(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used to reinforce slopes in the form of retaining walls in any soil and seismic conditions, and to create in a hilly area a large number of underground facilities. The aim of the present invention is to improve the stability of the wall under seismic effects and liquefaction of soils, making use of the underground volume of the spatial blocks. Retaining wall consists of a front wall and spatial blocks, the latter being made in the form of parallelepipeds with a gate on the front side, and the front wall is arranged only over the spatial blocks. 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used to reinforce slopes in the form of retaining walls in any soil and seismic conditions, and to create in a hilly area a large number of underground facilities.Retaining walls are widely used in the construction of buildings and structures in most parts of our country.Known retaining wall series TC-02-108, the corners of which such wall construction have been significant efforts in the node sealing food plates, which leads to a high consumption of concrete.The famous wall of similar construction with additional anchor-disposable plates  this slightly reduces the amount of concrete, but is complicated by the manufacturer and there is a possibility of collapse of the structure under seismic excitation and the liquefaction of the soil.Known retaining wall of the small volume of hollow elements  In this case, the hollow three-dimensional elements, due to their small size, perform more decorative than structural features.Also known retaining wall containing the front wall and spatial blocks  This device is made for the prototype.The disadvantage of the prototype is that the stability of the retaining wall is provided by cancerovarian in soil spatial unit, which can lead to the loss of stability under seismic effects and liquefaction of soils, in addition, there is no possibility of useful life of the underground volume of the spatial blocks.The aim of the present invention is to improve the stability of the wall under seismic effects and liquefaction of soils, providing opportunities espalieu wall, containing the front wall and the spatial blocks, the latter is in the form of parallelepipeds with a gate on the front side, and the front wall is arranged only over the spatial blocks.The principal difference is that the stability of the spatial units is provided only prigruzkoj the overlying soil. In addition, the spatial design of the unit allows you to use all of his underground volume.In Fig. 1 shows a schematic diagram of the retaining wall of Fig. 2 - scheme of the pressures on a retaining wall.Retaining wall consists of a front wall 1 and the spatial unit 2 in turn consists of the fundamental slab 3, the end wall 4, the cover plate 5, the partitions 6 and the gate 7. From the backside of the retaining wall made of dirt backfill 8.Retaining wall works as follows.Lateral pressure of soil backfill 8 in the upper part of the perceived front wall 1 and is transmitted in the form of overturning moment on the spatial unit 2. Lateral pressure of soil backfill 8 below slab 5 through partitions 6 that act as buttresses, is transmitted to fundamental eredita on the fundamental plate 3 and with a large supply ensures the stability of the spatial unit 2. Location of gates 7 allows you to use the entire internal volume of the spatial unit 2.The calculations show that at step partitions 3 meter plate coating thickness of 18 cm is able to withstand loads from soil backfill height of more than 7 meters (it is advisable to use precast slab, such as slab dwelling house series 138-with bezrulonnaya roof with changes in reinforcement). The stability of the spatial unit with a large margin is provided by the ratio of the length to the height of 1.5 or more. The front wall has a relatively small height and correspondingly small moment in sealing. The presence of small pressure drops below the fundamental stove provides the possibility of using this design retaining walls in a wide range of soil characteristics.The use of the proposed retaining wall increases the stability of slopes under seismic impacts and liquefaction of soils, provides the possibility of using underground volume of spatial units, which allows you to place warehouses, garages, etc., without the use of surface area of land without compromising the architecture of the building. Inclusion in all e the save building materials, earthworks and, ultimately, reduces the cost of construction of the retaining wall, with a height difference of soil more than 3.5 meters, compared with the basic types of retaining walls. 1. Retaining wall containing the front wall and the spatial blocks, characterized in that, in order to increase the stability of the wall under seismic effects and liquefaction of soils, allow the use of the underground volume of spatial units, the latter is in the form of parallelepipeds with a gate on the front side, and the front wall are arranged only on the spatial blocks.
FIELD: building, particularly for slope consolidation and for stabilizing deep front landslide areas.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes foundation mat and piles formed in wells grouped in rows. Upper pile parts are embedded in foundation mat, lower one is restrained by not-sliding ground layers. Piles are composite along their lengths. Central pile parts are not filled with concrete. Heights of upper and lower pile parts decrease towards landslide head. Structure to prevent deep front land-slides comprises separate local pile groups connected by foundation mats and located within landslide body boundaries. Each foundation mat has tension bars anchored in stable slope layers and arranged under and above foundation mat along slope to retain thereof against displacement and rotation.
EFFECT: improved slope stability, increased operational reliability of structure built on wide landslides, reduced building time and material consumption.
FIELD: building, particularly engineering structures adapted for protection of linear and separate installations, including motor roads and railroads, against rock sliding, rock sloughing and mudflows.
SUBSTANCE: retaining wall includes relaxation device, face and foundation slabs rigidly secured one to another. Foundation slab is anchored in foundation ground. Relaxation device is formed of reinforced concrete slabs arranged in two longitudinal rows and secured to face slab by springs with variable spring force so that reinforced concrete slabs extend at different angles to horizon line. Low row slabs have lesser angle of inclination. Face slab and low slab row are provided with through slots. Foundation plate has cylindrical base and connected to inclined anchor by means of damping device.
EFFECT: reduced building time and operational costs for accumulating cavity cleaning, reduced labor inputs.
FIELD: building, particularly for bordering or stiffening the sides of foundation pits.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving vertical piles in ground along pit perimeter for depth exceeding pit bottom level; excavating ground up to reaching pit bottom level to open bordering member surfaces facing inwards; securing horizontal distribution beams to above surfaces to create framing belt; installing spaced cross-pieces along pit perimeter; leaning the first cross-piece ends against distribution beams and securing the second ends thereof into pit bottom ground; removing cross-pieces after reinforced concrete pit bottom forming. Ground is excavated to form inner initial pit and then stepped trench is dug out under the protection of thixotropic mix along the initial pit perimeter in direction transversal to bordering formed by piles. Lower trench step is located below pit bottom level and the second cross-piece ends are secured to above step which is then concreted under the protection of thixotropic mix. After hardening support shoe of cross-pieces trench is filled with previously excavated ground and ground is excavated of the pit up to reacting pit bottom level.
EFFECT: possibility to consolidate pit just after the initial pit and framing belt forming.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly retaining or protecting walls.
SUBSTANCE: landslide control structure comprises inclined injection piles arranged in several groups, connected one to another by grillage and built-in stable ground by lower ends thereof. The piles are united in groups each containing three piles arranged in pyramid corners so that one triangular plane defined by each pile group lies against landslide direction and is supported by struts. Above planes of neighboring triangles intersect in lower one-third part.
EFFECT: increased structure reliability and stability.
FIELD: agriculture, particularly steep slope terracing to adapt the slope for fruit trees and other crops growth.
SUBSTANCE: method for terracing slopes having steepness equal to or exceeding natural soil slip angle involves forming step-shaped ledges having depressions; scattering soil excavated from the slope over the ledges; stabilizing the soil with reusable rectangular netted retaining walls. The retaining wall has frame-like wall base created of welded angular or channel bars or bars of another cross-section. The wall bases are installed on the slope along lower ledge bounds and inclined at 60° angle with respect to horizon line. The wall bases are fixed by support and bearing wedges for a time equal to soil conglomeration time, wherein liquid or granular fertilizer is preliminarily introduced in soil and soil is laid down with perennial grass before ledge hardening.
EFFECT: increased slope use factor.
FIELD: building, particularly to stabilize slope landslides.
SUBSTANCE: landslide control structure comprises vertical walls built in base formed under the landslide and located along the landslide so that distance between adjacent walls decreases towards lower landslide end. Vertical walls are made of pile rows defining pleat-like system having pitch preventing ground punching between the piles. The pleats are directed so that corner apexes thereof face sliding ground and grillages of adjacent pleat flanges are connected by transversal beams.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity and increased technological efficiency of structure erection.
FIELD: building, particularly to erect road embankments.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment ground, retaining wall and support structure. Embankment ground is divided with flat geonet webs into several layers. The retaining wall is also divided into layers similar to ground layers and covered with single geonet webs. Each retaining wall layer has vertical through slots filled with macroporous draining material. Flat geonet webs are inserted between hollow layers of retaining wall. Vertical cavities of adjacent retaining wall layers in height direction are superposed in plan view. Length L of ground layers reinforced with flat geonet webs beginning from inner retaining wall surface is determined from a given equation. Road embankment erection method involves forming retaining wall base; laying road embankment ground layers alternated with flat geonet webs; erecting retaining wall comprising several layers and constructing support structure. Base is initially created and then lower erection wall layer is erected on the base, wherein the retaining wall is provided with vertical cavities having heights corresponding to ground layer heights. The vertical cavities are filled with coarse material for 2/3 of volume thereof and then embankment ground layer is poured and compacted. Embankment ground is leveled and coarse material is added in the cavities. The coarse material is leveled and geonet web is placed onto the coarse material within the bounds of retaining wall and embankment ground layer. Next layers are formed in similar manner. Reinforced concrete block for retaining wall forming comprises device, which cooperates with ambient ground. The device comprises one or several vertical through cavities to be filled with granular coarse material. Depression in concrete is formed in lower block surface in front of erection loop.
EFFECT: reduced material consumption and erection time, increased service life, stability and operational reliability.
9 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to reinforce landslide slopes, particularly extensive landslides.
SUBSTANCE: landslide control structure comprises bored piles fixed in stable slope ground layers and retained by anchoring means. To provide stability of lower landslide part inclined bars of anchor means are connected to bored pile heads. The anchor means are drilled down the slope and have fan-like structure. The anchor means are located at different levels in landslide body.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and material consumption for landslide control structure erection and increased stability of landslide massif.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly foundation and retaining wall erection with the use of injection piles.
SUBSTANCE: injection pile comprises concrete shaft formed directly in well and comprising reinforcing cage made as metal injection pipe lowered in well to refusal and spaced from well wall. The injection pipe is provided with lower perforated section having side injection orifices arranged in several layers beginning from lower injection pipe end. Well diameter is not more than 3d, where d is outer injection pipe diameter. Perforated section length is more than 3d, but less than L and is equal to (0.2-0.7)L, where L is well depth. Retaining wall is built on pile foundation comprising injection piles. The retaining wall includes reinforcing cage made as metal pipe having upper part used as head. The retaining wall is composed of concrete blocks laid in several rows one upon another. Blocks of lower row form retaining wall base. At least upper block installed on lower one has through orifice, which is vertically aligned with mounting orifice formed in lower block. Common cavity defined by above orifices is reinforced and concreted.
EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced cost of pile foundation and retaining wall construction.
21 cl, 3 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: equipment for underground mining, particularly slot cutting bit adapted to operate in high-pressure environment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises driving gear put in case, pressurizing means to change pressure in the case and active regulation means. Active regulation means may be operated by control means to change inner pressure in driving gear case. Active regulation means comprises pump and/or equalizing vessel. The pump and the equalizing vessel are communicated with driving gear case through fluid supply and/or discharge pipeline.
EFFECT: increased air-tightness and packing of driving gear due to increased accuracy of oil pressure regulation in driving gear box in dependence of environment conditions.
14 cl, 6 dwg