(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a bridge and can be used when aiming for the floating bridges. Floating bridge contains floating support, the superstructure, abutment, ramps, sills installed on the floating structure, and the ledge-anchors on shore. A ramp pivotally connected to the ledge on the floating structure and the coast. Coastal lezhen made wedge-shaped, with the possibility of rearranging and fixing to the ground. 9 Il. The invention relates to postoperational technique and can be used when aiming for the floating bridges.The famous floating bridge, containing floating supports, decking and beam transition span (ramp), resting one end on the shore, and the other on the superstructure. The mounting bridge is done using braces and anchors. This bridge allows to take into account variations in water level and time of its seasonal operation unlimited 
The disadvantage of this bridge is the presence of a fracture and a large sloping beamed transitional migration in the place of pairing it with part of the river, which complicates the entry of vehicles on the bridge.The closest second structure mounted with its ends movable ledge, the abutment and a ramp pivotally connected at one end with a movable wedge-shaped Lejeune on the floating structure, the other end pivotally connected to the abutment 
A disadvantage of the known construction of the bridge is that the abutment does not have a built-roadway not provide reliable fastening of the bridge, are not allowed bulkheads of the bridge to change the height, as it requires the removal of the superstructure and reinstall the bearings. Changing the height of the bearing during operation of the bridge, which may be required if significant fluctuations in water level, is very difficult.The objective of the invention is creation of a design that would allow you to securely fasten the bridge and ensure a smooth entry of vehicles on the bridge at any water level fluctuations.The problem is solved due to the fact that the floating bridge, including floating support, the superstructure mounted with its ends movable ledge, the abutment and a ramp pivotally connected at one end with a movable wedge-shaped Lejeune on the floating structure, and the other end pivotally connected to the abutment, with an abutment made in the form of paristan is in the horizontal plane or close to it, the bottom face has an angle of inclination equal to the angle of inclination of the coast, and provided with a bearing surface, and Lejeune-anchor provided with a device for attaching it to the shore.In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the floating bridge when the water level is low, and Fig. 2 General view of the floating bridge at high water level; Fig. 3 - terminal part of the floating bridge at low water level, Lejeune-anchor is located in the outer close to the superstructure of the bridge position, the node I in Fig. 1; Fig. 4 the end portion of the floating bridge at high water level, Lejeune-anchor is set and fixed at the approximate span building bridge position, site II in Fig. 2; Fig. 5 is the same, Lejeune-anchor moved toward the coast (from the bridge) and fixed in this position; Fig. 6 Lejeune-anchor, cross section section a-a in Fig. 5; Fig. 7 - lezhen-anchor, top view view B in Fig 4; Fig. 8, the device for fixing Lejeune-anchor to the ground of the shore, site III in Fig. 6; Fig. 9 - joint device for the articulated connection of Lejeune-anchor with apparel, cross section b-b In Fig. 7.Naplavnye bridge (Fig. 1 and 2) includes floating support in the form of individual pontoons 1 installed and fixed on them span 2 beam structure is ha 3 are of the abutment 4, which are connected pivotally to one end of apparel 5, which other end pivotally connected with Lejeune 6 mounted on the end of the span.The abutment 4 is made in the form of rolling Lejeune-anchor in the form of a prism, the top face 7 which is horizontal or close to horizontal plane and has an internal roadway, the lower face 8 provided with a bearing surface 9, which has a tilt angle of 10 equal to the angle of inclination of the shore at the site of the bridge, the bottom face is provided with a device 11 for fixing Lejeune-anchor to the ground shore after shifts and install it in a working position in which the angle of inclination of the ramp remains operational.Device for fixing Lejeune-anchor to the ground of the shore can be performed (Fig. 6 8) in the form of anchor pins 12, hammered through the vertical opening in the guide sleeve 13 mounted on the horizontal bar 14 in the area of the bottom face of the prism of Lejeune-anchor.Swivel plug connection ramp with lezhen-Aner can be performed, for example, in the form of a single eyelets 15, mounted on the ramp, dual lugs 16, the guide 17 and the horizontal stereoset to navigate soy bridge and take the right position in height depending on the water level in the river 20, providing operational angle of 21 ramp, while Lejeune 6 moves along the span of the structure along the axis of the axle with coil couplers and fixed to span structure locks pin type (not shown).Work floating bridge is as follows:
When assembling the floating bridge, for example, when water level is low (Fig. 1 and 3), Lejeune-anchor 4 is placed on the prepared area of ground shore 3-axis bridge in as close a condition to span the structure of the bridge so that the tilt angle of 21 ramp was no longer valid, i.e., within operational. Ramps 5 fasten the hinge to the Lejeune-the anchor 4 and Lejeune 6, which moves relative to the superstructure 2 along the axis of the bridge.At high water level in the river, for example in spring or autumn floods (Fig. 2 and 4), floating support with the superstructure 2 and the ledge 6 float in the upper position, the tilt angle of 21 ramp may be more valid, making it impossible to pass vehicles on the ramp and operation of the bridge will also be impossible. In order to be able to continue the operation of the bridge, produced the goal of the slope 21 of the ramp will be within the allowable value, thus reducing the angle of the ramp is due to the rise of Lejeune-anchor up when the longitudinal slip away from the bridge. After progress in the desired position Lejeune-anchor attached device, such as pins, to the ground of the shore (Fig. 6 8), and Lejeune 6 is fastened with the appropriate fasteners to span the structure of the bridge. The longitudinal slip of Lejeune-anchor 4 may be, for example, ropes hoist transport vehicle or crane. Development of Lejeune 6 on the floating structure is the standard screw couplers (not shown).The proposed solution allows to increase the seasonal operation of the floating bridge by eliminating large breaks in operation with a significant rise or decline of the water level when the angle of the slope of the ramp is higher than acceptable. Development of Lejeune-anchor for a few hours will ensure maximum inclination of the ramps and operation of the bridge can be continued.The proposed bridge dramatically reduces the time and complexity of building coastal bearings during Assembly of the axle, so as to laying and fixing of Lejeune-anchor will need a little time (a few hours) as in the original spletne structure mounted with its ends movable ledge, the abutment and a ramp pivotally connected at one end with a movable wedge-shaped Lejeune on the floating structure, and the other end pivotally connected to the abutment, wherein the abutment is made in the form of actuating the wedge Lejeune-anchor, the top face of which has an internal roadway and located in a horizontal plane or close to it, the bottom face has an angle of inclination equal to the angle of inclination of the shore and provided with a bearing surface, and Lejeune-anchor provided with a device for attaching it to the shore.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct temporary roads across lakes and other water obstacles.
SUBSTANCE: ice bridge includes cooling plant, pipelines connected to cooling plant. Pipelines are submersed in water and suspended by wire ropes. Cooling plant has reducers for pressure reduction, 10 MPa gaseous nitrogen cylinders and liquid nitrogen cylinders adapted to fill pipelines with liquid and gaseous nitrogen mixture. The pipelines include several coiled sections or formed as straight and finned pipes. The pipelines are arranged in several rows and extend in vertical or horizontal directions. The pipelines are submersed for 0.1-5 m depth and are connected by wire ropes to balloons floating at water surface or to finned pipes driven in ground of river bottom and connected one to another by diaphragms. The cooling plant provides water freezing within 3-5 km range and obtains ice having thickness of 3 m or more.
EFFECT: increased water freezing rate.
FIELD: movable or portable bridges, floating bridges adapted to convey loads over ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: method to transport vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover over ice involves moving vehicle having weight not exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover at resonance speed; moving vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying capacity to ice cover line when above vehicle having lesser weight has moved away from ice cover line for distance equal to 2/3 of resonance bending-gravity wave length; initiating above vehicle having larger weight movement with above resonance speed. Resonance bending-gravity wave length is determined from where D is cylindrical stiffness of ice plate, ρ and h - ice density and thickness, g - gravity, H - water body depth.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of ice cover.
FIELD: floating bridges, for instance temporary bridges for load transportation over ice.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes ice blanket in which vertical holes are drilled for the full bridge structure length so that the holes are located from both bridge sides. Reinforced concrete blocks connected to ropes are inserted through the holes so that the blocks are located under the ice blanket. Discs having diameters exceeding hole diameters are connected to upper block ends. Rope lengths are selected to prevent ice blanket movement in upward direction with respect to initial ice position if flexural-gravity waves are generated in ice blanket.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity.
FIELD: bridge crossing equipment; ferries and floating bridges.
SUBSTANCE: proposed motor unit includes displacement hull with joints in sides, engine mounted inside hull and water-jet propeller, two hinged pontoons which are articulated with hull and mechanism for opening and folding the pontoons. Each hinged pontoon is provided with torsion-loaded swivel hydrostatic shield on external side which is articulated with hinged pontoon in area of its bottom; hinged pontoons are also provided with mechanism for turning the shield; this mechanism is made in form of hydraulic cylinder with rod secured in hull of hinged pontoon. Thrust roller secured on end of rod is received by guide of hydrostatic shield.
EFFECT: reduced resistance of shuttle ferry due to improved streamlining of projecting lower part of motor unit.
FIELD: bridge construction, particularly floating bridges, for example, pontoon bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method involves unloading land-based and river-based pontoon sections on ice, expanding the pontoon sections in temporary bridge location area; sealing pontoons of each pontoon section by means of top and bottom jointing means; moving each pontoon section to temporary bridge construction site over ice; serially jointing pontoon sections with each other along temporary bridge length and breaking ice by blasting charges spaced from bridge axis. Longitudinal grooves are created in ice from each bridge side with the use of ice-cutters so that ice thickness in groove bottom area is not more than 10 cm. After that elongated charges including several detonating fuse strings are laid in the grooves. The grooves are filled with wet snow or water and elongated charges are blasted to break ice in each groove. After that ice under bridge sections is broken by vehicle movement over the bridge.
EFFECT: decreased time and increased safety of temporary bridge construction.
FIELD: construction industry; bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method of pontoon bridge equipping at high flow speed is performed using set of railway pontoon ribbon bridge and differs in the fat that bridge stiffness on water obstacle is provided by anchors which are installed on bridge top and bottom sides and are attached to bottom of outer pontoons with the help of ropes which pass through lugs fixed on rings welded to deck and bottom of outer pontoons.
EFFECT: increasing vertical component of hydrodynamic forces, reducing the different of member to top or bottom sides, and improving pontoon bridge reliability.
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: ice crossing construction method refers to ice-technology industry, and can be used when designing ice crossing meant for load transportation. Snow shall be removed from ice surface, and the latter shall be covered with air-tight film. Space between ice surface and film is ventilated with fan cold ambient air. Cold air flow intensifies heat exchange on ice surface and provides its fast cooling, and thickness increase.
EFFECT: fast putting into operation of ice crossing.
FIELD: construction, road construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of bridge engineering and is intended for erection of pontoon bridges over water obstacles on a tight schedule and with the least material and labour expenses. It is achieved by the fact that pontoon bridge comprises pontoons open at the bottom, on which bridge supports are mounted to carry spans and road way, and spacers that connect peripheral parts of pontoon to fixed anchors on soil, and every pontoon is arranged in the form of packet of vertically oriented adjacent tanks that are inverted upwards with their bottoms and are connected to system of air supply and its pressure control in every of them, at that spacers are located on the opposite sides of pontoon to form triangular figures with every of them, which are oriented in crossing planes, and have dampers and/or control mechanisms, preferably with remote control, their stretching in process of bridge erection and/or its operation. At that vertically oriented tanks form rows of cells in section with horizontal plane, which are evenly located on at least part of section area.
EFFECT: higher reliability of pontoon bridge operation at different dynamic effect at it, also from wave and wind loads due to provision of stability in pontoons that carry spans and provision of their controlled submersion at specified depth.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport, construction.
SUBSTANCE: method of producing ice ferry consists in cleaning ice surface of snow, placing a layer of heat-isolation material through the cut, along the ice ferry routed, and pressing aforesaid layer to the ice layer lower surface. A continuous layer of ice floats is placed between the ice surface lower surface and the said heat-isolation material.
EFFECT: higher load-carrying capacity of ice ferry.