The method of measuring angular position of a shaft
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to measuring equipment. The technical result is to increase the reliability of the measurements. The method of measuring the angular position of the shaft lies in the fact that a relatively controlled shaft with a drive gear ring evenly spaced teeth and a few missing, place the sensor generating a signal with a known duty cycle, measure and memorize the current repetition period of the signals from the sensor, generate a marker pulse corresponding to the missing teeth, and angular impulses corresponding to the teeth on the disk, and count the number of rotation pulses generated after the marker pulse, and the number of rotation pulses counted to determine the angular position of the controlled shaft; before the formation of the angular impulses produce the selection and rejection of interference pulses, why in front of each sensor signal at the first stage produces a comparison of the constants of the sensor and amendments, taking into account the maximum possible brake controlled shaft, with respect to the previous repetition period to the current repetition period, the pulse interference is determined either on the ground e is a corresponding repetition period of the sensor signal to the current repetition period of the sensor signal is less than the constant. 5 Il. The invention relates to measurement techniques, in particular, to the measurement of the angular position of the shaft of the internal combustion engine (ice) with an electronic digital control system.There is a method of measuring angular position of a shaft of ice (ed. St. USSR N 917708, CL F 02 P 5/08, 1982), namely, that place two pulse sensor relative to the controlled rotating shaft, provided with a disk with a ring gear and a single marker tooth, and the first sensor is placed over the crown, with evenly cut teeth, and the second sensor over a single marker tooth. The measurement of the angular position is produced by counting rotation pulses generated by the first sensor relative to the reference pulse generated by the second sensor.This method is cumbersome, as it requires two sensors and a corresponding number of links and shapers signals. In addition, this method has a low immunity in terms of impulse noise, such as ignition system of internal combustion engine that causes a failure in the operation of the control system of the engine.The prototype was taken the way of measuring the angular position of the shaft of the internal combustion engine (ed. St. USSR N 1728642, CL G Nobunaga disk with a ring gear, with evenly cut teeth, and several teeth missing. During the rotation of the shaft sensor generates pulses corresponding to the passage past him to the teeth of the drive controlled shaft. By measuring the current period pulse generated by the sensor, and comparing it with the previous period pulses produce a marker pulse and calculate the angular momenta relative to the marker pulse.This method also has a low immunity in terms of impulse noise, such as ignition system of the engine.The technical result of the invention is to increase reliability of measurement angular position of the shaft in terms of impulse noise, such as ignition system of the engine.This result is achieved in that in the method of measuring the angular position of the shaft, namely, that relatively controlled shaft, provided with a drive gear ring having evenly spaced teeth and a few missed, place the sensor, generating moving during rotation of the shaft tooth signals with a known duty cycle, measure and memorize the current repetition period of the signal of the sensor, form the matter of the teeth on the drive controlled shaft, count the number of rotation pulses generated after the marker pulse is generated after the marker pulse, determine the angular position of the controlled shaft before the formation of angular momenta, make the selection and rejection of interference pulses, for which the front of each sensor signal to the first stage produces a comparison of the constant, which represents the sum of the values of the duty cycle of the signals of the sensor and amendments, taking into account the brake controlled shaft, with respect to the previous repetition period to the current repetition period and pulse interference is determined either at the first stage, if you read zero logic level signal or the second phase, if the ratio of the previous repetition period of the sensor signal to the current repetition period of the sensor signal is less than the constant.In Fig. 1 shows a structural diagram of a device that implements the inventive method. In Fig. 2 the waveform of the voltage at the output of the shaper sensor signal in the absence of impulse noise. In Fig. 3, the waveform of the voltage at the output of shaper sensor signal in the case of overlapping impulse noise at low signal level. Fig what drove sensor. In Fig. 5 is a structural diagram of the algorithm processing interrupt edge of the sensor signal.Symbols accepted on the waveform:
Tpprevious memorized the repetition period of the sensor signal;
Tmthe current measured repetition period of the sensor signal;
U the duration of the high signal level,
Upthe pulse duration of the interference.Duty cycle is defined as the ratio of the repetition period of the signal of the sensor to the duration of the high level signal.The device for its implementation includes installed on the monitored shaft disk 1 with 58 teeth and two missing, the sensor 2, is placed above the notched disk 1 and connected to the shaper 3 signals of the sensor. The output of the shaper 3 signal sensor connected to the input of an external interrupt of the microprocessor 4, which in turn is connected with the storage device 5, in which is stored a program interrupt. The microprocessor 4 has an output, which displays information about the angular position of the controlled shaft.The method can be implemented as follows. Place the pulse sensor on a ring gear rigidly connected with the con is th the crown may have, for example, 58 and two missing teeth. In front of the sensor signal to produce a delay time exceeding the duration of the impulse noise, for example, by using a delay line or a timer, and then reads the logic level of the sensor signal.If the read level is a logical zero, the sensor signal was considered as an obstacle. The impulse noise no action is produced and go into standby mode, the next sensor signal. If you read the logic level is a logic one, then measure the distance between sensor signals, for example, by counting the time from the appearance of the front of this signal, until the front of the next signal the number of pulses of the master oscillator. Make memorizing calculated number of pulses of the master oscillator, for example, in the counter register or the cell random access memory (RAM). Calculate the ratio of the current period following the signals from the sensor to the memory of the previous one. This can be done by dividing the current repetition period in the previous memorized the period, for example, in the arithmetic-logical unit (ALU) or a microprocessor. Make a comparison of the obtained amalina possible braking of the shaft. If the resulting ratio is less than the specified constant, then consider this signal interference, induced, for example, from the ignition system of internal combustion engines, further processing of the stop signal, the measured period not remember and go into standby mode, the next sensor signal. If obtained more of the above constants, the sensor signal is considered valid signal and produce the further development of a marker and/or angular momenta. The formation of the marker pulse is produced, for example, when more than twofold excess of the current repetition period of the signal of the sensor over the previous memorized period. The formation of angular pulses are produced, for example, for each actual sensor signal. Calculate angular momenta, since the formation of the marker pulse, for example, using a software counter, made on the basis of the register cell of RAM or a separate chip. For each angular momentum is produced by which the counter increments, and for each marker pulse produce counter. The number counted by the counter rotation pulses in a given time will indicate the current angular floor shall demonstrate the method was implemented in software in the controller of the control system of internal combustion engines of VAZ-2110.A device that implements the method works as follows. When the rotation shaft moves the teeth and troughs in front of the sensor 2, which generates the signals. The driver signals of the sensor 3 converts the signals from the sensor 2 in the form acceptable to the microprocessor 4. The pulses from the shaper's output signals of the sensor 3 is fed to the input of an external interrupt of the microprocessor 4.In the process of generation of pulses by the sensor 2 and transfer them to the shaper 3 sensor signals can be superimposed interference pulses, for example, from the ignition system of internal combustion engines, and thus to the interrupt input of the microprocessor will receive the signal representing the sum of the sensor signals and interference. On the front of this signal, the microprocessor, for example, Siemens 80517, interrupts the main program for processing external interrupts.The algorithm of processing of this interrupt is shown in Fig. 5 shows the processing steps of the sensor signal by the proposed method. For measuring the repetition period of the sensor signal from the front to the front uses a timer device microprocessor. In this example, the software implementation is not shown, the block in which is formed a marker pulse. the ka with double the previous period, because the marker label (skip two teeth) corresponds to double the repetition period of the signal of the sensor when passing in front of him missing teeth. At the beginning of the algorithm is the delay time characteristic of impulse noise (of the order of several microseconds). The delay may be performed using a counter-timer or run empty commands (NOP commands). After a delay checks the signal level at the input of the interrupt. If the signal level at the input is low, this means that the interrupt was not valid from the sensor signal, and interference from, this is the output of the interrupt processing without storing the current period. If the signal level is high, then calculates the ratio of the previous preset period of Tpto the current measured Tmand compared with a constant (Q + dQ), and if the ratio is smaller, it means that an interrupt has occurred from interference, while the program exits the interrupt processing without storing the current period. The opposite case means that an interrupt has occurred from the actual pulse. Thus remembered the current measured period signal and increments a software counter. After e is the crown. If the number of pulses does not exceed the number of teeth, the normal exit from interrupt. If the counter exceeds the number of teeth, it generates an error message and resynchronization, i.e., the transition to a subroutine initial finding of marker tags (formation marker pulse). The method of measuring the angular position of the shaft, namely, that relatively controlled shaft, provided with a drive gear ring having evenly spaced teeth and a few missed, place the sensor, generating moving during rotation of the shaft tooth signal with a known duty cycle, measure and memorize the current repetition period of the signals from the sensor, generate a marker pulse corresponding to the missing teeth on the controlled shaft, and the angular momenta corresponding to the teeth on the drive controlled shaft, count the number of rotation pulses generated after the marker pulse, and the number of rotation pulses counted to determine the angular position of the controlled shaft, characterized in that prior to formation of the angular impulses produce selection and discarding noise pulse,provides a sum of the values of the duty cycle of the signals of the sensor and amendments considering the brake controlled shaft, with respect to the previous repetition period to the current repetition period and pulse interference is determined either at the first stage, if you read zero logic level signal or the second phase, if the ratio of the previous repetition period of the sensor signal to the current repetition period of the sensor signal is less than the constant.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: detector can be used for measuring angular position of rotor of galvanometer scanners used for laser marking and engraving. Angular position optical detector has light emitting diode which illuminates slot diaphragm, objective with round diaphragm at entrance, flat-parallel plate connected tightly with object to me measured, two photodiodes with two photosensitive areas. Going-out currents of photodiodes are conversed into voltages and are subtracted by differential amplifier. Output voltage of differential amplifier is proportional to angular shift of flat-parallel plate which provides higher stability and linearity of conversion function of detector at its small sizes.
EFFECT: higher stability; small sizes.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: to measure mast tilt angle value, builder's level is used on which level web-camera is located so that web-camera's focus is constantly aimed at end of guide located at zero-mark side of ruler. Web-camera is connected to computer. In the second invention version, web-camera is fitted on builder's level so that horizontal bubble level is constantly present in web-camera frame. Web-camera is connected to computer.
EFFECT: measuring accuracy improvement due to recording ruler readings and bubble position in horizontal bubble level by means of web-camera shooting and reduction of labour consumption during measurement execution.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to diagnostic instruments that define technical condition of common machine building units. Device incorporates bed plate with movable support and slipping support, and tested driveline. At that torque loader consists of lever, dynamometer and threaded link. Gap meter contains of stand, on which indicating gage body is fixed, and platform. Scale of axial shift is rigidly fixed in bed plate, and pointer is placed at movable support.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination of actual angle of driveline hinges break.
FIELD: measuring technology.
SUBSTANCE: facility can be used in metrology, particularly for measurement of plane angle. The gauge consists of at least carrier of dial scale and a pointer, one of the two is immovable, while turn of an object specifying the measured angle is conveyed to another one. The multi-value gauge of two or more rays forming a flat semicircle or several semicircles serves as the pointer; also rays appear simultaneously or alternately; notably, the gauge maintains reference angles between separate rays. An external optical source radiates rays with reflecting facets of a prism or pyramid located on axis coaxial to a photo-receiver of panoramic type. The photo-receiver is located on internal cylinder surface and functions as a carrier of the dial scale.
EFFECT: improved metrological and weight-dimension characteristics as well as workability of facility at simultaneous increased reliability.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: measuring technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to metrology, particularly to methods of calibrating goniometrical and angle specifying devices of a rotary type forming discrete circular scales of full and (or) not full ranges by means of comparing them with reference devices (reference scales). The essence of the invention is as follows: the disclosed here method is based on adjusting indices of the plan of measuring procedure and on performing interactive control of accuracy of its results. Adjustment is carried out by means of adaptive modifications of procedures of preparation and measuring. The procedure is established as sequence of comparisons of angles between marks of each of calibrated scales taken in pairs; also combinations of marks (pairs) are formed in series, number of which is not specified beforehand. Obtained primary data are processed by the method of the least squares on base of model equations connecting measured parametres; while algorithm of processing contains blocks of check of uniform precision of series (with their possible reject) and check of adequacy of accepted model ( with its possible refinement). The procedure is interactive and lasts till achieving required or utmost possible accuracy of results.
EFFECT: expanded range of discreteness of calibrated circular scales and refusal of full range requirement; also facilitating control over accuracy of calibration, including accuracy due to refinement of model of primary data.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measuring technology.
SUBSTANCE: inventions refer to assembly of magnet angular converter. The essence of the invention is as follows: tool set consists of setters in form of process cylinder 14 for processing card 10 and process cylinder 18 for cylinder magnet 7, and magnet limiting device 7 in form of limiting cylinder element 12. Process cylinders 14, 18 are made with contacts 15, 19 and setting bases 16, 20. Process cylinder 14 and limiting cylinder element 12 are made out of non-magnet material, while process cylinder 18 is made out of magnet material. For assembly process cylinder 14 is installed in central opening 6 of shaft 3 till contact base 15 contacts base end 4 of shaft 3. Magnet sensitive element 11 is brought to contact setting base 16. Processing card 10 is glued and process cylinder 14 is taken out after glue polymerisation. Cylinder magnet 7 is assembled on setting base 20 of process cylinder 18 coaxially to setting base 20; glue and process cylinder 18 with magnet 7 are introduced into central opening 6 of shaft 3; upon glue polymerisation process cylinder 18 is taken out. Limiting cylinder element 12 is installed into central opening 6 of shaft 3 till its flat surface 13 contacts internal base 9 of cylinder magnet 7. There are performed gluing and glue polymerisation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of assembly, simplification of installation, and facilitation of assembly reliability.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to instruments for measurement of turn (inclination) angle of objects versus vertical line. Invention objective is improved accuracy and expanded range of angle measurement. Device comprises thermoelement with two pairs of point thermal sensors and heater arranged in the form of cylindrically shaped rod with longitudinal axis oriented perpendicularly to vertical plane of turn. At the same time heater is connected to source of voltage. Besides device comprises measuring circuit, which includes two differential amplifiers and calculation device. Thermal sensors of thermoelement are installed in plane of turn as pairwise on vertical and horizontal axes at identical distances from longitudinal axis of heater.
EFFECT: improved accuracy and expansion of angle measurement range.
SUBSTANCE: device has a thermal converter with three pairs of point thermal detectors and a heater in form of a spherical body, and a measurement circuit having three differential amplifiers and a computing device. The thermal detectors of the thermal converter are paired on three orthogonal axes, equidistant from the geometric centre of the spherical surface of the heater.
EFFECT: high accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to determining the state of bearing structures of antenna mast structures (AMS), rapid signalling of change in state thereof and warning on emergency situations and can be used in automated systems for monitoring safety of bearing structures during use of buildings and other structures. The method involves processing parameters of a device which measures linear and angular deviations from the vertical position of the AMS, said device being a three-axis accelerometer mounted on the AMS. Projections of linear acceleration on three orthogonal axes of the accelerometer for at least two successive measurement sessions are measured, and linear and angular deviations from the vertical position of the AMS are calculated from results of selecting and analysing the translational component of dynamic characteristics of the translational-oscillatory motion of the AMS, calculated based on values of said linear acceleration projections.
EFFECT: monitoring the vertical position of AMS with any frequency with automatic measurement.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement of a deviation angle of surface of controlled objects from a basic level, a profile and curvature of surfaces of parts in machine-building industry. A device implementing a method for determining angular positions of object surfaces includes a radiation source, a light-guide system consisting of two harnesses of light waveguides, a photoreceiver, two comparators with different comparison levels, a shaper of comparison levels, two units for detection of middles of electrical pulses, a recording unit of time intervals, an electric motor, an optic head piece and a light waveguide of the optic head piece. The latter is made in the form of a hollow cylinder, and the light waveguide of the optic head piece is installed diametrically in the side wall of the cylinder. Besides, the invention introduces a reference signal mark installed on the optic head piece, a pulse sensor of the reference signal, the output of which is connected to the input of the second comparator.
EFFECT: enlargement of the range of measured angular positions of controlled surfaces by increasing the time of simultaneous existence of sounding and received - reflected radiation flows.
2 cl, 4 dwg