration.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of pressurizer system.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: nuclear power installations of water-moderated water-cooled type.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system designed for evacuating steam-gas mixture from primary circuit to prevent formation of critical concentration of oxygen and hydrogen at separate points of primary circuit and to avoid failure of natural circulation therein has reactor with core and steam generator with vertical "cold" and "hot" headers connected by means of horizontal heat-transfer tube bundles, main circulating pumps, first pressurizer with steam cavity communicating with top parts of vertical headers and top part of main circulating pump with pipelines incorporating shutoff valves with hydraulic actuators. Hydraulic-actuator cylinder is divided into intake and discharge working cavities; intake cavity communicates with pressure end of main circulating pump and discharge one, with its suction end; throttles are installed on pipelines interconnecting vertical "hot" headers of steam generators and vertical "cold" ones, as well as on pipelines interconnecting vertical "hot" headers and top part of main circulating pump.
EFFECT: enhanced safety and efficiency.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: nuclear power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: pressurizing water flow is heated prior to spraying in adjustable-power heater to temperature tcore out. < tb < ts. Partial pressure of gas in steam-gas space at reactor operating parameters is limited to Pg = (Pop - P)Kmin/K.
EFFECT: enhanced safety of reactor.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: nuclear, thermonuclear, and space engineering; liquid-metal cooled nuclear power plants mainly for space engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed coolant pressurizer has tight housing with gas space, unit for connection to coolant circuit, and gas-coolant separator capillary device hydraulically communicating with unit for connection to coolant circuit and to gas space. Pressurizer is also provided with gas check valve joined with tube whose open end is disposed in central part of pressurizer gas space. Provision is made for ground tests of pressurizer within coolant circuit under conditions close to space ones.
EFFECT: enhanced operating reliability of pressurizer and entire liquid-metal coolant circuit.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear power production, particularly, to water treatment in makeup water supply to secondary coolant circuit in standby conditions. Water feed from, mainly, separator into evaporator boiler water distribution chamber and forcing it through second circulation loop evaporator tube bank in standby conditions with nuclear reactor maintained hot by proper heat comprises actuating nuclear reactor in intermittent mode during a day at low power with forcing reactor first coolant circuit liquid-metal heat carrier at low rpm of second coolant circuit makeup water pump. After said low-power actuation, water is preliminarily fed from pressure pipe via makeup water pump into evaporator boiler water distribution chamber to design water level in separator. Then, separator and evaporator water levels are leveled by separator pressure reduction After starting makeup water pump at low rpm, second coolant circuit water temperature is controlled by increasing separator pressure on feeding steam of required parameters Note here that second coolant circuit boiler water temperature increase rate is controlled by linear time ratio not exceeding 1-3 degrees centigrade a minute.
EFFECT: ruled out cyclic thermal stresses in heat exchangers.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of heat engineering of heavy liquid-metal coolants and can be used for research, testing workbenches and nuclear plants with fast neutron reactors. In the cooling unit in front of the pipe for supplying cooling water its flow regulator is mounted, and in front of it there is a temperature set-point device which input is connected to the output of thermotransducer mounted on the pipe of discharge of liquid-metal coolant.
EFFECT: improving the efficiency of heat exchange due to automation of the process.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: physics; nuclear physics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to monitoring nuclear power plant with water heat carrier. System contains a complex of measurement of activity of the analysed medium, including radioactive radiation sensor (6) and device for sampling and transportation of analyzed medium to radiation sensors (6), and information-computing device (10). On each controlled section of pipeline (1) there are additionally installed at least two complexes for measurement of activity of the environment, including radiation sensors (6), which is selectively sensitive to radiation of nitrogen-16. Radiation sensors (6) are located along the whole length of the pipeline (1) at known distances. Device for sampling and transportation of analyzed medium is made in the form of branch pipes (5) passing through the heat insulation (2) of the pipeline (1). Some ends of nozzles (5) are brought in sub-insulation space (4) of the pipeline (1), and the other ends of nozzles (5) are brought to radiation sensors (6). Location and mass flow rate of leak are determined by readings of the involved complexes measuring activity of nitrogen-16.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining location and mass flow rate of leak.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear reactor plants with liquid metal coolant. Disclosed is a method of preventing corrosion of metal structures of reactor by controlling gas inlet into coolant of nuclear reactor plant. Method comprises following steps: feeding, into volume above coolant from gas system, a gas intended for introduction into coolant; feeding gas into coolant; from volume above coolant, discharging gas into gas system.
EFFECT: technical result is preventing reuse of contaminated gas.
10 cl, 4 dwg