Method for the conservation of underwater hazardous object
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a method of construction of underwater structures for preservation of submerged hazardous objects resulting from human activity, for example, due to accidents, floods. How is that around the shell, separating the object from the surrounding water environment. Prepare strengthening and preserving agents, shell, fill a consistent supply of first preserving, then a hardening substance. During the implementation of the method of controlling the ratio, the concentration and volume preserving and reinforcing substances on the basis of monitoring data about environmentally hazardous facility and regulate the process of conservation. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il. The invention relates to a method of construction of underwater structures for preservation of submerged hazardous objects resulting from human activity, for example, due to accidents, floods.There are various ways to create an underwater structures. They can be divided into two areas. The first includes the installation under water blocks or panels and then fill joints hardening, cementitious mortar. Examples of monstrously sequential immersion and European patent N 379383, publ. 25.07.90 on which underwater wall structure mounted phased.The second direction involves the construction of an underwater shell and filling it with concrete. An example is the way the application Japan N 49-44364, publ. 28.11.74.The necessity to solve the problem of preservation of submerged hazardous objects caused primarily by the presence on the seabed explosive remnants of war. Often these ammunition stuffed with poisonous substances, dangerous not only for the water environment, but also directly to the people.Information about the methods of preservation of underwater submerged hazardous objects is practically unknown, is described in various magazines deals mainly limited to General recommendations. Proposed, for example, to put under water containment or to fill an object in any material.In the operation of offshore oil fields applied method for the conservation of underwater hazardous object by protecting the water environment from spillage of oil well cementing. This method is chosen as the closest analogue (see Urartu surface means and deliver it to the depth, where it fills the joints of pipes, which prevents the breakthrough into the surrounding aquatic environment.Proposed by the invention method is that the object around to create a membrane that separates the object from the surrounding water environment, prepare also preservative and shell fill a consistent supply of first preservative, then hardening substances. Ratio, concentration and volume preserving and reinforcing substances on the basis of monitoring data about environmentally hazardous object is selected in the preparatory process for the preservation and additionally regulate the process of conservation.Furthermore, the shell creates by mounting the underwater casing, a preserving agent fills the cavity of the object, and the volume between the casing and the object is filled with hardening substance.In the particular case of underwater formwork around environmentally hazardous object is performed with two cavities, the first of which is adjacent to the object. The first cavity is filled preservative, and the second is filled with hardening substance.In addition, in the process of conservation is a mixture of the hardening mixture and preservatives.The proposed method in the u, which separates them from the environment. The first shell is filled with a preserving substance that can state hazardous object, neutralizes harmful substances, emitted by the object, radiation and so on. Then the shell is filled with hardening substance that strengthens the burial, prevents its destruction, it is not possible to clean the preservative substance is water.In preparation for conservation, and in the process monitor environmentally hazardous object, performing the measurement of different parameters in the aquatic environment. On the basis of monitoring data in preparation for preservation choose the ratio, the concentration and volume preserving and reinforcing substances. In the process of preservation is additionally regulate the above-mentioned ratio, the concentration and volume preserving and reinforcing substances in order to achieve the best results conservation and to minimize the intake of harmful substances or radiation in the aquatic environment.The shell can be created by mounting the underwater casing, for example, lowering it from the surface vessel. Preservative substance fills the cavity of the object and a part of the casing. Osthaus preserving agent evenly, from all sides.The casing may have two cavities, the first of which is adjacent to the object. The first cavity is filled with a preserving substance, the second reinforcing. In this case, the preservative will be surrounded by environmentally hazardous object more evenly.If you use a mixture of preservatives, you will be able to more fully neutralize harmful substances environmentally hazardous object. A mixture of hardening substances will create a more durable, long-lasting shell.The application of the method achieve new properties:
the application shell that is filled preservative, and then hardening substances helps to ensure minimal impact of harmful substances environmentally hazardous facility on the surrounding aquatic environment:
preservatives bind, neutralize harmful substances environmentally hazardous facility hardening makes the disposal of solid, prevent erosion and leaching of preservatives;
monitoring during the preparation of the conservation and proper in its process allows you to quickly adjust the ratio, the concentration and volume preserving and strengthening Vechi object and monitoring; in Fig. 2-4 shows the execution of the shell in the form of a casing; Fig. 5 shows the process of filling the formwork.Preservation of the object 1 begins with a study of its status by monitoring and mark its position under water (Fig. 1). Then make a shell which is placed around the object 1, for example lowering the casing 2 on the depth using the round-trip device 3 from the vessel 4 and controlling its position using the beacon defendants 5 or underwater vehicles 6. The casing 2 may have one or two cavity (Fig. 2) and to be open (Fig. 3), closed (Fig. 4) or may consist of two cavities (Fig. 5). The position of the casing 2 in the space in the process of setting can be adjusted thruster devices 7.The shell can also be generated in other ways, such as prefabricated units. Then inside the shell serves preservative. Feed preservatives, as well as hardening may be carried out in various ways, for example through the pipes 8, as shown in Fig. 1, 5.Preservatives are selected depending on the type of environmentally hazardous object, for example on the basis of fast-curing epoxy resins, phenol resins, and rozliczanie substances can serve different grades of concrete, including cement, silicate, polymer (,).In particular, if you apply combinations of preservatives in the form of composite materials with a predominance of fibrous or dispersed patterns and combinations of hardening in the form of various cement compositions.First served preservative or mixture of preservatives), which fills the voids of the object and a part of the casing 2. If necessary to evenly surround the object preservative substance use formwork 2 of the two cavities.Then served hardening substance (or mixture of substances), which fills the remaining volume, or the second cavity. Submission of preserving and strengthening material may be carried out on various pipes 8.When filling in the shell are monitoring using sensors 9, which is mounted on the waters, and can also be installed on the casing. The sensors transmit information on a vessel engaged in the conservation of the cables 10, or a non-contact manner using the device-relay 11 information from sensors 9 and the device-information receiver 12 on the vessel 4.If necessary, adjust the ratio, the concentration and the volume drop all underwater operations control surface means, pipelines using beacons 5, or underwater observation with an underwater vehicle 6. 1. Method for the conservation of underwater environmentally hazardous facility, including the preparation of a hardening substance and feeds it to a depth, wherein the object around to create a membrane that separates the object from the surrounding water environment, prepare also preservative, shell, fill a consistent supply of first preservative, then hardening substances, and the ratio, the concentration and volume preserving and reinforcing substances on the basis of monitoring data about environmentally hazardous object is selected in the preparatory process for the preservation and additionally regulate the process of conservation.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the shell is generated by mounting the underwater casing, a preserving agent fills the cavity of the object and a part of the casing, the volume between the casing and the object is filled with hardening substance.3. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the underwater casing around environmentally hazardous object is performed with two cavities, the first of which is adjacent to the object, the first cavity is filled with a preserving substance, and the second upesi preservative mixture and hardening substances.
SUBSTANCE: underwater garage comprises a tight body, descents for entry and exit of transport from the garage, floors arranged within the body. The body is arranged in the form of a module representing a tight solid reinforced concrete box. At the end sections of the body there are ramps arranged, which are made curvilinear and rise above water. Entry and exit are carried out along a piled bridge that connects the quay and the curvilinear ramps. The method to construct the underwater garage includes construction of a coastal pit separated from the river with a soil dam. The pit is arranged by providing vertical walls reinforced with the help of a metal rabbet. Then assembly is carried out in the module pit, and it is hydraulically insulated. The pit is filled with water, the dam is dismantled, and the module is transported to the place of installation. The module is installed into a previously prepared underwater pit by means of partial filling of the module with water, the module is surcharged in order to prevent floating and, and works are performed to reinforce the bottom with subsequent water pumping. Descents are arranged in the form of the piled bridge that connects the quay and the ramps of the underwater garage.
EFFECT: improved conditions for operation due to considerable reduction of space for entering a garage using curvilinear ramps.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to perform underwater technical works during installation of bulk items includes delivery of an item in the form of a box caisson to the place of installation, its flooding and assembly with the help of a cargo barge and a floating lifting facility. Delivery is carried out using a double-hulled watercraft made as capable of placement of the loaded barge in the space between pontoons that form the double hull and are connected to each other with metal frame structures with weight-lifting facilities for lifting and lowering of the box caisson, and also equipped with structures having extended elements, providing for retention of the box caisson as it is delivered to the place of installation. The barge with the box caisson of full availability is driven in the water area in the space between pontoons of the double-hulled watercraft, the box caisson is lifted with the help of its weight-lifting facilities, the unloaded barge is driven from the space between the pontoons into the water area, the box caisson is lowered for its installation onto extended elements, the specified elements are extended with the help of a drive, and the box caisson is rested onto them. The watercraft with the box caisson by self-motion or towing is delivered to the place of works production, the watercraft is moored, and the box caisson is flooded and installed by release from extended elements that retain it using weight-lifting facilities, which are installed on the watercraft.
EFFECT: optimised technology and reduced costs for production of underwater technical works during assembly of bulk items and structures.
7 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to erect underwater tunnels, including tunnelling of slopes and drifts, creation of a mine of arched shape, fixation of its walls and fixation of its walls and vault by monolithic reinforced concrete, backlining external hydraulic insulation from bitumen putty, a ramp and a water impermeable lock, water drainage by means of drainage trays, differing by the fact that in order to ensure efficiency of tunnelling works and higher reliability of tunnel hydraulic insulation, its length is divided into sections with open and underground methods of tunnelling. An inclined entry trench is built on an open area with minimum water level in a river by means of open works, in the end of the trench a protective horseshoe-shaped border is erected from reinforced concrete, walls are erected, the arched vault of the tunnel with rigging, on top of which they lay a hydraulic insulation jacket from Typar material and filled with removed soil, the tunnelling of the underwater section of the tunnel is carried out in a regimen of moderation by tunnelling combines in counter headways until they are joined at the design elevation, and water breakthrough in the tunnel is collected in a sump with subsequent pumping by pumps via wells to a surface interception ditch, connected with a water reservoir.
EFFECT: higher reliability of tunnel hydraulic insulation, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity in construction.
1 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: underwater structure (US) operates at depth in the range from 100 to 120 m from sea level. At the same time the US comprises a support-bearing underwater complex and a drilling complex or a production complex. The support-bearing underwater complex includes a support-bearing plate and a wellhead complex. The support-bearing plate, in its turn, comprises a wellhead block, an energy block, a residential block, and also a life support block, internal and external circular corridors, radial transitions, sectioned ballast pontoons of circular shape and propelling agents. Retention of the underwater structure in the vertical position at the specified point for the whole period of stay is provided by control of filling of ballast pontoon sections, at the same time retention in the horizontal plane is done due to operation of the propelling agents. The inner surface of the body of the drilling complex and the production complex is congruent to the external surface of the wellhead complex, and the lower surface of the body of the drilling complex and the production complex is congruent to the upper surface of the support-bearing plate.
EFFECT: increased safety, reliability and quality of performed works.
13 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pier is a linear gravitational hydraulic structure located on the coast of the Arctic seas, mainly in lower reaches of navigable rivers. The pier is designed in the form of an ice platform 1 of a rectangular section, placed on the sea bottom. The pier is equipped with wind-capture electric power plants 10 of a tower type located on the shore, liquid cooling and air cooling systems in the form of pass channels 2. The pier is additionally equipped with a thermo-fluid insulating screen 7, placed on the platform surface 1, and a solid floor covering 8 in the form of flat elements of a rectangular shape in plan, arranged at an angle of 45°C to the longitudinal axis of the platform. The platform 1 is designed with slopes at side edges, located at the level of calved ice. The liquid cooling system is designed of interconnected atmospheric cold storage batteries 3, 4 of cooling pipelines 5, 6 and consumers of a coolant 9. The cooling pipelines are arranged along the slopes and under the thermo-fluid insulating screen 7.
EFFECT: increased strength, stability, reliability and durability of the ice structure.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, particularly, to underwater structures built below bed surface level. Method for construction of tunnel bridge in underwater channel for overcoming shallow crossings involves construction of underwater channel and building underwater structure on its bottom, which is covered with protective casing. Underwater structure is made in form of tunnel bridge, which is built along underwater channel with arrangement of entries and exits into/from tunnel bridge on banks of crossing; tunnel walls are made as retaining walls, which are attached to steel-concrete pillars, fixed in bottom of underwater channel, and coated with plastic sheets. Protective casing is made of steel concrete, tightly placed on retaining walls above tunnel bridge, and also covered with plastic sheets.
EFFECT: technical result consists in providing security and favourable operation conditions in tunnel bridge, reduction of material and labour expenditures for tunnel bridge construction.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely to erection of underground structures. Erection method of multilayer walls of underwater structures includes installation of frame from three and more panels and their separation with air layers. All three and more panels of multilayer walls are made of fibre-glass. They are bound together by adhesion to separating mounting frames with additional reinforcement using screws. Air layers between panels are connected to sources of compressed air or liquid nitrogen, which is connected to pressure sensors and (or) water detection sensors installed in air layers.
EFFECT: high strength of frame structure, safer operation of destruction of panels, lower material consumption.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to underwater structures and can be used in construction of automobile and railway tunnels under reservoirs. Transport passage contains an underwater tunnel placed in water under the navigable channel of a water reservoir or strait made of interconnected reinforced concrete monolith sections positioned relative to the surface of the reservoir or strait bottom and provided with transport infrastructure, consisting of two transport purpose trackways with a rail track between, while the latter is separated by arch colonnades from auto transport carriageways; adjoining the opposite banks of a water reservoir or strait spanned bridges of reinforced concrete structures to ensure water exchange directly along the shores made with transport infrastructure, consisting of two auto transport carriageways with a rail track between, and inclined access ways connecting the underwater tunnel with the spanned bridges having transport infrastructure, consisting of two auto transport with a rail track between. Reinforced-concrete monolith sections of the underwater tunnel, having a two-layer covering, are laid on a base in the form of a reinforced concrete plate, serving as a balance weight for implementation of the injection strengthening of soil under the tunnel base and enlargement of the area of the tunnel supporting on the reservoir or strait bottom with a specific pressure of not more than the pressure of from soil retracted during preparation of a pit for accommodating of the two-layer base. Throughout the whole length of the tunnel along its whole perimeter and between the layers of the bottom and the base there is stretched an anti-filtration coating of geo-membrane, protected by backfilling of the tunnel side walls supported by inclined outer faces of the tunnel walls from heavy loam. Inclined accesses connecting the underwater tunnel with spanned bridges, at least on a part of their length, are made in the embankment with arrangement of the remaining part of length in the groove, relative to the bottom of a water reservoir or strait, separated from its water area on both sides by earth dams and supporting walls and by strengthened on the external slopes rock mass. Above the reinforced concrete monolith sections of the underwater tunnel in the navigable channel there is a protective reinforced concrete plate resting on backfills of side walls of the tunnel and being a bottom of the navigable channel going from which are vertically oriented conjugated abutments, which are the walls of the navigable channel.
EFFECT: higher operational reliability and longer service life of the structure, simplification of construction technology and structure design.
7 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to underwater structures and is intended for underwater development of gas deposits and liquefaction of natural gas in water areas of Arctic Ocean, which for a long time or permanently are covered with ice fields that are hard to navigate for Arctic ice breakers prevent production and transport of borehole fluid by conventional method. Underwater system for underwater development of gas deposits and natural gas liquefaction is designed for year-round operation at depth within range of 100-120 m from sea level. Said system comprises drilling-extraction underwater structure, underwater accommodations with control center, underwater nuclear power plant, underwater plant to liquefy natural gas, underwater tank for receiving/storage of liquid nitrogen, underwater tank for receiving/storage/shipment of liquefied natural gas and underwater liquefied gas tanker. Drilling-extraction underwater structure has capacity for year-round underwater well drilling and operation with well fluid purification from mechanical impurities. Drilling-extraction underwater structure is connected to plant for natural gas liquefaction by binding flexible tube with length, providing cooling of natural gas in Arctic environment of sea to a specified value. Underwater plant to liquefy natural gas is configured for its liquefaction by cascade stepped successive cooling to condensation temperature in counterflow with liquid nitrogen and providing output of spent liquid nitrogen in exhaust flexible pipe into atmosphere and/or under ice. Underwater nuclear power plant is configured to provide electric energy via flexible floating cables to all underwater structures.
EFFECT: higher safety and quality of work in underwater development of gas deposits and underwater liquefaction of natural gas.
7 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to hydrotechnical construction and can be used for creation and operation of offshore pile-gravity platforms for exploration of continental shelf hydrocarbon resources. Platform comprises superstructure, body with foundation, equipped with slots in form of direct correct cylinder, through which piles are installed. At that, piles are equipped with heads in form of inverted truncated regular cones with base diameters, smaller than diameter of slots in foundation, mounted on piles buried into slots with head cone base gradient above slot top.
EFFECT: technical result consists in improvement of platform stability and reduction of materials consumption.
10 cl, 5 dwg