Control system marine engine

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: shipbuilding, in particular the control system marine engines. The inventive control system marine engines. The inventive control system includes a sensor 1 speed sensor 2 speed, unit 3 mode, the imaging unit 4 tolerances region of optimal operating conditions, the control unit 5, unit 6, the generation of control signals, the controller 7 speed, fuel rail diesel engine 8. Generic output unit 3 mode connected with generalized input of the shaper 4, and the output of the sensor 1 is connected to the first input of the control unit 5 to the second input of which is connected to the output of the sensor 2 speed. The third generalized input of the control unit 5 is connected generalized output of the shaper 4. The first and second outputs of the control unit 5 is connected to the first and the second input unit 6, the output of which is connected to the input of the controller 7 speed, the output of which is kinematically connected with the fuel rail diesel engine 8. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 12 ill.

The invention relates to shipbuilding, in particular to systems of automatic control modes of operation of marine engines.

Known automatic at the throttle (see patent Germany N 3827884, CL F 02 D 9/08, 1990).

The disadvantage of this system is the "hard" setting for optimum performance. It ensures the operation of the engine in a quasi-optimal effectiveness (efficiency) of the region of operation for these conditions (in normal mode). When changing the operating conditions of the ship, the engine begins to operate with less efficiency, i.e., in a non-productive mode.

Closest to the technical nature of the invention and is selected as the closest analogue is the control system marine engine that contains the speed sensor, generator mode, the block form the control signal, the rotation speed regulator, kinematically connected with the fuel rail (see ed. St. USSR N 1703654, class B 63 H 21/22, 1992).

The disadvantages of this system are:

low operating cost due to the fact that, as the control signal is used generalized signal step and the frequency-time CPP. The use of generalized signal requires selection of weights parameters such as the step and frequency of rotation of the CPP. The procedure of the choice of weights is not currently formalitie);

limited in scope only for vessels equipped with CPP;

limited efficiency due to disregarding the speed of the vessel and the depth of the fairway.

The technical result of the invention is to improve efficiency in the ship's engine and the vessel as a whole by a reasonable choice of speed depending on the progress of the vessel, vessel type (precipitation, fuel and energy characteristics), from sailing conditions (depth of the fairway).

This is achieved in that the control system marine engine that contains the speed sensor, generator mode, the block form the control signal, the rotation speed regulator, kinematically connected with the fuel rail, additionally the sensor speed, the driver of the tolerance region of optimum performance, control unit, with the first generalized output of the generator mode is connected with the generalized input of the shaper tolerances region of optimal operating conditions, the output speed sensor is connected to the first output control unit, a second input connected to the output of the sensor speed, and the third, a generalized input is connected to common output driver DM and second inputs of the block form the control signal, the output of which is connected to the input of the rotation speed regulator.

In addition, the control system marine engine includes a sensor depth of the fairway, the output of which is connected to the input of the generator mode, the second output of which is connected to the third input of the unit generating control signals.

In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the control system marine engine; Fig. 2 scheme of the first version of the technical implementation unit of the mode of Fig. 3 scheme of the second variant of the technical implementation unit mode; Fig. 4 diagram of the first variant of the technical implementation of the shaper tolerances region of optimum modes of operation; Fig. 5 scheme of the second variant of the technical implementation of the shaper tolerances region of optimum modes of operation; Fig. 6 diagram of the control unit of Fig. 7 block circuit generating control signals; Fig. 8 graph of v km/h from n rpm with the location of the regions P,G and Q, Fig. 9 graph b of Fig. 10 - control circuit of the ship's engine with the depth sensor of Fig. 11 is a block diagram of the controlled power source; Fig. 12 is a modified block diagram of the formation.

In Fig. 1-8, the following notation.

v the current is 2n3n4the values of the rotation speed corresponding to the area of P;

vkrvmaxthe values of the boundary velocity (critical and maximum, respectively) movement of the vessel, the respective areas P;

G area, when in which the representing point (combination of values of n, v) it is necessary to increase n to ensure the work of the EPP in the optimal mode;

Q region, while in which displays point it is necessary to reduce n to ensure the work of the EPP in the optimal mode (in region R);

n the current value of the engine speed (diesel).

Control system marine engine (Fig. 1) contains the sensor 1 speed sensor 2 speed, unit 3 mode, the imaging unit 4 tolerances region of optimal operating conditions, the control unit 5, unit 6, the generation of control signals, the controller 7 speed, fuel rail 8 diesel, with a generic output unit 3 mode connected with generalized input of the shaper 4 tolerances region of optimal operating conditions, the output of the sensor 1 speed connected to the first input of the control unit 5 to the second input of which is connected to the output of the sensor 2 speed, as to the third generalized input oboy respectively with the first and second inputs of the block 6 generating control signals, the output of which is connected to the controller 7 speed, the output of which is kinematically connected with the fuel rail diesel 8.

I (see Fig 1) propeller power plant (EPP) of the ship.

If the ship's engine is used rowing electric power plant (EPP), the controller 7 speed may be performed, for example, in the form of a field winding of the generator supplying the propeller motor 8.

Under the generalized exit (entrance) refers to multi-wire output (input).

Technical implementation unit 3 modes, shaper 4 tolerances, unit 5 control depends on the configuration of the field R of optimum performance. For region R technical implementation unit mode 3 shown in Fig. 2, 3, the imaging unit 4 in Fig. 5, 6, unit 5 of the control of Fig. 7.

Unit 3 modes ( see Fig. 2) contains six sources regulated DC voltage 9.1. 9,6, the output of the source 9.i (i=1,6) connected to the corresponding i-th output unit 3 (figure 10 in Fig. 2 designated bus "earth").

The outputs of the source 8 represent a generalized output unit 3.

Unit 3 ( see Fig. 3) contains the source of an adjustable constant is, for example, on the potentiometer, the movable sliders which are connected with the corresponding output of the generator 3. Thus, the set of six mobile engines dividers 12 voltage represent a generalized output knob 3 mode.

Shaper 4 tolerances region of optimum performance (see Fig. 4) contains six analog-to-digital converters (ADC) 13.1,13.6, the microprocessor (microcomputer) 14, six digital-to-analogue converters (DAC), 15.1, 15.6, while the outputs of the ADC 13.1,13.6 connected respectively with the first and sixth inputs of the microprocessor 14, from first to sixth outputs of which are connected to the respective inputs of the DAC 15, while the generalized input of the shaper 4 are, respectively, the inputs of the ADC 13.1,13.6, and the generalized output DAC outputs 15.1,15.6.

As a shaper 4 can be personalised with a device with the object (USO).

Shaper 4 tolerances region of optimum modes of operation (Fig. 5) contains five adders 16.1,16.5, three element multiplication 17.1,17.3, three elements of the division 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, two inverter 19.1, 19.2, and the output of the adder 16.1 connected to the first input element of the division 18.1, the output of which is connected to the first input element multiplication 17.1, output D which is connected to the first input element multiplication 17.2, the output of which is connected to the input of the inverter 19.2, the output of the adder 16.4 connected to the first input element dividing 18.3, the second input is connected with the output of the adder 16.3, and the output with the first input element multiplication 17.3, the output of which is connected to the first (subtractive) input of adder 16.5.

Generalized input of the shaper 4 contains six single-ended inputs, with the first single-ended input of the shaper 4 is combined with the second input element multiplication 17.1 and the first (subtractive) input of adder 16.2, second joint second (summing) the input of the adder 16.1, the first (subtractive) input of adder 16.3 and second input element multiplication 17.2 and the first (subtractive) input of adder 16.2, the fourth joint second (summing) the inputs of the adder 16.2 and 16.3, the fifth joint of the second input element of the division 18.1, the first (subtractive) input of adder 16.4 and second (summing) the input of the adder 16.5, the sixth joint of the second input element of the division 18.2 and second (summing) the input of the adder 16.4.

Generalized output of the shaper 4 contains six single-ended outputs, with the first single-ended output is the output of the inverter 19.1, second

the output of element division 18.1, the third output of the adder 16.5, che the way, generalized input of the shaper 4 (Fig. 4.5) contains six single-ended inputs, and the generalized output six single-ended outputs.

The control unit 5 (see Fig. 6) contains three elements multiplying 20, three adder 21, when the valve (diode) element 22 and 23, while the output element multiplication 20.1 connected to the first (subtractive) input of adder 21.1, the output element multiplication 20.2 connected to the first (subtractive) input of adder 21.2, the output element multiplication 20.3 connected to the first (summing) the input of the adder 21.3, the outputs of the adders 21.1, 21.2, 21.3 connected respectively to the anodes of the valves (diodes) 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, the cathodes of the valves 22.1, 22.2 connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the OR element 23, while the first input unit 5 is the second (subtractive) input of adder 21.1, the first input of the second element multiplication 20.1, third second (subtractive) input of adder 21.2, the fourth-first input element multiplication 20.2, the fifth second (summing) the input of the adder 21.3, sixth first input element multiplication 20.3, seventh United second input element multiplication 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, eighth United third (summing) the input of the adder 21.1, third (summing) the input of the adder 21.2 and third (subtractive) the input of the adder 21.3, and the first input is wired inputs represent his third generalized input.

Unit generating control signals 6 (see Fig. 7) contains the variable voltage source 14 (in the particular case of constant current source) and the adder 25, the output of the source 24 is connected to the first (summing) the input of the adder 25, while the first input of the processing unit 6 is the second (summing) the input of the adder 25, the second third (subtractive) input of the adder 25, and the output the output of the adder 25.

As element 23 is used the item OR analog (continuous) values.

The control system of the ship by an electric motor (Fig. 10) further comprises a sensor depth of the channel 26, the output of which is connected to the input of generator mode 3, the second output of which is connected to the third input of the unit generating control signals 6.

Unit mode 3 (see Fig. 11) contains six adjustable power sources 9.1,9.6, the microprocessor 27, seven DAC 28.1,28.7. From first to sixth outputs of the microprocessor 27 are connected respectively to the inputs of the respective DAC 28.1,28.6, the outputs of which are connected to the control inputs of the power sources 9.1,9.6, respectively. When this input knob mode 3 is the input of the microprocessor 27, the six outputs of the power sources 9.1,9.6 represent p the Bus "earth" 10 in Fig. 3 is not shown.

At the input of the microprocessor 27 can be supplied ADC (if the microprocessor does not have a built-in CPU).

The shaping unit 6 (see Fig. 10) differs from unit 6 (see Fig. 7) the fact that the control input of the controlled power source 24 is connected to the third input of the processing unit 6.

Possible direct connection of the output of the sensor 26 to the control inputs of the power sources 9.1,9.6 (see Fig. 2) and source 24 (see Fig. 7).

Control system (see Fig. 1) works as follows.

In the shaping unit 6 (see Fig. 7) set the output voltage u24source 24 that is proportional to the rated rotational speed nnlying within the region P corresponding to a particular type of vessel (draught and speed) and a certain part of the fairway (the depth of the channel). According to the type of vessel and marine environment are determined (or pre-calculated values of n1n2n3n4vkrvmax(see Fig. 8). The output voltage of source 24 is fed to the first (summing) the input of the adder 25. The output signal of the adder 25 is supplied to the input of the rotation speed regulator 7, which moves the fuel rail is>The speed sensor 1 measures the current value of the rotational speed n of the diesel engine, the speed sensor 2 (e.g., lag) the speed of the vessel v. The output signals of the sensors 1, 2, proportional, respectively, n, v, served on the seventh and eighth inputs of the control unit 5.

In previously known information about the field of P-unit 3-mode forms its boundary parameters n1n2n3n4vkrvmax.

In the generator mode 3 (see Fig. 2) set the output voltage of the source of regulated DC voltage 9.1,9.6, respectively proportional to the values of n1n2n3n4vkrvmax(see Fig. 8), i.e., where ui(i 1,6) output voltage of the i-th source 9. i, and serve them accordingly from the first to the sixth input of the former 4 linearly dependent tolerances permitted area of operation modes.

The second version of the technical implementation unit 3 (see Fig. 3) provides one source of regulated DC voltage 11, the output voltage is u, v, and vmaxor u n nmax(in normalized coordinates), where nmaxthe maximum value of the rotation frequency. With the help of engines installed on potencyn1u2n2u3n3u4n4u5vkru6vmax. Signals with engines potentiometers 12.1, 12.6, proportional, respectively, n1n2n3n4vkrvmaxserved with first to sixth input of the former 4 tolerances region of optimum performance EPP.

Shaper 4 tolerances region of optimum performance is intended for the technical implementation of the coefficients of equations direct, limiting the area P (see Fig. 8). The imaging unit 4 can be made on the basis of microcomputers or on the basis of the microprocessor (see Fig.4) or using elements of analog technique (see Fig.5).

In the imaging unit 4 (Fig.4) the signals from the first to the sixth output unit 3 serves respectively to the inputs of analog-to-digital converters (ADC) 13.1,13.6, output signals which are codes for values of n1n2n3n4vkrvmax. The signals from the outputs of the ADC 13.1,13.6 serves to corresponding inputs of the microcomputer (microprocessor) 14, which according to a certain program calculates the value of a1= Vkr/ (n2-n1), b1-a1n1b2Vkr-a2n2a3(see Fig. 8). The signals from the first to the sixth outputs of the microcomputer 14, a proportional codes b1, a1b2, a2b 3, a3serves respectively to the inputs of digital-to-analogue converters (ADC) 15.1,15.6, output signals which represent the DC voltage signals. The output signals of the ADC 15.1,15.6 served respectively with the first and sixth outputs of the shaper 4.

Shaper 4 tolerances region of optimum performance (see. Fig.5) works as follows.

The signals from the first to the sixth output unit 3, is proportional to n1n2n3n4vkrVmaxserved respectively from the first to the sixth input of the former 4 (see Fig.4), in which the signal n1served on the first (subtractive) input of adder 16.1 and to the second input element multiplication 17.1, the signal n2on the second (summing) the input of the adder 16.1, on the first (visitavi) input of adder 16.3 and to the second input element multiplication 17.3, signal n3at first (subtractive) input of adder 16.2 and to the second input element multiplication 17.2, the signal n4on the second (summing inputs of the adders 16.2, 16.3, the signal vkrat first (subtractive) input of adder 16.4, to the second input of the adder 16.4 and to the second input element of the division 18.2.

The output signal of the adder 16.1 equal to the value of x1=(n2-n1), where n1the signal on the first (subtractive) input of adder 16.1, n2the signal at its second (summing) input. The output signal x1the adder 16.1 is fed to the first input element division 18.1, to the second input of which the signal vkrfrom the fifth input of the former 4. The output signal of element division 18.1.

a1=vkr/x1vkr/(n2-n1)

is supplied to the second output of the shaper 4 and to the first input element multiplication 17.1, to the second input of which the signal n1with the first input of the shaper 4. The output signal of element multiplication 17.1 z1=a1n1is input to the inverter 19.1, the output of which is b1=-z1=-a1n1is supplied to the first output of the shaper 4.

The output signal of the adder 16.2 equal to the value of x2=(n4-n3), where the signal n3served with the third input of the shaper 4 on the first (subtractive) input of adder 16.2, the signal n4served with the fourth input of the shaper on the second (summing) the input of the adder 16.2. The output signal of the adder 16.2 x2served on the first input element division 18.2, the WTO is 18.2 (a3= vmax/x2= vmax(n4-n3) is supplied to the sixth output of the shaper 4 and to the first input element multiplication 17.2, to the second input of which the signal n3the third input of the shaper 4. The output signal of element multiplication 17.2 z2a3n3is input to the inverter 19.2, the output of which is b3-z2= -a3n3served on the fifth output of the shaper 4.

The output signal of the adder 16.3 x3(n4n1), where n2the signal from the second input of the shaper 4, which is served on the first (subtractive) input of adder 16.3, n4the signal from the fourth input of the shaper 4, which is supplied to the second (summing) the input of the adder 16.3. The output signal of the adder 16.3 x3is supplied to the second input element dividing 18.3, at the first input of which the signal x4from the output of the adder 16.4. The signal x4(vmaxvkr), where vkrthe signal from the fifth input of the former 4, which is served on the first (subtractive) entrance 16.4, vmaxthe signal from the sixth input of the former 4, which is supplied to the second (summing) the input of the adder 16.4. The output signal of element division 18.3 a2x4/x3(vmax- vkr)/(n4n2
. The output signal of element division 17.3 z3a2n2served on the first (subtractive) input of adder 16.5, on the second (summing) the input of which is supplied to the fifth input of the shaper 4 signal vkr. The output signal of the adder 16.5 x5b2(vkra2n2is served on the third output of the shaper 4.

The signals from the first to the sixth outputs of the shaper 4, proportional, respectively, b1, a1b2, a2b3, a3served respectively with the first and sixth inputs of the control unit 5, the seventh input signal n from the output of the speed sensor 1, the eighth signal v from the output of the speed sensor 2 (Fig. 1).

The control unit 5 is designed to control the location of the current values of n, v in region P and the generation of control signals, if the reflecting point (combination of specific values of n, v) are outside the scope of the P.

In the control unit 5 (see Fig. 6) the signal a1with the second input unit 5 and the signal n from the seventh input unit 5 serves respectively to the first and second inputs of the element multiplication 20.1, the output of which is1= a1n is fed to the first (subtractive) input of adder 21.2, on the second (subtractive) the block 5. The output signal of the adder 21.1 y1(-a1n b1+ v) rectified valve 22.1 whose output is y10 is fed to the first input of the OR element 23.

Signal a2from the fourth input unit 5 and the signal n from the seventh input unit 5 serves respectively to the first and second inputs of the element multiplication 20.2, the output of which is2= a2n is fed to the first (subtractive) input of adder 21.2, on the second (subtractive) input of which the signal b2the third input unit 5, and on the third (summing) the input signal v from the eighth input unit 5. The output signal of the adder 21.2 y2(-a2n - b2+ v) rectified valve 22.2 whose output is y20 is supplied to the second input of the OR element 23.

Signal a3from the sixth input unit 5 and the signal n from the seventh input unit 5 serves respectively to the first and second inputs of the element multiplication 20.3, the output of which is3= a3n is fed to the first (summing) the input of the adder 21.3, on the second (summing) the input is from the fifth input unit 5 signal b3on the third (subtractive) input signal v from the eighth input unit 5. The output signal of the adder 21.3 y3(-v + a3n + b3) straightens vent is by the output signal from the OR element 23.

If a signal 1with the output element OR 23 (y10 or y20), this means that the reflecting point (combination of values of n, v) is to the left of the P region (region G). It is necessary to increase the rotational speed n of the engine, to display the point included in the region p

If a signal2the output of gate 22.3, this means that the reflecting point is to the right of the field P (area Q). It is necessary to reduce the rotational speed n of the engine, to display the point fell in the region p

If the output signals y1<0, y2<0, y3<0, then displays the point is in region P. the Frequency of n did not have to change.

The signals from the first and second outputs of the block 5 serves respectively to the first and second inputs of the unit generating control signals 6.

In the forming unit 6, the data signals are fed respectively to the second (summing) or third (subtractive) inputs of the adder 25. If you receive a signal on the first input unit 6, this means that the reflecting point is in the area of G. thus y10 and(or) y20. The output signal of the OR element 231(see Fig. 5) is supplied to the second (summing) input the sum of the 25 unit 6 causes the increase of the input signal of the rotation speed regulator 7, to change the position of the fuel rail diesel 8 to increase his speed. The increase of n leads to the displacement of the reflecting point from region G to region P. thus1=0.

If you receive a signal 2to a second input of the processing unit 6, it means that displays the point is in region Q (see Fig.8). Signal 2served on the third (subtractive) input of the adder 25, the output of which is = u24-2< u24< / BR>
The decrease of the output signal of block 5 leads to the decrease of the input signal of the controller 7, which will change the position of the fuel rail pump diesel 8 in the direction of decreasing its rotational speed n. The decrease in n moves the reflecting point from region G to region p In the range P2= 0 (in particular u24may be zero.).

If the vessel is used rowing electrical (EPP), that as the rotation speed regulator 7 can be applied to the excitation winding of the generator supplying the propeller motor 8. The change of the output signal of the block 6 will lead to a change in voltage, for example, the excitation winding 7, which leads consequently to a change of the rotational speed n grebeg the values (for example, when the wear of the moving parts of the engine, the wear of the fuel equipment), as well as the deviation of the operating conditions from the nominal values (e.g., ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure) vary the configuration and / or location of a state P by changing the output signals of the voltage source 9 (see Fig.2) or source 11 (see Fig.3) in the generator mode 3 to reduce the total power taken from the engine, preventing the overload that enhances reliability and / or lifetime.

In the General case, the boundary of P (see Fig.8) can be approximated by equations of the second and (or) higher degree. Doing so will change the technical implementation of the shaper tolerances 4, the diagram of which is shown in Fig.5. The former tolerances 4, the diagram of which is shown in Fig.4, will change the work program of the microprocessor (microcomputer) 14.

The principle of operation of the control system marine engine will not change.

To eliminate vibrational mode of the system when displaying point (combination of specific values of n, v) is on the boundary of P, the rotation speed regulator 7 may be made in the form of generator speed signals (see Fig.9). P the deposits and, accordingly, will not change the position of the slats of the fuel pump 8 or when using EPP to change the rotational speed of the propeller motor. The above problem can also be solved by the implementation of the adder 25 (see Fig.7) in the form of an adder with stepped output characteristic.

Control system (see Fig.10) is similar to the system shown in Fig.1. The difference lies in the fact that the signal on the actual depth of the channel from the output of the sensor 26 is input to the generator mode 3, in which the signal is input to the microprocessor 27 (see Fig.3). The microprocessor 27 to a particular program generates the control signals that are fed to the inputs of the DAC 28.1,28.7. DAC 28 converts the output signals of the microprocessor 27 to an analog signal, which serves to control the power supply inputs, 9.1,9.6, which will change the values of n1n2n3n4vkrvmaxdepending on the depth of the channel H. the Change of these values means changing the position of the region p

The output signal from the second output unit 3 is fed to the third input of the processing unit 6, in which the signal is applied to the control input of the power source 24 (see Fig.12). When the output signal source 24 u24will correspond to the new value of the nominal frequency of nnlying unutma, shown in Fig.1.

If the power supply 9.1,9.6 (see Fig.2) and the power source 24 (see Fig. 7) have special controls, such as SETH, the output signal of the sensor 26 is fed directly to the control inputs SETH. In further operation of the control system is not changed.

1. Control system marine engine that contains the speed sensor, generator mode, the block form the control signal, the rotation speed regulator, kinematically connected with the fuel rail, characterized in that it is equipped with a speed sensor, driver tolerances region of optimal operating conditions, the control unit, with the first generalized output of the generator mode is connected with the generalized input of the shaper tolerances region of optimal operating conditions, the output of the speed sensor connected to the first input of the control unit, a second input connected to the output of the sensor speed, and the third, a generalized input is connected to common output driver tolerances region of optimum performance, the first and second outputs of which are connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the block form the control signal, the output of which is connected to Shubina of the fairway, the output of which is connected to the input of the generator mode, the second output of which is connected to the third input of the unit generating control signals.

 

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