The heat exchanger
(57) Abstract:Usage: the invention relates to heat exchange devices used in membrane technology for temperature control of mediums and products of membrane separation and apparatus alcohol production for carrying out processes of condensation in systems containing gases. The inventive fluid through pipe 6 is fed into the housing 1, into which it flows initially through the upper channel between the shells 2 and 3 to 4 partitions with greater speed, then the pipe 5 he enters the bottom of the channel, in which the speed reduction is compensated by the increase in the rate of heating surface, and then discharged through the outlet 7. From the outer surface of the pipes heat is removed by natural convection of the liquid in the tank volume of the source water of the membrane installation. When using the heat exchanger as a condenser in the channels of the heat exchanger is fed coolant, and steam is applied to the external surface of the heat exchanger from below, when communicating with cooled walls 2 and 3, it condenses and flows down in the form of liquid films. When additional shell, the liquid stream is broken and it drains ‡ crystals, 7 Il. The invention relates to heat exchange devices used in membrane technology for temperature control of mediums and products of membrane separation and apparatus alcohol production for carrying out processes of condensation in systems containing gases.Known spiral heat exchanger containing tiered placed section of the cylindrical tubular spirals connected to the distributing and collecting manifolds, adjacent turns of the spirals of each section are arranged with a gap to each other, and the input and output sections of the coils are placed between the coils of the latter around with their inner and outer sides. (See for example, ed.St. USSR N 1758380, CL 5F 28D 1/047,F 28F 21/06).The drawbacks of such devices and generally spiral heat exchangers are:
increased consumption due to insufficient efficiency of heat transfer: areas of the outer surface of the spiral heat exchanger located in the interturn space and in the upper part of the heat exchanger due to the smaller temperature difference in the interaction with the environment provides less heat loss:
the difficulty of cleaning the surface from contaminants and sediments obuslovlennogo, couplers, etc.increased consumption and therefore increased complexity of manufacturing and cost.Disadvantages described above of the heat exchanger is partially removed in a heat exchanger containing a plate with tubular channels for the passage of one of the environments, rolled into a spiral with the formation of selewach channels for different environment, with each plate consists of flat areas located on adjacent angle (see, for example, ABT.St. USSR N 504917, CL 2F28 D9/04).This device allows you to use instead of seamless tubes of sheet material, to increase the efficiency of heat transfer, however, it has the following disadvantages:
insufficient efficiency of heat transfer in heat in statics and cooling, because such a device can only work when forced circulation environment:
the difficulty of cleaning the heating surfaces from dirt and deposits due to poor access.In terms of total characteristics as the prototype device is selected on the author's certificate USSR N 504917).The task of the invention is to reduce material consumption, simplifying maintenance and reducing the Tr is Rasem case, made of plates with tubular channels in the form of ridges for passage of one of the environments connected with conductive and discharge pipes, plates bent with the formation of cylindrical shells with opposite ridges and installed coaxially one within the other with the creation of between torroidalnom channels of different diameters, provided with transverse partitions, the upper and lower edges of the shells have flanging, and facing towards each other, the ridges made on the depth of the flanging and are connected with the formation of bridges between the channels connecting pipe, and a partition installed between and connecting the inlet and outlet pipes, on the outer surface of the forming channels ridge installed additional shells, connected tangentially at their upper edges.Execution of curved plates with the formation of cylindrical shells with opposite ridges and mounted coaxially one within the other with the creation of between torroidalnom channels of different diameters, provided with transverse partitions, provides for the establishment of annular heat exchanger with less metal per unit taleem pressure without additional devices such as brackets or braces, providing the fixation elements of the heat exchanger, in addition, the heating surfaces are easily accessible for cleaning from the sediments. For production of such a heat exchanger does not require complex tooling types of stamps, which reduces the complexity and cost of manufacture. Perform upper and lower forming channels in the shape of a torus of ridges with different diameters provides giving a radial cross section of the heat exchanger triangular, with the apex of the triangle directed in the direction of the external environment: when the heat exchanger as a heater, is installed, for example in the capacity of the processing environment of the membrane installation, the heat exchanger is deployed in a position in which a smaller torus is large, than is achieved by intensive washing of the heating surface by convective flows. The presence of partitions provides the organization coolant flow in the annular channel so that both channels, in spite of different diameters, are characterized by high heat transfer: with a smaller diameter of the upper channel flow velocity, and hence the heat dissipation per unit area is higher. This is achieved by improving the efficiency of the heat exchanger when the reduction is ECU to each other of the ridges on the depth of the flanging and connect them together with the formation of jumper prevents the flow of fluid from the upper annular channel in the bottom and to facilitate Assembly of the heat exchanger: it is enough to push into the outer shell of the inner and connect the upper and lower edges by welding.Running between the channels of the connecting pipe, and installation of partitions on the areas between the connecting, inlet and outlet nozzles provides the best organization of flows and therefore, the maximum use of the entire heat exchange surface.Installation on the outer surface of the forming channels of the ridge for more shells, connected tangentially at their upper edges, provides the heat exchanger in the mode of the capacitor due to the rupture of the film condensed on the outer surface of the liquid. When the reduction of the average film thickness is improved thermodynamic characteristics of the heat exchanger, increasing its productivity and reduced consumption.In Fig. 1 shows a heat exchanger to heat the fluid (General view); Fig. 2 is top view of Fig. 3 section a-a of Fig. 4 - heat exchanger operating as a condenser (top view), and Fig. 5 - General view of the capacitor in the context of Fig. 6 section B-b and Fig. 7 is a cross section along B-B.The heat exchanger includes a housing 1 consisting of two cylindrical shells 2 and 3, the shell 2 is installed inside the shell 3 and the upper and lower edges tightly soedel, facing the concavity of the inner shell 2 to the outside, and the outer inside and after welding, forming two annular channel, blocked by a transverse partition 4. In addition, the shells 2 and 3 are also the ridges parallel to the generatrix of the shell, which after Assembly to form a pipe 5 connecting the upper and lower annular channels between them. The upper channel is supplied by a pipe 6 coolant, and the lower channel pipe 7 drain the coolant. Lots of shells between the upper and lower ridges provided with a ridge, directional concavity in the opposite relative to the forming channels to the ridge side, and the depth of the ridge corresponds to the diameter of the edges of the shells.When the operation of the condenser heat exchanger is installed in a position in which the top is the channel with a larger diameter and all channels are equipped with a downward-additional shells 8 connected to the outer surface forming the channels of the ridge at a tangent.The proposed device operates as follows.Coolant through the young man 6 is fed into the housing 1, into which it flows initially through the upper channel between the shells 2 and 3 to partition 4 more scoresm speed of heating surface, and then discharged through the outlet 7. From the outer surface of the pipes heat is removed by natural convection of the liquid in the tank volume of the source water membrane installation, conventionally in the drawing are not shown.When using the heat exchanger as a condenser in the channels of the heat exchanger is fed coolant, and steam is applied to the external surface of the heat exchanger from below, when communicating with cooled walls 2 and 3, it condenses and flows down in the form of liquid films. When additional shell 8, the fluid flow is broken and it flows down, thereby releasing the sections of the outer wall of the heat exchanger to communicate with a steam environment.The use of the proposed device allows you to simultaneously increase the proportion of the contact surface of the heat exchanger communicating with the heated environment, provides the best organization of convective flows.Heat exchanger element is characterized by high operational reliability, as is usually the case at low pressure drops, and the configuration of the channels ensures good mixing of the coolant due to the centrifugal forces and the change of direction on what the process operation.The use of the invention allows to increase the operational reliability, reduce the consumption of materials to simplify maintenance. 1. A heat exchanger comprising a housing, made of plates with tubular channels in the form of a ridge for the passage of one of the environments connected with inlet and outlet nozzles, characterized in that the plate is curved with the formation of cylindrical shells with opposite ridges and installed coaxially one inside the other to create between them a toroidal channels of different diameters, provided with transverse partitions.2. The heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that the upper and lower edges of the shells have flanging, and facing towards each other, the ridge is made on the depth of the flanging and are connected with the formation of bridges.3. The heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that between the channels connecting pipe, and a partition installed between and connecting the inlet and outlet pipes.4. The heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that on the outer surface of the forming channels ridge installed additional shells, connected by their upper tangent
FIELD: heat-exchange apparatuses of refrigerating plants.
SUBSTANCE: the evaporative condenser has a metal body the evaporative condenser has a metal body with a turbo bunch, finned plates, nozzles, fan located in it. A high-voltage positive-charged electrode is installed isolately from the body after the nozzles, and with the other end it is fastened on the tube bunch with the @minus@ sign. The high-voltage electrode is made in the form of a metal net carrying metal needles welded to the base of the high-voltage electrode opposite each nozzle.
EFFECT: enhanced heat extraction from the surface of tubes, in which cooling medium is circulating, reduced water consumption, reduced duration of the process, provided preventum of evaporator fouling.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: refrigerating engineering.
SUBSTANCE: the vertical eddy-type evaporative condenser has an axial-flow fan with profiled blades, eddy heat exchanger in the form of a tube twisting the air flow with U-shaped ribs fastened on the outer surface and forming ducts for passage of the refrigerant agent, separator, water collecting tray, filter, circulation pump, comb and nozzles for irrigation of the tube inner surface. The tube is vertical and air flow is fed into it from the bottom upwards at an angle of 30-60 deg. to the tube generating line, and water is injected into the counter-flow through the nozzles. The condenser has a trap for collection of the water film drained over the tube inner and outer surfaces, at the bottom of the tube the fan body is positioned with a clearance in the mentioned trap, the separator is installed in the upper part of the tube and provided with a trap with a perforated bottom, positioned in the lower part of the separator, and with a truncated rim guiding the water flow in the form of a film over tube outer surface.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: applicable in production of condensers for steam turbines.
SUBSTANCE: the condenser of a steam turbine has a piping system, reducer with flat walls and a system of rods fastening these walls, and connecting the piping system to the turbine, headers with a cooling medium, connected to the inner cavities of the rods, are installed outside the walls of the reducer. Openings are made in the walls of the rods, they are positioned in the lower half of the circle of the rods (alteration 1). The condenser of the steam turbine has a piping system, reducer with flat walls and a system of rods fastening these walls, and connecting the piping system to the turbine. Vertical ribs are positioned on the rods, with cooling tube bunches installed in their holes, the bunches are connected through separate water chambers to the headers with a cooling medium, the water chambers and the headers with a cooling medium are positioned outside the walls of the reducer (alteration 2).
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and economical efficiency of the condenser due to elimination of excessive heating of the rigidity rods and reducer walls, prevention of buckling of the reducer and disturbance of leakproofness of the condenser steam space.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: methods or layout of installations for water supply, particularly water supply devices using heat energy of water for alcohol production and public needs at alcohol production enterprise.
SUBSTANCE: water recycling system comprises at least one rectifying plant and reused water pipelines, which connect pumps, heat-exchangers and accumulation vessels one to another. At least one reused water pipeline is attached to at least one ejection device installed in point of at least one reused water pipeline connection with at least one accumulation vessel so that above ejection device may be directly linked to accumulation vessel and reused water pipeline may be connected to ejection device inlet. At least one active medium channel of at least one ejection device is communicated with active liquid, namely reused water. At least one passive medium channel of at least one ejection device is communicated with air. At least one section of above channel is arranged in natural water source and creates heat-exchanger with the water source.
EFFECT: increased cooling efficiency of water recycling system cooling, reduced additional power consumption and decreased water losses.
3 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: environmental protection; methods and devices of purification of the atmospheric injections from contaminants.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method and the device of purification of the atmospheric injection from contaminants. The method includes injection of the water solutions of the chemical reactants, coagulants or catalysts in the purified mixture, the subsequent condensation of the vapors of the mixture on the water-cooled grating made out of from the pipes of the heat-exchanger core, treatment and removal of the polluted condensates and slimes through drainage system. The pulsing electric or electromagnetic field of the low potential is induced on the grating made out of the pipes of the core through the condensate film surface. The device contains the heat exchanger, the body of which is made out of the stainless steel and is gummed from inside by the acid-based-chemically resistant rubber. Inside the body there is the water-cooled core established on the "afloat" flange coupling under the water distributing chamber of the device. The core is made as the grating out of pipes with their corridor-type location and is turned relatively to the directional motion of the purified medium at an angle of 10-20°. The lower part of the body is made in the form of the capacitance cone-shaped condensate cooler with the water lock. In the wall of the condensate cooler there is the mounted electrode unit in the sleeve with the dielectric bush and the spring-loaded packing glands. The device is equipped with the power supply system and induction of the pulsing electric or electromagnetic field, the system of the preliminary humidification and injection of the water solutions of the chemical reactants, coagulants or catalysts through the nozzle into the convergent-feeding funnel, the drainage system, the small hatches and fitting pipes. The invention allows to expand the range of application of the method and the device and to increase their calorific and ecological efficiency.
EFFECT: the invention allows to expand the range of application of the method and the device and to increase their calorific and ecological efficiency.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: steam condenser comprises pressure-tight housing, tube banks mounted inside the housing, diaphragms, stiffing ribs, pipelines for supplying and discharging cooling water, pipelines for supplying steam, and pipelines for discharging condensate. The ends of the tubes are open. The stiffing ribs define in the housing closed spaces at the sites where the flow of cooling water changes its direction and spaces that are in communication one to the other. The modules for reducing cooling water hardness are made of pressure-tight tanks filled with balls and secured to the housing.
EFFECT: reduced hardness of cooling water.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of turbines; large-sized heavily-loaded condensers of steam turbines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed surface condenser includes box-type housing with flat walls, tube bundles of cooling and steam condensing systems located vertically towards flow of steam from turbine forming passages between tube bundles for flow of steam. Each tube bundle has vertical passages for flow of steam located symmetrically in upper and lower parts of bundle on side of turbine outlet and on side of condenser bottom.
EFFECT: enhanced operational and economical efficiency of condenser.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries and can be used for separation of gas-vapour mixes at sublimation driers. Proposed method comprises feed of gas-vapour mix and coolant for cooling of desublimation surface and removal of desublimate. For this, buffer fluid is used representing low freezing point fluid transmitting heat from said mix to aid coolant. This fluid can be, for example, aqueous solution of ethylene glycol. Note here that its concentration in said solution is selected to make freezing point at flowing via cascade of desublimators thereat lower than at every previous desublimator.
EFFECT: adequate separation, simplified temperature control at freezing with the use of low-boiling coolant.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: condenser comprises casing connected with condensate collector and, via adapter pipe with vertical stiffness ribs, with low-pressure cylinder exhaust, and manifold with coolant feed pipe connected thereto. Note here that said manifold is mounted at joint of adapter pipe to low-pressure cylinder exhaust. It is secured by yokes to stiffness ribs arranged in perimeter of adapter pipe. It has holes directed to adapter pipe wall at the outlet of which baffle plate is arranged. Note here that shields are welded to stiffness ribs to prevent ingress of cooling medium into condenser steam chamber.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.