Building block

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the construction, in particular to concrete elements used for masonry foundations and walls of buildings, including a clutch. The block includes parallel walls, which are interconnected installed perpendicular to them by the partitions and made with grooves and corresponding in shape and dimensions of the locking tabs. With the aim of expanding the structural features and optimize unit, improve the technological and operational properties of the block and designs of the blocks, the height of the walls is 0.3 - 1.2 height of the walls, while the distance from the outer vertical faces of the partitions to the end faces of wall are equal to or more than 0.5 of the thickness of the partitions and equal to or less than 0.25 length of the walls, the distance between the grooves and the protrusions, and the distance between the latter and the vertical end faces of the block is less than or greater than the thickness, respectively, partitions and walls in the place of formation of the groove, and the distance from the transverse plane of symmetry of the walls of the grooves are equal distances from the end faces of the walls of the respective grooves of the protrusions. The wall unit may not have the cross is s from the centers of the walls, and the distance from the centers of the walls of the left or right of grooves equal to the distances from the respective left or right end faces of the walls of the respective grooves of the protrusions, and the unit is made symmetric with respect to the Central vertical longitudinal plane. The walls may be made in the form of two, three or more plates are displaced relative to each other, up or down, right or left, or diagonally walls with education as a result of displacement of grooves and protrusions, which are located respectively on the upper and lower surfaces of the walls, on the end faces of the walls or around the perimeter of the walls, with the entire length and height of the latest slots and tabs cross-section of a curved shape or in the shape of a regular or irregular polygon. Walls, partitions, grooves, protrusions in various embodiments, the block design can be the same or different size, shape, location, quantity. One or both of the outer wall can be made with horizontal and vertical rusty, or with a relief pattern, or with a rough surface in combination with a smooth areas, rusty, a relief pattern. 24 C. p. F.-ly, 57 ill.

The invention relates to the e for a clutch.

Known building block for exterior walls containing two parallel walls connected by partitions. The bottom partition is on the same level with the bottom of the walls, and top walls comes up to about half the height of the walls, and therefore the inside is lined with wall elements are formed interconnected wells, in which you pour the concrete mixture for monolithic structures [1]

The disadvantage of this unit is unreliable fixing the relative position of the blocks in the wall due to the lack of blocks locking elements, which does not allow to apply the blocks to a masonry wall.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result of the claimed block and selected for the prototype is a building block containing two parallel side walls, the upper edges of which there are two locking tabs, and on the inner planes there are grooves along the entire height of the walls, the walls are connected by walls perpendicular to the walls, the space between which is intended for concreting. While the grooves are located between the partitions and associated with them, the distance between the grooves and the locking votesthe wall thickness at the site of formation of the groove. Moreover, the grooves and protrusions in the transverse cross section may be rectangular or dovetail [2]

The disadvantages of the known unit chosen for the prototype associated with not optimal, with substantial restrictions, design solution, reducing technological and operational properties of units and structures. The main ones are the following disadvantages:

1. For small dimensions of the blocks, for example, when the length between 300 and 500 mm, the presence of each of the walls of two symmetrical grooves, shaped panel between them and the two protrusions leads to unnecessary complication and expensive units, metalloelastase for their manufacture, because for a given length of blocks, you can ensure secure fixing in wall constructions in the presence of a single, centrally located on each wall of the groove.

2. When significant dimensions of the blocks, for example when their length 550 800 mm or more, two partitions may not be sufficient for the perception of tension arising in the walls during casting (especially when filling under pressure) concrete mixture into the voids lined nesho, blocks from wall structure to concreting. Vo slots on each wall may be two, three or more with a corresponding number of locking tabs that need to simplify installation and enhance grip and precision fixation blocks. The relative cost associated with the complexity of the design of the unit is covered by the benefits associated with the consolidation of blocks, accelerating and improving the accuracy and reliability of the installation of these structures, especially at the stage of dry masonry in the presence of significant wind effects.

3. The location of the grooves between the partitions, especially when their mate is not always the best, because you can position the grooves of the outside walls or the location of one of the groove between the partitions, but not paired with them.

4. It is not necessary that the distance between the grooves and the locking protrusions equal to the thickness of the walls, since the latter is not determined by the specified distance, and the number of partitions, mark (class) concrete and emerging in the wall stresses.

5. The distance between the tabs and the vertical end faces of the walls does not have to match the wall thickness at the site of formation of the groove, since the protrusions can be located and close to the end faces. In addition, sometimes b is ASS="ptx2">

6. When the cross section of grooves and protrusions in the form of a dovetail in the body of the block walls are formed sharp edges, which are places of concentration of dangerous voltages and often cracks. While the sharp corners of the tabs are often destroyed when molding products, as well as at the stage of transportation and handling as if swietochowski and hardened blocks.

7. The location of the grooves on the inner sides of the walls along their entire height, and the location of the projections only in the upper part of the walls, with their inner sides, not always the best solution, because in some cases in practice more convenient, high-tech and reliable in construction is another location of grooves and protrusions, for example on the outside of the wall, the body wall, etc. depending on the application unit in a particular location of the building structure, etc.

8. Not always the optimal solution, in which the walls of solid rectangular cross-section shape have a height less than the height of the walls, are arranged with a gap between the top plane and flush with the bottom plane. Sometimes you want the top of the transaction and other You may need the location of the walls with a gap at the bottom and top planes of the block to improve monolithic blocks with concrete. In some cases, you may need to pouring of the concrete mix in some vertical wells construction of the blocks so that the mixture was not included in the other channels, which is possible under the condition that the partition will have a height greater than the wall.

9. The presence of the block two longitudinal walls is not always the optimal solution. To extend the constructive capabilities of the block may require three or more longitudinal walls at a variety of locations, the number and shape of walls, partitions, grooves and protrusions.

The aim of the invention is to optimize and expand the constructive capabilities of the block to improve the processing and performance properties of the block and the design of the blocks.

To address this goal in the proposed unit along with similar to the prototype of the characteristics is the presence of lateral parallel walls with locking tabs and slots, the presence of the perpendicular walls of the connecting walls) there are significant new features, namely: the height of the or the shape of a regular or irregular polygon (triangle, square, rectangle, trapezoid, or any other right or irregular polygon, circle, ellipse, part of a circle or ellipse, and others), and some of the grooves may have the same shape and dimensions, and other different shape and sizes with their corresponding shape and dimensions of the protrusions; outer vertical faces of the partitions are located on the end faces of the walls at a distance equal to or more than 0.5 of the thickness of the partitions and equal to or less than 0.25 length of the walls; the distance between the grooves and the protrusions is less than or greater than the thickness of the partitions, and the distance between the tabs and the vertical end faces of the walls is less than or greater than the thickness of the walls in the place of formation of the groove; the distance from the transverse plane of symmetry of each of the walls to centres in these walls of the grooves is equal to the distance from the end faces of the walls of the respective grooves of the protrusions.

Even when the number of partitions in each wall there are grooves, the centers of which are located in transverse planes of symmetry of the walls, if the number of grooves is greater than one, then the remaining slots are arranged in pairs at equal distances from the transverse plane of symmetry of the walls, the number of grooves in the walls of the odd are against the end faces of the walls and are in horizontal cross-section geometry, equal to half the figures in the longitudinal direction of the wall section of the Central groove, and the rest of the tabs are horizontal sectional shape equal to the shape in the cross section of the respective grooves with the necessary clearance.

When an odd number of partitions in each wall has two or more slots arranged in pairs at equal distances from the transverse plane of symmetry of the walls, the number of grooves in the walls even, is two or more, with an equal number of grooves and protrusions, and the protrusions are in horizontal cross-section geometric shapes, equal pieces in the cross-section of the respective grooves with the necessary clearance.

Walls having grooves and projections may be made in the form of two, three or more plates are displaced relative to each other: up or down, right or left, diagonally, forming as a result of displacement of the grooves and the protrusions respectively in the upper and lower faces of the walls, in the right and left ends of the walls around the perimeter of the walls, with vertical and horizontal grooves and the protrusions have a length equal to, respectively, the height and length of the walls.

Right and left grooves, ledges, partitions can be on the same rassstoyanie from the middle of each wall to centers located in the walls of the right grooves are equal to the distances from the right ends of the walls of the centres, appropriate right slots right protrusions, and the distance from the middle of each wall to the centers of the left slots are equal to the distances from the left ends of the walls to the centers of the left tabs, and this block is made symmetrical with respect to the Central longitudinal vertical plane.

Walls, partitions, grooves, protrusions in various embodiments, a block may have the same or different size, shape, location, quantity. For example, all or part of the grooves can be located on the inner, outer sides of the walls, inside (in the body) of the wall at the appropriate location of the tabs. All or part of the slots may be located along the entire height of the walls or from the side opposite to the side on which are the projections. All or part of the grooves and corresponding ridges can be swapped both horizontally and vertically.

Some partitions may have a height less than the height of walls and other partitions can have a height equal to or greater than the height of the walls, partitions can have the same or different size, configuration and location, and all or some partitions can be dredging the same or different forms.

When Kogut be the same or different, moreover, some or all of the partitions are in the same plane, perpendicular to the walls, while the remaining walls can be shifted relative to the above mentioned planes.

When the number of walls more than two the number, shape, dimensions and location of grooves and protrusions on some walls can be one, and the other walls other, and the grooves and protrusions may be located on one or two of the exterior walls; at one, some, or all internal walls; all external and all internal walls; on one or two external and one or more inner walls. Moreover, some or all of the inner walls have the same or different compared with the outer walls of the size, shape, and arrangement.

When the number of walls more than two one outer wall has the same or different compared to the other outside wall dimensions, shape and location, and one or more inner walls have different compared to the rest of the inner edges of the size, shape, and arrangement.

One or two outside walls can be made with horizontal and vertical rusty, or with a relief pattern, or with rough SS="ptx2">

The presence of the proposed construction of the new block, in comparison with the prototype, an essential structural characteristics, optimal size, design and location of items in the unit allow you to establish compliance of the proposed technical solution the criterion of "novelty".

The analysis of other known technical solutions building blocks allows to make a conclusion about the absence of these symptoms that are similar to the main features of the proposed building block that allows you to recognize the claimed technical solution meets the criterion of "inventive step".

In Fig. 1 and 2 show the overall construction of the unit; Fig. 3 a top view of a block having an even number of partitions and an odd number of grooves and protrusions on one more than the slots, and two extreme protrusion are located close to the end faces of the walls and are in horizontal section of a geometrical figure is equal to the half of the shape in cross-section of the Central groove, and Fig. 4 a fragment of masonry walls of the blocks shown in Fig. 3, in cross section along the longitudinal axis of the blocks (section a-a in Fig. 3), and Fig. 5 and 6 are cross-sections b-B and b-b In Fig. 4 masonry of the three rows of blocks, respectively; rich in Fig. 7 depicts a top view of the block in which the grooves of triangular cross section are arranged on the inner sides of the walls of Fig. 8 grooves of square cross section are located inside (in the body) of the wall of Fig. 9, the grooves of semicircular cross-section are arranged on outer sides of the walls of Fig. 10 grooves of semicircular cross-section are arranged on outer sides of the walls, and the grooves of rectangular cross section are arranged on the inner sides of the walls, in appropriate form and location of the protrusions) of Fig. 11 a top view of the block in which the portion of the grooves is located inside the walls, and the other part on the inner and outer side walls at the respective location of the projections of Fig. 12 14 cross-sections a-a, b-B and b-b In Fig. 11 masonry of the three rows of blocks, respectively; Fig. 15 top view of the block in which the grooves are not over the entire height of the walls, and only the side opposite to the side on which are the projections of Fig. 16 is a longitudinal section a-a in Fig. 15 when the clutch of the three rows of blocks; Fig. 17 and 18 are cross sections b-B and b-b In Fig. 16 masonry of the three rows of blocks, respectively; Fig. 19 is a top view of the block in which the portion of the grooves is located along the entire height of the walls, and the other part only protivopolozhnogo part on the inner sides of the walls at the appropriate location of the protrusions; in Fig. 20 is a longitudinal section a-a clutch of three rows of blocks shown in Fig. 19; Fig. 21 24 the cross-sections b-B, B-C, D-G, d-D of Fig. 20 laying of the three rows of blocks, respectively; Fig. 25 is a top view of the block; Fig. 26, 27 incisions block a-a in Fig. 25, in which the grooves and protrusions are swapped in both the horizontal (see the comparison with Fig. 9), and vertical; Fig. 26 30 sections and views from the side (end) blocks, which differ in the location of partitions, provided that the height of the partitions is less than the height of the wall; Fig. 31 36 kinds of side blocks, differing in the location of partitions, provided that the height of the partitions is more the height of the wall; Fig. 37 is a top view of the block; Fig. 38 40 incisions unit, respectively, a-a, b-B, b-b In Fig. 37, in which the extreme partitions are equal to the height of the walls, high walls have a height less than the height of the walls and the Central wall has a height greater than the height of the walls and partitions are of different size, configuration, location, additionally, the partitions are grooves of different shapes; Fig. 41 44 the top blocks in which more than two walls, the number, shape, size and arrangement of the partitions between each pair of walls are the same (see Fig. 41) or different is the original memory location of grooves and protrusions on some walls can be one, on the other other, and the grooves and protrusions are arranged with the fol follows: one (see Fig. 45) or two (see Fig. 46) the exterior walls; one (see Fig. 47), some, or all (see Fig. 48) the internal walls; all external and all internal walls (see Fig. 49) some or all of the inner walls have the same (see Fig. 50) or different (see Fig. 51 53) compared with the outer walls of the size, shape and location, in addition, one (see Fig. 54) or more (see Fig. 55) of the internal walls have different compared to the rest of the inner edges of the size, shape and position; Fig. 56 top view of the block; Fig. 57 cross-section a-a laying of the blocks shown in Fig. 56, in which the right and left grooves, ledges, partitions are not located at equal distances from the centers of the walls.

Building block contains two outer parallel walls 1. The walls can be a complete end-to-end vertical grooves 2, and the walls full horizontal protrusions 3 (full tabs are horizontal sectional geometric shape equal to the shape in cross section full slot).

The walls are connected by a low partition walls 4 forming a space for concreting (concrete mix or the P> In addition to the protrusions 3, the walls can be protrusions incomplete horizontal 5 having in horizontal cross-section geometry, equal to half of the figures in the section full of groove.

In the walls in addition to the slots full end-to-end 2 can be slots full blind 6, which are located not along the entire height of the walls, and only the side opposite to the side on which are the projections.

The height and cross-section of blind grooves is greater than height and cross-section of the respective tabs on the amount of necessary clearance. Section all through the slots also more sections of the respective tabs on the amount of necessary clearance.

The walls may be connected by high walls 7, which have a height of 1.01 to 1.2 height of the walls. In addition, the wall can connect equal partitions 8, the height of which is equal to the height of the walls.

In addition to the two outside walls 1, a block may contain one, two, three or more inner walls 9, which are, like the outer wall can have grooves 2, 6, and the projections 3, 5. The outer 1 and inner 9 wall, in addition to these grooves and protrusions may have grooves incomplete pass-through vertical 10, the grooves are full of end-to-end horizontal 11 and the protrusions full ve is 5), used for larger architectural expression built from blocks of the walls.

The grooves and protrusions are sectional shape of one of the following shapes: triangle, square, rectangle, trapezoid, or any other right or irregular polygon, circle, ellipse, part of a circle or ellipse, etc. and the grooves and the projections are the same on all the walls (see Fig. 1 9), different on different walls (see Fig. 49) or even on the same wall (see Fig. 10) shape and size (with the necessary clearances between the projections and grooves).

The outer vertical face of extreme partitions are located on the ends of the block at a distance of not less than 0.5 of the thickness of the walls (see Fig. 3) and not more than 0.25 length of the walls (see Fig. 1).

The height of the protrusions may be of 0.03 to 0.3 of the height of the walls, depending on other design features and specific destination block.

In Fig. 1 shows one of the proposed types of building block. The block contains two parallel equal wall 1, each of which has two full end-to-end vertical groove 2. Wall 1 are connected by two low walls 4, the height of which is 0.7 Vyshnya grooves 2 and complete the projections 3 are horizontal sectional shape of part of an ellipse, and the dimensions of the protrusions is smaller than the slots on the amount of clearance, which usually is 1 to 2 mm bump Height is 0.08 height of the walls, and outer vertical faces of the partitions are located on the ends of the block at a distance of 0.21 length of the walls. On each wall 1 has two groove 2, and the two tabs 3.

At block shown in Fig. 1, the grooves 2 are not associated with the 4 partitions (the distance between the edges of the slots and partitions is approximately equal to the thickness of the walls, which is 0.08 length of the wall), the distance between the grooves and protrusions is not equal to the thickness of the walls (thickness of walls 2.3 times less than the distance between the edges of grooves and protrusions), the distance between the edges of the ledges and vertical end faces of the walls exceeds the thickness of the walls in the place of formation of the groove in 2.2 times.

The grooves and protrusions on both sides 1 (see Fig. 1) have the same shape, size (required clearance) and location. At this distance from the transverse planes of symmetry in each of the walls 1 to centers located in the walls of the grooves 2 are equal distances from the ends of the walls of the respective grooves of the projections 3, and the centers of the partitions 4 do not coincide neither with the centers of the slots or centers vastupidavusega block, which two walls 1 and an even number of partitions 4 (two partitions) in each wall 1 has one empty slot 2, the center of which coincides with the transverse plane of symmetry of the wall. The number of grooves is odd (one), and the number of incomplete projections 5 on the walls even, amounting to one more than the number of grooves (two), and the protrusions are located close to the end faces of the walls and are in horizontal section of a geometrical figure is equal to the half of the shape in cross-section of the Central groove.

In this species the proposed block transverse plane of symmetry in each of the walls 1 are the centers located in the walls of the grooves 2, and the plane passing through the ends of the walls coincide with the centers of geometric shapes that are formed incomplete (half) projections 5 at joining the ends of two blocks. The centers of the partitions 4 are shifted to the centers of the slots 2, but not identical with them.

In Fig. 3 depicts a top view of the block, which has two walls 1 and an even number of partitions 4 partitions) in each wall 1 has a Central groove 2, the center of which is located in the transverse plane of symmetry of the wall, as well as two off-center groove 2, raspy wall odd (three), and the number of projections on the walls even, constituting one more (four) than the number of grooves, and two incomplete extreme protrusion 5 located close to the end faces of the walls 1 and are in horizontal section of a geometrical figure is equal to the half of the shape in cross-section of the Central groove, and the other full protrusions 3 are horizontal cross-section shape (in this case an isosceles trapezoid), equal to the figure in the cross-section of the respective grooves. The number of partitions in the block may be six, eight or more, depending on the dimensions, design features, assignments, loads, particularly loads, under the action of which the wall can break away from the walls).

The varieties of the proposed unit shown in Fig. 3 to 6, each of the walls 1 have Central grooves 2, through which the transverse plane of symmetry of the walls. Each of these grooves correspond to two incomplete (half) tab 5, of which at joining ends of the two blocks are formed at the junction of each pair of walls on the geometric shape equal to the shape in cross section of the Central groove, and the centers of these figures coincide with the planes passing through the ends of the walls. In addition, each and the AI of the walls is equal to the distances from the ends of the walls to the centers corresponding to the grooves of the two projections 3, located on each of the walls 1.

The varieties of the proposed unit shown in Fig. 1 6, the centers of right and left walls are located at equal distances from the transverse plane of symmetry of the walls, and these distances are not equal distances from the planes of symmetry of the grooves. In addition, the distances from the ends of the walls of the partitions are not equal distances from the ends to the centers of the protrusions.

Other types of unit right and left partitions can be placed at equal distances from the transverse planes of symmetry walls (not shown). In addition, the distances from the ends of the walls of the partitions can be equal distances from the ends to the centers of the projections, but the distance from the transverse plane of symmetry of the walls of the partitions can not be equal to the distances from the planes of symmetry of the slots if the slots are located on the inner sides of the walls. You cannot even partial overlap of the grooves partitions.

However, if the grooves are located inside (in the body) wall or on the outer sides of the walls, then the distances from the planes of symmetry of the grooves and the centers of the partitions can U options block, which two walls 1 and an odd number of partitions 4 (three partitions), each wall has two (see Fig. 8) and more groove 2 (four groove, see Fig. 7, Fig. 9, six grooves, see Fig. 10), arranged in pairs at equal distances from the transverse plane of symmetry of the walls, the number of grooves 2 is even, equal to the number of full projections 3, and the projections have a horizontal cross-section geometric shapes, equal pieces in the cross-section of the respective grooves. In Fig. 7 the grooves 2 and the projections 3 have the same dimensions (with the necessary clearance between the grooves and protrusions) and the same shape in the form of a triangle, with the grooves located on the inner sides of the walls at the appropriate location of the tabs. In Fig. 8, the grooves 2 and the projections 3 have the same size and shape in the form of a square, while through the slots located inside (in the body) of the wall at the appropriate location of the tabs. In Fig. 9, the grooves 2 and the projections 3 have the same dimensions and shape of a semicircle, with the grooves located on the outer sides of the walls at the appropriate location of the tabs. In Fig. 10 part of the slots 2 (two on each side) and 3 tabs (two) have the same size and shape in the form of a semicircle, the other part of the PA, the grooves and protrusions, and the third part of the grooves 2 (two) and 3 tabs (two) are rectangular in shape, with all the grooves having the shape of a semicircle, are located on the outer sides of the walls, and all grooves having a rectangular shape, are arranged on the inner sides of the walls at the appropriate location of the tabs.

In Fig. 11 shows a top view of a variant of the block, which has two walls 1 and an even number of partitions 4 partitions) in each wall 1 has a Central groove 2, the center of which is located in the transverse plane of symmetry on the inner side of the wall, two off-center groove 2 located on the outer side of the wall at the same distance from the transverse plane of symmetry of the wall, two off-center through-groove 2 located inside (in the body) wall at the same distance from the transverse plane of symmetry of the wall. The total number of grooves 2 in each wall 1 is odd (five), and the number of tabs on each wall even, constituting one more (six) than the number of grooves, and two incomplete extreme protrusion 5 located close to the end faces of the walls 1 (and inner side walls) and have a horizontal cross-section geometric shape (rectangle), the cross-section shape (rectangle) equal to the shape in cross section corresponding grooves (with a gap).

The varieties of the block shown in Fig. 11, as well as the types of the block shown in Fig. 10, groups of protrusions located on the walls respectively, the location of groups of grooves. Moreover, for each group of slots (i.e. slots of the first group, which are located on the inner side walls of the slots of the second group, which are located inside the walls of the slots of the third group, which are located on the outer side of the walls) and corresponding grooves groups of protrusions is just the requirement that the distance from the transverse plane of symmetry of the walls 1 to mid off-center grooves 2 equal distances from the ends of the walls of the respective grooves full of projections 3. Each of the Central grooves 2 on the shape and position correspond to the two half tab 5 (see Fig. 11).

The varieties of blocks shown in Fig. 7 of Fig. 14, the centers of left and right partition walls 4 are arranged at equal distances from the transverse plane of symmetry of the wall 1. And it is impossible even partial overlap of the partitions 4 grooves 2 located on the inner sides of the walls of the us wall 2 (see Fig. 7). If the grooves are located inside the walls or on the outer sides of the walls, then placing opposite walls (their centers or offset) not only projections, but the grooves, as shown in Fig. 11.

In Fig. 15 18 presents a top view of the unit, as well as longitudinal and transverse sections of masonry blocks, in which the grooves 6 are not over the entire height of the walls 1, and only the side opposite to the side on which are the projections 3, i.e., the slots are full vertical blind.

In this case, the projections 3 are located above the walls, and the grooves 6 in the lower part of the inner side walls, the horizontal cross-section and height of the grooves correspond to the cross section and the height of the projections and exceed the value of the clearance, and the grooves and the protrusions are in horizontal section of a complex figure, which is a rectangle with adjacent segment.

In Fig. 19 shows a top view of the block of Fig. 20 is a longitudinal section a-a in Fig. 19 laying of the blocks, and Fig. 21 24 presents the cross-sections of masonry blocks, respectively, b-B, B-C, D-G, d-D of Fig. 20, in which a portion of the slots 6 full vertical blind (two groove 6 with vnutrenniy, the opposite side on which are the projections 3, and the other part of the slots 2 full vertical end-to-end (two groove 2 on the inner side and two groove 2 with the outer side of each wall 1) are arranged over the entire height of the walls. This variety of unit coincide mid noncentral partitions 4, the centers of the projections 3, adjacent to the inner sides of the walls 1, and the centers of the grooves 2 located on the outer sides of the walls. All the tabs are placed on the upper sides of the walls. In horizontal cross-section of all the grooves and the projections have a complex shape that represents a rectangle with adjacent triangle.

In Fig. 25 30 presents a top view, cross-sections and views from the side (end) of the block, for example, which shows that the grooves and the protrusions can be swapped in both the horizontal (see Fig. 25 in comparison with Fig. 9), and vertical (see Fig. 26 in comparison with Fig. 27, from which it is clear, as can be swapped vertical protrusions 3 with full end-to-end vertical grooves 2). The slots can be swapped vertically only when the grooves are blind. It should be noted that you can change all or part of grooves and protrusions, and they can seed the corresponding protrusions can be swapped horizontally, and the other part only vertically. When changing places of grooves and protrusions remains a fair requirement that the distance from the transverse planes of symmetry in each of the walls of the slots should be equal distances from the ends of the walls of the respective grooves of the protrusions.

From the presented in Fig. 27 30 cut and block end, when the height of the partitions is less than the height extent, all partitions can be positioned with a gap between the top plane of the block and flush with the bottom plane (see Fig. 27), with a gap between the bottom plane of the block and flush with the top plane (see Fig. 28), with an equal gap between the upper and lower planes of the block (see Fig. 29), with unequal gap between the upper and lower planes of the block (see Fig. 30). Perhaps the location of one or more partitions on one side and all others in another variant, as well as the location of each partition or each group of partitions, at its option (blocks with these cases, the location of the partitions not shown).

From the presented in Fig. 31 36 species of the block from the end, when the height of partitions is greater than the height of the walls all walls are exposed the block and with a gap between the bottom plane (see Fig. 32), below the lower plane of the block and flush with the top plane (see Fig. 33), below the lower plane of the block and with a gap between the top plane (see Fig. 34), with an equal distance above the upper and below the lower surfaces of the block (see Fig. 35), with unequal length upper and lower planes of the block (see Fig. 36). Perhaps the location of one or more partitions on one side and all others in another variant, as well as the location of each partition or each group of partitions, at its option (blocks with these cases, the location of the partitions not shown).

In Fig. 37 40 presents a top view and a cross-sectional view of the block, which has two end walls 8 have a height equal to the height of the walls 1, two secondary partition walls 4 have a height less than the height of the walls and the Central partition 7 has a height greater than the height of the walls. These types of partitions are different sizes, configuration, and location. In addition, all walls have grooves of different shapes so as to fit within the structures of the blocks fittings, concealed wiring, pipes, etc. as well as to facilitate the flow of concrete (or other) a mixture of one part of the design in other h is errordoc, they might not have the grooves.

In Fig. 41 44 presents the top choices of blocks in which the number of walls more than two (three walls of the blocks shown in Fig. 41, 42, and the four walls of the blocks shown in Fig. 43, 44). The number, shape, size and arrangement of the partitions between each pair of walls may be the same (see Fig. 41 three walls 4 between one of the outer wall 1 and inner wall 9 in comparison with the 4 partitions between the second outer wall 1 and inner wall 9).

The number, shape, size and arrangement of the partitions between each pair of walls may be different (see Fig. 42-two 4 partitions and one partition 7 between the outer wall 1 and inner wall 9 in comparison with two partitions 8 and the two walls 4 between the second outer wall 1 and inner wall 9). A similar variant of the block shown in Fig. 44 with four walls (see Fig. 44 four walls 4 between one of the outer wall 1 and an inner wall 9 in comparison with two partitions 8, two 4 partitions and one partition 7 between the two inner walls 9 in comparison with two partitions 8 and the two walls 4 between the second outer wall 1 odinakovymi, and their location is different (see Fig. 43 partition 4 between the outer wall 1 and inner wall 9 in comparison with the 4 partitions between the two inner walls 9).

All groups of partitions (far, medium, intermediate) can be placed between each pair of walls so that their centers will be located in the same plane, perpendicular to the walls (see Fig. 41). All groups of partitions can be displaced relative to each other (see Fig. 42, 44). Between the two pairs of walls all groups of partitions can be located in the same planes, and other groups of partitions can be removed (see Fig. 43). Might be an option, in which between two or more pairs of walls all or some groups of partitions are arranged in the same planes, and all other partitions or part of them are in other planes or offset (blocks with these options placing partitions not shown).

In Fig. 45 50 shows the top blocks where the number of walls more than two the number, shape, dimensions and location of grooves and protrusions on some walls can be one, and the other walls other.

In Fig. 45 presents a top view of the block, in which p is th side walls 11 and are in the horizontal sectional shape of a trapezoid, two transversal groove 2 are located inside the wall 1, and the corresponding projections are arranged on the top face of the wall, and the grooves and the protrusions have a cross section the shape of a circle, the two slots 2 and two protrusions 3 are arranged on the inner side of the wall 1 and have in cross section the shape of a semicircle. It should be noted that when placing grooves and protrusions on only one side of the block (on any outdoor or on any internal wall), the reliability of fixing blocks in dry masonry without mortar is provided only when the grooves are located inside (in the body) wall, the slots are located on one and the other side wall, the slots are located inside the wall, on either side of the wall (at a corresponding location of the tabs).

In Fig. 46 presents a top view of the block in which the grooves and the protrusions are located on two outer walls, and two hollow groove 2 and two hollow protrusions 3 are arranged on the inner side of one outer wall 1 and are in the horizontal sectional shape of a trapezoid with two full off-center groove 2 and the two tabs 3 are arranged on the inner side of the second outer wall 1 and are in horizontal section of a square shape, and two incomplete end-to-end vertical groove 10 (which are secenarios line) are arranged on the outer side of the second outer wall.

In Fig. 47 presents a top view of the block in which the grooves and protrusions are arranged on one inner wall, and two off-center groove 2 and the two tabs 3 are located on one side of the inner wall 9 and are in the horizontal sectional shape of a semicircle, two off-center groove 2 and the two tabs 3 are located on the second side of the inner wall 9 and are in the horizontal sectional shape of a triangle, and a Central groove 2 (which has in cross section the shape of a semicircle and two incomplete tab 5(which have in cross section the shape of a sector) are also on the second side of the inner wall 9.

In Fig. 48 presents a top view of the unit, which are different in size and shape of the grooves and protrusions are arranged only on the inner walls, and Fig. 49 on all external and all internal walls. There are also options of placement of grooves and protrusions on one or two external and one or more internal walls (these options are not shown).

From what is shown on Fig. 45 50 varieties of the block are also visible above differences in the number, shape, size and location of the partitions. In addition, these, as well as shown in Fig. 41 44 varieties of the block with the number of walls more desli not consider differences associated with the presence of grooves and protrusions). Possible variants, which in the same outer walls of one of the inner wall has the same, and the rest of the inner wall have different compared to the outer walls of the size, shape and location, two or more inner walls have the same, and the rest of the inner wall have different compared to the outer walls of the size, shape and location, all internal walls have different compared to the outer walls of the size, shape and location. The type of block shown in Fig. 51 53. This unit two inner walls 9 are different from the two outer walls of a size, shape, and location. Wall 9 is displaced relative to the wall 1 by the length and height of the block.

The blocks shown in Fig. 51 to 54, in addition to the above, have the following distinctive features. The outer wall 1 are like plates of equal size, with the outer plates offset from the inner to the right and down (see Fig. 51 53), resulting in the left side wall 1, the outer side walls are formed grooves full end-to-end vertical 2, and the inner edge of the full vertical tabs 12, right side wall 1 with the outer standing slots full end-to-end horizontal 11, and on the inner side tabs total horizontal 3, in the lower part of the wall 1 with the outside are formed the projections 3, and the inner edge of the grooves 11. In contrast to variants of the block shown in Fig. 1 50, variants of the block shown in Fig. 51 - 53, the total horizontal ledge 3 and the protrusion full vertical 12 are not local dimensions in length, their length equal respectively to the length and height of the walls 1. The grooves 11 and 2 correspond to the projections 3 and 12. In addition, the outer walls have horizontal 13 and 14 vertical rusty, which can be located on two outer walls (see Fig. 51 53) or on the same wall (see Fig. 55).

The inner wall 9 in the left part are full vertical tabs 12, and the right side of the full vertical grooves 2, in the upper part of the walls have protrusions full horizontal 3, and at the bottom of the grooves of the full end-to-end horizontal 11 (see Fig. 51, 52). In Fig. 53 grooves and protrusions on the inner walls are opposite. Located at the ends of outer and inner vertical walls of the grooves 2 and the protrusions 12 and located on the upper and lower faces of the horizontal grooves 11 and the projections 3 are respectively in the horizontal and vertical cross-sections along the entire length of the vertical and Kostenko 9.

The varieties of the block shown in Fig. 51 55, the grooves are not associated with the septa, distance between grooves and protrusions is not equal to the thickness of the walls, and the distance between the tabs and the vertical end faces does not correspond to the wall thickness at the site of formation of the groove. The height of the walls can 0,3 1,2 from the height of the walls, the outer vertical faces of the partitions can be located from the ends of those walls, which are connected to these walls, at a distance of not less than 0.5 of the thickness of the walls, and not more than 0.25 length of the walls, and all or some partitions can be dredging the same or different forms. Partitions in the block may be two or more. This partition can have the same or different sizes, shape and raspolozhennie, as shown in Fig. 51 55.

In Fig. 54 presents a side view of a variant of the block in which the grooves and protrusions on the outer walls are opposite in comparison with their location on the outer walls of the variants of the block shown in Fig. 51 - 53. In addition, this variant of the block outer wall 1 have the same size, shape and location, and one internal (Central) wall 9 is different compared to Stalin the many internal walls have different compared to the rest of the internal wall dimensions, the shape and location or just different size, different shape, different location, or a combination of these characteristics). In addition, the Central wall 9 has a center at the top of the hollow protrusion 3, and below the corresponding full end-to-end the Central groove 11 a trapezoidal cross-section, and the wall has a Central vertical groove and protrusion, but with the right and left sides of the wall 9 has the front end face of the vertical grooves 2 and the corresponding protrusions 12 at the rear end (not shown), and these grooves and the projections have a triangular cross-section. With the right and left sides of the wall 9 there is no horizontal grooves and protrusions. The number, shape and size located on any of the vertical walls of the slots and corresponding projections may differ from the number, shape and dimensions of the horizontal grooves and corresponding ridges.

In Fig. 55 presents a side view of a variant of the block whose outer wall 1 are of different size, shape and location, in addition, the left wall there are 13 horizontal and vertical 14 rusty, and the right side are at the top of the horizontal groove 11, the bottom of the protrusion 3, the front end face is the projection of the full vertical 12, at the rear end of the vertical groove is about compared to one Central wall 9 (in other cases with several other internal walls) dimensions, the form and location. In addition, the left wall 9 has a top horizontal groove 11, the bottom horizontal ledge 3, the front end face of the vertical groove 2 on the back end of the ledge 12 (not shown), the grooves and the protrusions have a cross section shape of the segment. Near the right wall 9 has a top ledge 3 horizontal, bottom horizontal groove 11 having in cross section the shape of a Pentagon, with walls no vertical grooves and ridges. The Central inner wall 9 has a center at the top of the horizontal groove 11, the bottom of the corresponding groove of the horizontal ledge 3 pentagonal cross-section, on the front side vertical groove 2, the rear end of the corresponding protrusion 12 (not shown) of the trapezoidal cross-section. In the right part of the Central wall 9 has a top horizontal groove 11, the bottom horizontal ledge 3, having a cross-section the shape of a segment on the front end of the vertical protrusion 12 on the rear end of the vertical groove 2 (not shown) of triangular cross-section. In the left part of the Central wall 9 has an upper horizontal ledge 3, and below the horizontal groove 11 having a pentagonal cross-section, on the front side vertical groove 2, the rear end of the vertical protrusion 12 (not shown) pentagonal cross-section. On any of the walls of the block is AMI, shape and location, as well as a few horizontal grooves and corresponding ridges, differing in size, shape and location. While related to each other, the grooves and projections differ only by the amount necessary clearance.

The outer wall may have the same or different size, shape and location. If the unit has in addition to the exterior of the inner wall, all or some of the inner wall may have the same or different among themselves and in comparison with the outer walls of the size, shape and location, or just different size, different shape, different location, or a combination of these characteristics (see Fig. 51 55). On some walls may not be of grooves and protrusions, on the other walls can be only vertical and horizontal only, vertical and horizontal grooves and the protrusions, the number, shape, size and position of the vertical and horizontal grooves and protrusions on some walls can be one and the other other (see Fig. 55).

Varieties of the block shown in Fig. 51 55 may have or may not have a longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry.

In Fig. 56 presented in Alannah in Fig.1 50, no transverse plane of symmetry of the walls, i.e., right and left grooves 2 and 6, the projections 3, the partitions 4 are not located at equal distances from the centers of the outer walls 1 and, in addition, right and left grooves, ledges, partitions have different sizes and shape, the walls 4 are grooves of different shapes. When you do this right the projections 3 are arranged on the upper edges of the walls 1, full right through the slots 2 are arranged over the entire height of the walls, and left protrusions 3 are located on the lower faces of the walls 1, the left full blind grooves 6 arranged in the upper part of the walls.

In the design of partition blocks of the block with walls that do not have transverse plane of symmetry, the distance from the center (middle) of each wall to centers located in the walls of the right slots (in this example, each wall, one right and one left groove and projection, in other embodiments, there may be several) must be equal to the distances from the right ends of the walls to the center of their respective right-hand grooves of the right of the tabs. The distance from the center of each wall to the centers of the left slots must be equal to the distances from the left ends of the walls to the centers of the left slots left vastapaino walls, what is the difference of this version of the block from the block shown in Fig. 1 50, in which the distance from the center of each wall (which coincides with the transverse plane of symmetry of the wall) to the centers of right and left grooves, first, equal, second, equal to the distances from the right and left ends of the walls of the respective grooves of the right and left edges. The exception is a variant of the block shown in Fig. 51 55, in which the length of horizontal grooves and protrusions equal to the length of the block walls.

The number of partitions in the unit, the construction of which is shown in Fig. 56, 57 may be two or more, and their height is 0.3 1.2 height of the walls, and outer vertical faces of the partitions are located on the ends of the block at a distance of not less than 0.5 of the thickness of the walls, and not more than 0.25 length of the walls, and all or some partitions can be dredging the same or different forms. The grooves and protrusions may have a horizontal cross-section the form of various geometric shapes, all or some of the grooves may be located on the inner or on the outer sides of the walls, inside (in the body) of the wall, along the entire height of the walls in the upper or in the lower parts of the wall to have a longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry.

The number, shape, dimensions, location of grooves, ledges, partitions, walls in the right part of the unit may differ from the number, shape, size, location of grooves, ledges, partitions, walls in the left part of the block (see Fig. 56). In addition, the number, shape, dimensions, location of grooves, ledges, partitions, walls in the right side can differ from the number, shape, size, location of grooves, ledges, partitions, walls in the left part of the block (see Fig. 56). In addition, the number, shape, dimensions, location of one of the grooves, ledges, partitions, walls in the left or right parts of the unit may differ from the number, shape, size, location of other grooves, ledges, partitions, walls in the same part of the block. There may be differences in any of the possible combinations: all, some or one of these characteristics (number, shape, size, location); in all, several or one of the structural parts of the unit (grooves, ledges, partitions, wall); on the right and left parts of the unit or on one of the parts. The possible combinations are not shown due to the fact that they can be easily imagined by the variants shown in Fig. 1 50.

All variations of the proposed unit is to vertical, only horizontal rusty, as well as a prominent figure, a rough surface (such as "wild spalling") solid or in combination with smooth areas, rusty, etc.

In Fig.1 57 the options presented an ordinary block. Transverse half-unit represents a right and left half of an ordinary block, cut in half crosswise through the center of the walls, and longitudinal half-unit represents a right or left half of an ordinary block, cut in half along the longitudinal axis of the block (in Fig. half blocks are not shown).

Corner unit in this description is considered in connection with the individuality of its design, but also due to the fact that the proposed ordinary and half blocks can be used in the construction in combination with other traditional materials such as brick, from which are built the corners of buildings and structures.

Construction of the walls or foundations are made of blocks as follows. Stack the blocks in series end to end, top sides up. The blocks in each subsequent row are laid also the top faces up, with ligation of the vertical joints, i.e. with an offset of half of the block relative to the block Predio shows for example, in Fig. 4 to 6, Fig. 12 14, Fig. 16 and 18, Fig. 20 24, which shows in longitudinal and transverse sections in the top row, one block, on average, two blocks in the lower three units and all horizontal and vertical joints between the blocks are shown with thick lines.

Presented on Fig. 1 50 options block of the first type can be stacked in each row (as in the first and subsequent) any party, i.e., the left end of each of the blocks can be joined with the left and right end of the other blocks under the following conditions: when using blocks with partitions having a height greater than the height of the walls, they shall be located so that the partition blocks of the same row rest on the partition blocks of the other series, and if the blocks have vertical longitudinal plane of symmetry. If these conditions are not met, then all rows of the blocks should be laid in one direction only, i.e., the left end of each of the blocks can be joined only with the right end face of another block.

Presented on Fig. 51 55 and similar options block of the second type can be laid in the same row in one direction only, i.e., the left end of each of the blocks can be joined only with the right end face of another block. Each p is the solution to the blocks of the previous row or without rotation, if the blocks have vertical longitudinal plane of symmetry. If the blocks do not have the vertical longitudinal planes of symmetry, blocks all rows can be laid only in one direction without turning around.

Presented on Fig. 56 57 and similar versions of the unit of the third type, the walls of which there is no transverse planes of symmetry, can be laid in the same row in one direction only, i.e., the left end face of each block must be connected only with the right end face of another block. In each subsequent row of the above condition holds, but all units must be rotated 180owith respect to the previous row.

After laying the blocks in the wall structure "dry" (without mortar, using only the locking element blocks, i.e., by means of grooves and protrusions) of the inner cavity structure necessarily fill the porous insulating (or other) concrete mixture, which upon subsequent solidification americium design.

The proposed variants of the construction side in comparison with the known better, they and the design of them have a very broad constructive opportunities, improved technological and operational t the internal walls, Foundation, pocola, basement walls, parapet, napoennyj lintels, vents, etc.

1. Building block, including parallel one to the other walls, which are interconnected installed perpendicular thereto partitions and made with grooves and corresponding in shape and dimensions of the locking protrusions, wherein the height of the walls is 0.3 1.2 height of the walls, and the distance between the slots and the notches and the distance between the latter and the vertical end faces of the block is less than or greater than the thickness, respectively, partitions and walls in the place of formation of the groove, and a horizontal cross-section of grooves and protrusions has a curved shape or a shape of a regular or irregular polygon, and the grooves have the same or different shapes and sizes, at this distance from the outer vertical faces of the partitions to the end faces of the walls is equal to or more than 0.5 of the thickness of the partitions and is equal to or less than 0.25 length of the walls, and the distance from the transverse plane of symmetry of the walls of the grooves are equal distances from the end faces of the walls of the respective grooves of the protrusions.

2. The block under item 1, characterized in that the horizontal cross section of pasolli of the circle, or part of an ellipse.

3. Unit PP. 1 and 2, characterized in that it has an even number of partitions, an even number of edges and an odd number of slots in each wall, and a portion of the slots is located between the transverse planes of symmetry of the walls, and the rest in pairs at equal distances from the transverse planes of symmetry, the number of tabs on each wall exceeds by one the number of grooves, and the outer protrusions are located close to the end faces of the walls and have a size in the longitudinal direction of the wall equal to half of the size of the Central grooves in the longitudinal direction of the walls.

4. Unit PP. 1 and 2, characterized in that it has an odd number of partitions, and each wall is made of at least two slots located at equal distances from the transverse plane of symmetry of the walls, the number of slots in each wall even, equal to the number of tabs.

5. Unit PP. 1 to 4, characterized in that the grooves are located on the inner and/or outer side wall, and/or in the middle part of the bottom surface of the vessel in the body of the latter, and the protrusions respectively of the inner and/or outer side wall, and/or in the middle part of the upper p is icoty walls at the corresponding height of the protrusions, while the grooves are located on the side opposite the side where the protrusions.

7. Unit PP. 1 to 5, characterized in that the portion of the grooves are through.

8. Unit PP. 5 to 7, characterized in that all or part of the grooves and protrusions are reversed on each side wall horizontally and vertically.

9. Unit PP. 1 to 8, characterized in that the partition wall has a height less than the height of the walls and installed with a gap relative to the upper surface and flush with the bottom surface, or with a gap relative to the bottom surface and flush with the upper surface of the walls, or with equal or unequal spacing relative to the upper and lower surfaces of the walls.

10. Unit PP. 1 to 8, characterized in that the partition wall has a height greater than the height of the walls and installed with the tab at the top surface and flush with the bottom surface or ledge for the bottom surface and flush with the upper surface of the walls, or with equal or unequal projections for the upper and lower surfaces of the walls.

11. Unit PP. 1 to 8, characterized in that the part of the walls has a height smaller than the height of walls and other partitions height equal to or larger is m all or part of the walls are made of hollow, equal or different shapes.

12. Unit PP. 1 to 11, characterized in that it has a number of walls more than two, and the number, shape, size and arrangement of the partitions between each pair of walls of the same or different.

13. The block under item 12, characterized in that the number, shape, dimensions and location of grooves and protrusions on the walls of the same or different, with the grooves and the protrusions are located on one or two of the exterior walls, or on one, some, or all internal walls, or on all external and all internal walls, or on one or two external and one or more inner walls.

14. Unit PP. 12 and 13, characterized in that all or part of the internal walls have the same or different compared with the outer walls of the size, shape, and arrangement.

15. Unit PP. 12 to 14, characterized in that one outer wall has the same or different compared to the other outside wall dimensions, shape and location, and one or more inner walls have different compared to the rest of the inner edges of the size, shape, and arrangement.

16. Building block, including parallel one to the other walls, which are interconnected set perpetuae, characterized in that the height of the walls is 0.3 1.2 height of the walls, and the distance from the outer vertical faces of the partitions to the end faces of the walls of more than 0.5 of the thickness of the walls and less than 0.25 length of the walls, with walls made in the form of at least two plates which are offset from one another up or down, right or left, or diagonally with the formation of grooves and protrusions, which are located respectively on the upper and lower surfaces of the walls, or on the end faces of the walls, or around the perimeter of the walls, having the entire length and height of the final cross-section of a curved shape or in the shape of a regular or irregular polygon.

17. The block under item 16, characterized in that the cross-section of grooves and protrusions has a shape of a triangle, or square, or rectangle, or a trapezoid, or part of a circle, or part of an ellipse.

18. Unit PP. 16 and 17, characterized in that all or some of the partitions have the same or different size, shape and location, and all or part of the walls are made of hollow, equal or different shapes.

19. Unit PP. 16 to 18, characterized in that the number, shape and size located at least on tneuron its horizontal grooves and corresponding ridges.

20. Unit PP. 16 to 19, characterized in that it is on one of the walls of the at least two vertical and horizontal groove and the corresponding protrusions, which are made with different size, shape and location.

21. Unit PP. 16 to 20, characterized in that it has a number of walls more than two, and the outer walls have the same or different size, shape and location of, all or part of the internal walls have the same or different among themselves and in comparison with the outer walls of the size, shape and location, and the number, shape, size and position of the vertical and horizontal grooves and protrusions are made the same on all the walls or different.

22. Building block, including parallel one to the other walls, which are interconnected installed perpendicular thereto partitions and made with grooves and corresponding in shape and dimensions of the locking protrusions, wherein the height of the walls is 0.3 1.2 height of the walls, and the distance from the outer vertical faces of the walls to the ends of the walls is equal to or more than 0.5 of the thickness of the partitions and is equal to or less than 0.25 length of the walls, and a horizontal cross-section of grooves and protrusions has the partitions are located at different distances from the Central transverse axis of the walls, at this distance from the Central transverse axis of the walls of the left or right of grooves equal to the distances from the respective left or right end faces of the walls of the respective grooves of the protrusions, and the unit is made symmetric with respect to the Central vertical longitudinal plane.

23. The block on p. 22, characterized in that the number, shape, size and position of the grooves, ledges, partitions, walls on the right and left parts of the unit is made different and all or part of the walls made the notches of different shapes, all or part of the grooves located on the inner or on the outer sides of the walls, or in the body wall and have a height equal to the height or partial height walls and ledges, respectively, at the inner or outer sides or the middle part of the upper or lower surfaces of the walls.

24. Unit PP. 22 and 23, characterized in that the number, shape, size and arrangement of some or all of the grooves, ledges, partitions and walls located in the right or left side of the unit, made equal.

25. Unit PP. 1, 16 and 22, wherein one or both outer walls are made with horizontal and vertical rusty, or relief of ri is AMI, a relief pattern.

 

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Decorative lattice // 2465414

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: decorative lattice comprises two layers of identical rings or sheet metal with identical diameters of holes. The specified layers are laid onto each other with any arbitrary placement of centres of rings or holes and any arbitrary angular displacement.

EFFECT: increased bending strength.

6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: structural block comprises the first and second element, identical to the above first element, at the same time each of the above elements has, in general, a parallelogram shape with a central hole and a cut in one angle and inner walls formed at least in the above central hole, at the same time the above element rotates relative to the other element approximately at the angle of 180, and each element has a truncated inner surface, partially formed by the above inner hole; each element is connected with the other element by means of stretching via the central hole of the other element and substantially closing this central hole, and each element has a face surface directed towards the appropriate face surface of the other element; above cuts are arranged along a diagonal axis stretching via the above elements and via the above windows; the above elements may turn along the above diagonal axis between the closed position, in which face surfaces contact with each other, and the open position, in which the above face surfaces are separated, and truncated inner surfaces of elements rest against each other and act as stops to limit movement of the above elements. Also a wall, a window for a building and an architectural structure using the above block are described.

EFFECT: reduced cost for construction of structures.

20 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: building module comprises a base element, formed from silicate bricks, extruded gypsum-based bricks, foam concrete or aerated concrete blocks or ceramic extruded bricks, and having parallel bed surfaces, with at least two pairs of coaxial holes and fixing elements of straight and reverse cones placed in them. Axes of conical parts of fixing elements of straight cones and adjacent surfaces of collars, which determine the gap between layers of masonry, are made at the angle to the axes of seating surfaces of the same elements mounted in holes of the base element. Also the version of the module is described, as well as the versions of the method to erect building walls using the specified building modules.

EFFECT: increased labour efficiency in construction, lower prime cost of modules, higher quality of building module installation.

13 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method of construction includes erection of frame in the form of reinforced concrete monolithic structures, formation of external walls from multi-layer light heat insulation panels with application of glue. The foundation, monolithic reinforced concrete slabs with coaxial holes in them and vertical columns are linked to a standard series of multi-layer universal light heat-moisture-noise-insulating heat-resistant blocks in all planes, and the frame of the facility is formed with account of the loads from physical masses of external walls, internal partitions and other necessary elements. Ends of monolithic slabs along the entire perimetre are closed with rectangular chutes with an insulant, they are rigidly fixed on the monolithic slab, afterwards they start erecting the external walls and internal partitions, at the same time in the beginning they install an angular multi-layer universal light block, the places of adjacency are previously coated with glue, it is fixed to the vertical column with the bracket, the second block is put against it, which has been previously coated with glue in places of adjacency, and into a vertical lock formed as two blocks are joined, a figured rack is inserted so that it enters the coaxial hole in the monolithic slab and so on, and the blocks of the second and subsequent rows are inserted with a ledge on the lower surface, into the slot on the upper surface of the blocks, etc. Blocks are laid row by row, simultaneously window, door and arc openings are formed, at the same time the surfaces of universal light blocks inside the object of construction at both sides may be closed by standard strengthened noise and moisture protective fireproof sheets with high adhesive capacity, which simultaneously cover several blocks. Also a multi-layer universal light block is described.

EFFECT: faster rates of building construction, lower labour inputs.

1 tbl, 8 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to erection of engineering structures with a bearing frame in the form of prefabricated composite structures with a shell, slab or shell and slab bulky structure. A composite bearing block of a prefabricated building structure represents a factory-built assembly element in the form of a spatial polyhedron or its fragments with faces of constant, piecewise-constant and alternate thickness, possibly, with through holes in faces for letting through personnel or communications, including concrete, reinforcement, embedded parts in the form of hollow tubular elements forming also through holes in faces, serving to connect bearing blocks to each other or to other structures of the facility with application of closing elements inserted in process of installation into coaxially arranged embedded hollow elements of touching faces. The block is made with closed or with opened cavities limited by diaphragms or protruding ribs, with opened, fully or partially closed one- and multi-link transverse cross sections or in the form of fragments, at least from one thick-walled shell or slab, and surfaces of external faces, internal cavities, ribs and diaphragms are given geometric shapes from a combination of flat, curvilinear or spherical surfaces, and also it has such geometric dimensions of connecting holes and such coordinates of location of such holes in joined blocks, which as a result of assembly provide for formation of a prefabricated building structure with required dimensions and specified spatial bulky structure of bearing faces, cavities and channels, and embedded tubular elements of faces are rigidly connected to additional reinforcement embedded parts, attached to them at the external side and embedded into concrete in process of factory manufacturing of a bearing block in a curb. Also the field connection of such blocks is described.

EFFECT: increased rates for erection of cost-effective materials of building structures in a bulky, including cellular one, facility with application of rigid and manufacturable field connections of blocks, provision of bearing capacity, durability and, if required, tightness of created structures, and also improvement of technology of assembly of prefabricated reinforced concrete building structures.

11 cl, 22 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: building structure consisting of blocks relates to construction industry and can be used for erection of buildings and structures. A building structure is made of rectangular blocks with projections and corresponding grooves on working surfaces; with that, the building structure includes two types of blocks that are different as to manufacturing material, one of which is made from corrosion resistant metal, and the other one from heavy expanded-clay concrete. The building structure is made of blocks laid in rows as per a "projection-groove" principle; with that, the base is made of blocks from corrosion resistant metal and fixed on a foundation; then, rows of blocks are laid, which are made from expanded-clay concrete. Erection of the structure ends with a row of blocks from corrosion resistant metal. Besides, its erection method is described.

EFFECT: improving stability, strength and seismic resistant of a structure.

3 cl, 33 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction materials industry, particularly to making concrete wall panels or blocks. Wall panel comprises interconnected bearing layer on the basis of light concrete and heat-insulating layer of porous material. Connection of layers is made in the form of a plastic plate dowels with cutouts at their ends provided with transverse armature rods of composite material. Each rod is arranged approximately in the middle part of dowel section. Head of each dowel is located on the outer side of heat-insulating layer. Transverse armature rod extends beyond dowel body on both sides at approximately 45 of its diameter perpendicular to dowel axis and is located inside the bearing layer at the distance of 1/42/3 of its thickness from upper surface of heat-insulating layer. Crude mixture for making the base layer of wall panel contains following components, wt%: hemihydrate gypsum 62-72, portland cement 18-25, pulp and paper industry waste (scope) (in terms of dry substance) 0.5-12, technical lignosulfonates (in terms of dry substance) 0.15-1.5, soda ash 0.05-0.2, quartz sand - the rest up to 100 %, with water - cement ratio of 2.7-3.5. Method of wall panel making includes laying and attachment of heat-insulating and bearing layers. First, on the horizontal surface of the shape heat-insulating material is placed stitched with plastic dowels with cutouts at their ends. Dowels are installed in the direction to the upper side with end of dowel output by value equal to approximately 3/4 of thickness of bearing layer, in an amount of no less than 5 PCs per 1.0 m2 of horizontal area of heat-insulating layer. Then approximately in the middle of each dowel section armature rod of composite material is inserted perpendicular to its axis, and raw material mixture is poured upon heat-insulating material.

EFFECT: technical result consists in speeding of process of wall panel production, increasing reliability of its heat-insulating and bearing layers and reducing power consumption during production.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: wall panel consists of two elements: a panel-frame consisting of a crossbar and racks, made of heavy concrete, including reinforcing articles and parts, and an element for filling the space in the panel-frame plane. Wherein the element for filling the space in the panel-frame plane is represented by a liner made of light or cellular concrete with retainers on the surfaces connected to the panel-frame. A method for manufacturing the wall panel is also described.

EFFECT: reductiing the weight and material intensity of load-bearing and self-supporting wall panels, reducing the labour intensity of the wall panel manufacturing, increasing the industriality of construction and increasing the strength of the contact seams between the composite elements of the wall panel.

7 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: construction industry, in particular, manufacture of multilayer construction stones.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming undetachable frame by mounting of closed outer form onto pallet, with sides of frame being equipped with vertical slots; placing internal insert symmetrically in form, said insert being similar to form in shape and equipped with vertical slots; fixing form and insert with respect to one another with the help of vertical members introduced into vertical slots; filling space between form and insert with sand concrete; imparting monolith structure to filler by vibratory pressing or vibratory casting; withdrawing form, insert and vertical members; forming cells inside resultant undetachable frame by placing interconnected partition walls; fixing their free ends in slots formed in sides of undetachable frame by means of vertical members; filling cells with cellular concrete or light-weight concrete such as polystyrene, clay filler, sawdust, ash; holding; drying and removing partition walls to produce ready multilayer wall stone, which is further directed for stacking.

EFFECT: increased efficiency by combined employment of various construction materials and reduced labor consumed for performing frame forming and handling works.

5 cl, 6 dwg

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