(57) Abstract:Use: in the manufacture of radiation-protective containers for storage and transport of radioactive sources. The inventive protective container is made in the form of a vertical lead of a cylindrical Cup with a lid. The container has an outer two-layer membrane inner layer which is made of polymeric compositions in the following ratio, wt.%; polystyrene 8-15; polyethylsiloxane sodium 0,5-1; iron oxide rest, and the outer polyethylene. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 4 tab., 1 Il. The invention relates to the nuclear industry, in particular for the manufacture of radiation-protective containers KT intended for storage and transport of radioactive sources.Known protective container with double metal walls (lead or steel), filled in between with polyurethane foam  the Disadvantage of this solution is that during transportation of the container is not reliable sealing, and therefore remains the danger of radiation that is harmful to the environment.The closest tekhnicheskiky vertical glass cover (cork), made of metal lead  in accordance with the requirement THAT 95.656-79.The disadvantage of this protective container, made on the basis of metallic lead, is the fact that when E > 100 Kev the photoabsorption process is accompanied by the emission characteristic of the induced radiation, whose energy is 90 Kev. In addition, these containers without transport packaging does not provide a reliable seal, and therefore radiation safety. Health regulations prohibited contact the exposed parts of the body with metallic lead.The technical result increased radiation-protective properties, reliability sealing and environmental protective containers CT.This is because a protective lead container includes an optional external double-layer thermoplastic membrane made of a polymer protective composite on the basis of high impact polystyrene brand UPM (GOST 28250-89), filled with modified politicaleconomy sodium (TU-6-02-696-86) and finely dispersed iron oxide in the following ratio, wt.Polystyrene 8-15
Polyethylsiloxane intothree is I (HDPE) with inetnum gate.Used superfine iron oxide (FeO, hematite), previously heat-treated at 500oC-modified politicaleconomy sodium in a ball mill (particle size of 5-10 microns). Modification of iron oxide is made for compatibility of the filler with a non-polar polystyrene matrix. Polystyrene composition with modified iron oxide is a thermoplastic mass, being formed in a part of the container (glass cover) by hot pressing.The outer layer sheath made of polyethylene with a thickness of 1-2 mm, can be decorative.Thus, the proposed protective container differs from the known container by creating an additional double-layer protective thermoplastic shell around a lead glass (tube) to ensure the full integrity of the container.The drawing shows the proposed protective container.The container consists of lead glass 1 and the lead cover 2. Lead glass 1 and the lead cover 2 outside has a two-layer shell: inner 3, 4 and outer 5, 6. Inside the Cup 1 has a camera 7, and places the consumer packagings 8 with a radioactive substance. From the diagram, the inner shell 4 and the outer shell 6 are thermoplastic tube. In the joint between thermoplastic glass and thermoplastic tube is a rubber seal 9. The exterior of the container is provided with a bayonet catch 10. The free space in the chamber 7 after insertion of a retail container 8 with a radioactive substance is filled bulk sorbent.For testing properties of the material of the inner protective sheath was made five samples (see tab.1)
The test results radiation-protective properties of the samples listed in table.2.In table. 3 shows the protective properties of the various types offered and known containers
From table.2 shows that the protective polymer composition on the basis of polystyrene filled with iron oxide has a relatively high linear attenuation coefficient of photon radiation in a wide energy range of the spectrum, especially in the x-ray range. This protective polymer composite can significantly reduce the emission of characteristic guidance from the lead wall radiation 1,02 cm-1).At an energy characteristic of the guidance) is the first screen in the following form:(see tab.3).From table. 3 shows that the proposed protective container provides significant absorption emission characteristic induced by a lead radiation with an energy of 90 Kev. As a result, the exposure dose rate at the external surface of the container reaches the background level (15-16 μr/h conditions of the experiment) that has no place in the known container. For other levels of energies of gamma rays from radioactive sources placed in the proposed protective container is provided by reducing the exposure dose rate on the outer surface of the container by 20-40% compared with the known container.Protective polymer shell made of composite material based on high impact polystyrene, filled with modified iron oxide has a high physical-mechanical and chemical characteristics: mechanical compressive strength not less than 70 MPa, water absorption not more than 0.1 wt. heat resistant up to 150oC; full chemical resistance to acid and alkaline solutions.The outer plastic shell to offer protective container with bayonet catch provides complete sealing of the container (bubble test method for P=1 aclocal radiation protection indicators almost ensures a complete sealing of the container, the possibility of holding (if necessary) decontamination of the exterior surface of the container, prevents environmental hazard upon contact staff with lead. Significantly improves the appearance of the container.The application of the proposed technical solutions will allow us to expand the range of protective containers will improve the radiation situation and working conditions. 1. Protective container made in the form of a vertical lead of a cylindrical Cup with lid, characterized in that it further includes an outer two-layer membrane, the inner layer which is made of a polymer composite in the following ratio of components, wt.Polystyrene 8 15
Polyethylsiloxane sodium 0,5 1
Iron oxide Rest
and the outer polyethylene.2. The container under item 1, characterized in that the outer plastic shell executed with bayonet catch.
FIELD: shielding against ionizing rays.
SUBSTANCE: proposed material has sublayer in the form of polybutyl titanate solution or solution of heteroorganic compounds and coating layer of material using silicone polymer as matrix. Coating layer also uses powders of heavy metals, their oxides and carbides as inorganic filler, and cross-linking agent based on mixture of orthosilicic acid ether and products of its hydrolysis. In addition, it has process cross-linking agent in the form of amorphous pyrogenetic silicon dioxide, and curing agent in the form of tin diethyl dicaprylate or catalyst in the form of amino silane solution in orthosilicic acid. Coating layer has following proportion of ingredients, mass percent: silicone polymer, 8.2 - 37.1; heavy-metal powders, their oxides and carbides, 60.7 - 92.0; cross-linking agent, 0.2 - 0.5; process cross-linking agent, 0.2 - 0.5.
EFFECT: enhanced physical, mechanical, and shielding properties of material.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: manufacture of roentgen-ray shielding materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes joining of material layers and curing to produce stack of woven and X-ray shielding material layers by mixing ingredients of cold-hardening X-ray shielding composition. X-ray shielding composition incorporates silicone rubber as binder, shielding filler made of oxide of rare-earth elements mixed up with antimony oxide (III), catalyst, polyamine, and modifying agent, proportion of ingredients per every 100 parts by weight of silicone binder being as follows: epoxy-containing hydrocarbon, 5.0 - 15.0; ortho-phthalate and monatomic alcohols, 0.5 - 3.0; rare-earth element oxides, 160 - 180; antimony oxide (III), 200 - 210; catalyst, 6.0 - 8.0; polyamine, 0.6 - 3.0. Prior to producing stack of fabric layers material is impregnated with organic solution of organometallic compound out of group of organic tin salts. X-ray shielding composition is prepared by sequential mixing up of silicone binder with modifying agent, then catalyst and hardener, followed by their mixing with filler to obtain viscous paste, then catalyst and curing agent (polyamine) which are added to viscous paste just prior to applying the latter to finished woven material. Stack obtained is subjected to compression molding and hardening.
EFFECT: facilitated manufacture.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: roentgen-ray shielding materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed X-ray shielding coating has sublayer incorporating cured and plasticized epoxy-containing compound and basic elastic X-ray shielding layer also based on epoxy-containing binder; curing agent from group of cold-curing agents; shielding filler in the form of powdered mixture of rare earth element oxides or mixture of rare earth element oxides with antimony oxide (III), or mixture of rare earth element oxides with tungsten or its compounds, proportion of ingredients being as follows, mass percent: binder, 13.3 - 20.8; shielding filler, 78.6 - 86.3; amine curing agent, o.4 - 0.6. In addition, it has solvent which is essentially mixture of acetic esters, aliphatic and aromatic solvents in the amount of 30 - 40 mass percent per every 100 g of basic X-ray shielding material. Shielding filler content of basic polymerized layer ranges between 78.5 and 88.7 mass percent.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of shielding personnel and patients, improved mechanical and adhesive properties of material.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: cloths, compounds, and films affording protection against detrimental impacts presenting safety risk (radiation, chemicals, biological agents, fire, missiles).
SUBSTANCE: proposed radiation shielding compound is produced by mixing material opaque to radioactive radiation, such as barium, bismuth, tungsten, or their compounds with powdered polymer or liquid solution, emulsion, or polymer suspension in solvent or water. Liquefied polymeric film of two extruders is preferably combined so that they are interleaved between two sheets of cloth or any other material such as shielding polymer films or canvas used for chemical or biological protection overalls, bulletproof jackets, or fire-resistant overalls.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness and economic efficiency of miscellaneous means for protecting against detrimental impacts.
23 cl, 20 dwg
FIELD: radiation shielding means and their manufacturing processes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed radiation shielding mat has mesh 2 made of copper fibers 3 interwoven with carbon fibers 4 and liquid oak moss solution 5 applied to mentioned mesh 2. Mat creates shielding barrier protecting against terrestrial and electromagnetic radiations and ensures deviation of these radiations.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of protection against terrestrial and electromagnetic radiations.
10 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: construction material on the basis of gypsum is produced by addition of water to composition, in which basic material represents combination of hydraulic gypsum and one type or two or more types of dry-hardening calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide, or is producd by means of mixing emulsions of synthetic resins with it and inorganic filler with high specific weight so that to execute reaction and setting or drying, at the same time composiiton differs by the fact that it includes 100 weight parts of at least one type or two or more types of main materials, selected from the group including calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, and also emulsions of organic synthetic resins and 50-3000 weight parts of at least one type or two or more types of inorganic fillers, true specidic weight of which makes 3.5-6.0, selected from the group, including barium chloride, zinc oxide, aluminium oxide, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate.
EFFECT: protection against radioactive radiation, small weight, convenience in use, safe for human body.
FIELD: physics, nuclear.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of radar absorbing materials which reduce the level of secondary radiation, provide electromagnetic compatibility of onboard equipment, correction of directional patterns of onboard antenna systems during prolonged operation and exposure to aggressive media. Radar absorbing material contains dielectric binder - foamed polyurethane and electroconductive filler which absorbs electromagnetic radiation. The material also contains a polyurethane based protective coating. The electroconductive filler which absorbs electromagnetic radiation used is carbon fibre taken in amount of 0.0003-0.005 vol. % or carbonised fibre taken in amount of 0.003-0.05 vol. %.
EFFECT: good radio properties, moisture resistance, resistance to aggressive media, longer use with low density of the material.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument making. Radiation-protective coating contains a transition metal of the sixth period of the Periodic system of chemical elements, a post-transition metal of the sixth period of the Periodic system of chemical elements and/or a lanthanoid and an absorbent material containing a chemical element with an atomic number less than the said chemical elements. Radiation-protective coating consists of multiple alternating layers from particles of at least one transition metal of the sixth period of the Periodic system of chemical elements, a post-transition metal of the sixth period of the Periodic system of chemical elements and/or a lanthanide and from the said absorbent material.
EFFECT: invention allows to ensure optimal protection of hardware components from natural ionizing radiations from the space environment.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition for protection from the effects of ionizing radiation is made in the form of layers, each of which is a matrix of radiation-resistant polymeric material with a filler. The filler contains one or more chemical elements or their compounds. As the filler matrix, facing the source of primary radiation, boron compounds were used. The fillers of each successive layer are selected from the condition of increasing the effective atomic number of the chemical element of the filler material. The attenuation coefficient of each layer is 0.2-0.6.
EFFECT: invention allows to increase the coefficient of attenuation and to reduce the weight and size characteristics.
FIELD: safety facilities for handling radioactive materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed internal container designed for long-time storage and transport of high-radioactivity materials such as plutonium dioxide has container body closed with sealed cover and specified-volume charging box placed in this body and provided with its respective cover. Container body has cylindrical passage for charging box that mounts additional internal cover provided with gas filtering device and hermetically installed relative to its surface for axial displacement. External cover of container body is provided with shut-off valve accommodating gas filtering device installed therein between inner space of container and valve seat. Such mechanical design of container enables reducing irreparable loss of plutonium during its long-time storage and transport.
EFFECT: enhanced safety and reliability , enlarged functional capabilities of container.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: handling radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for nuclear fuel storage in container includes introduction of nuclear fuel in fuel collector, as well as preparation of formwork to receive concrete body and installation of fuel collector into formwork. Formwork is immersed in tank and concrete is placed in immersed formwork to form concrete housing. Formwork with concrete housing formed therein is extracted from tank. System for manufacturing nuclear fuel storage container and for holding fuel in fuel collector installed in concrete housing that forms part of storage container has water tank. In addition it has tools for assembling formwork for storage container concrete housing and facilities for conveying formwork and fuel collector to water tank. It also has facilities for introducing nuclear fuel in fuel collector, facilities for concrete placement in formwork, and those for removing formwork from water tank. Nuclear fuel storage method includes piling of containers so that their central channels are aligned and held open for intercommunication. Fluid cooling agent is supplied to bottom end of central channel in lowermost storage container and discharged from top end of central channel in uppermost storage container.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of radioactive waste isolation.
25 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: storage of hazardous materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device for keeping in storage hazardous materials such as spent radioactive nuclear fuel has cylindrical concrete housing accommodating three-dimensional pre-stressed hardware and axially elongated hazardous-material storage area. Pre-stressed hardware includes hardware fittings spirally passed about storage area and disposed in concrete housing close to outer surface.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of hazardous material storage.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: shipment and storage of highly active wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed container for transport and dry storage of spent nuclear fuel has hermetically sealed storage tank and can holding spent nuclear fuel. In addition, it has external steel-reinforced concrete casing with outer and inner metal shells and bottom, cooling ducts, and fixing dampers. Hermetically sealed tank is provided with transport ring that holds shell in position relative to longitudinal axis of casing and with three detachable lids. It is also provided with dampers disposed over entire perimeter of inner cylindrical shell that function to lock cylindrical shell on lid and outer steel-reinforced concrete casing and to transfer heat therefrom. Cooling system is designed so that cooling air flows through cylindrical gap between outer surface of tank and inner surface of external steel-reinforced concrete casing over cooling ducts.
EFFECT: enhanced operating reliability of container.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: handling spent nuclear fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed module designed for storage of spent nuclear fuel has tight case with inner space to receive spent nuclear fuel. Module is provided with ring made of solid ferromagnetic material possessing magnetocaloric properties. Ring is provided with drive and is free to rotate about its axis. It is disposed so that part of this ring is inside module in immediate proximity of tight tank holding spent nuclear fuel. Other part of ring is placed in constant magnetic field outside of module and can be cooled.
EFFECT: enhanced safety of spent nuclear fuel dry storage.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device for storage and/or transport of spent nuclear fuel has housing and cover forming inner space for holding spent nuclear fuel. Inner space is divided by means of partitions into compartments, each compartment being meant to receive spent fuel assembly. Each compartment accommodates two tanks holding metal hydride or intermetallic compound. These tanks are provided with channels pressurized with respect to inner space of device which are used to discharge hydrogen produced due to heat released by fuel assembly. Hydrogen outlet channels are designed for charging metal hydride through them and are provided with closing valves.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of spent nuclear fuel storage and its safety in transit.
1 cl, 3 dwg