Drive unit of a vehicle
(57) Abstract:Usage: power transmission devices vehicles. The inventive drive unit comprises a drive motor 1 and hydrostatically manual gearbox 2 with branching milking capacity of the drive wheels 3, kinematically connected to the differential gear 4. Box 2 transmission comprises a mechanical part of the planetary differential gear 4, and as the hydrostatic part of the at least two hydraulic machines H1 and H2, interconnected by hydraulic lines 5 and 6, the control operation of the reversing unit U. the Line 5 and 6, are connected by at least one line 7 has an inbuilt valve D pressure limitation. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The invention relates to a drive device of the vehicle.The starting point for the invention was a vehicle, particularly a passenger car class described with a drive motor, whose power when the value of about 200 kW is transmitted to the drive branch axes through an automatic transmission with a hydrodynamic Converter. Such automatic transmission has certain drawbacks CPA is a result of the loss of towing in the field of hydrodynamic Converter and present multi-disc clutches. In addition, they caused more long-term and intensive implementation steps the number of turns in the drive motor, and the conversion of its kinetic energy in the friction clutch when shifting, resulting in a solution that is relatively poor acceleration and caused high fuel consumption. For this reason, should be studies of how using a car of this power class with a different box design transfer you can eliminate the drawbacks of the automatic gear transmission and simultaneously provide at least the same comfort branch drive, and the same good acceleration, as when using gearbox with manual switching. Priority had, in particular, reduce the time of implementation steps the number of revolutions of the engine when shifting gears or changing the gear ratio to improve acceleration and reduce fuel consumption.Known transmission successfully tested when used in urban buses, as well as new not yet built, but a fully developed alternative gearbox, which is already known and gear with fork power with one at least containing four-shaft planetary differential and at least two hydraulic machines that can be operated with the possibility of regulation as a motor or pump. This so-called SHL-transmission designed for extreme operation using the accelerating transmission ratio of the number of revolutions n1/n2between the input and output sides of the main shaft, which is greater than 1.5, and for switching the hydraulic machines in operation at various shafts there are five switchable couplings. On the basis of only hydromechanically provided work used hydraulic machines made in relation to the angular power that is approximately 50% higher capacity drive motor.Such hydraulic machines having higher dimension, are relatively expensive, especially if you want to minimize leakage losses, and due to their high capacity also differ in certain structural dimensions, which can be fraught with difficulty when placing them about the mechanical side of the transmission, in particular when embedding in a passenger car. In addition, such a high is our least high samoobrazovanie, which is unacceptable in the case of use in a passenger automobile. In addition, the mode using an accelerating transmission occurs a certain hydrostatic reactive power, which is in itself undesirable.The purpose of the invention to replace the hydrodynamic automatic gear transmission for the best alternative embodiment. To achieve this goal should be accomplished with the following requirements:
under full load on the engine must be enabled mode for continuous acceleration of the vehicle mostly without any hydrostatic noise;
must use the compact as possible, in any case smaller than conventional SHL-gearbox hydraulic machine with a significantly lower hydrostatic power;
should be possible exception of the share of reactive power as possible in all areas of operation;
when you switch or change gear ratio compared to a car with automatic transmission should be possible to reduce the loss of kinetic energy of the drive motor applies the second pressure must be ensured the possibility of emergency movement without affecting hydraulic mechanical part of the transmission;
should be possible to use exactly dosed and efficient mode of slowing down to a complete stop.The proposed drive as smooth operation and mechanical operation using multiple transmission has the preferred characteristics reduce fuel consumption and emissions of exhaust gases, gives a higher ability of the vehicle to accelerate when the stepless operation, reduces the noise generation at full load and multi-mode with the following benefits: falling hydrostatic reactive power in the last zone, expansion accelerating the transfer of a significant amount, approximately 50% decrease in the integrated hydrostatic power by a significant amount, about one-third; the increased readiness of power; reduction in time to process switching.In Fig. 1 shows the performance of the proposed drive device of Fig. 2 chart which is at the heart conditions of offer of the drive device with respect to speed, power and speed with stepless work and operation of the proposed drive device, moreover, certain ratios must be transferred from the ranges in the first line vertically down in certain transverse columns.Drive unit of the vehicle (Fig. 1), for example, motor vehicle described above class contains the drive motor 1 with a capacity of 200 kW and SHL-transmission, stepless hydrostatically-mechanical box 2 shows the branching power to drive wheels, 3/4, 3/5, which are connected with the differential 3/3 through shafts 3/1, 3/2 drive axes.SHL-box 2 transmission comprises a mechanical part of the planetary differential gear 4 and as hydrostatic part, at least two hydraulic machines H1, H2, which can be regulated and also be operated in both directions as a motor or pump and interconnected by hydraulic lines 5 and 6, controlling operation of the reversing unit U. Both lines 5 and 6 are interconnected via at least one line 7, in which the integrated valve D pressure limitation. The latter is used to limit the available hydrostatic pressure. The reversing unit U and the valve D pressure, as well as site adjustment of the angle of rotation, some management teams of regulation or control, coming from the electronic control device 8. Each of the two hydraulic units H1, H2, develop the capacity of which is approximately 50% or less power drive motor 1.With a crankshaft of a drive motor 1 is kinematically connected to the main shaft 9 and the main shaft 10 of the gear box 2 via a connecting shaft 11 is connected to differential 3/3.Planetary differential 4 contains in the case of the depicted example execution stationary coupled with located on the input side main shaft 9 large sun wheel 12, the small sun wheel 13, number of double solar wheels 15 and 16, which are mounted rotatably on the edge 14, which is stationary connected with located on the discharge side of the main shaft 10, coaxially connected and fixed with the edge 14 of the hollow shaft 17 and the hollow wheel 18. The latter has an internal ring gear 19 in mesh with which is included toothing of the planetary wheels 16. Small sun wheel 13 is without a possibility of rotation on the hollow shaft 20, which is mounted on located on the input side main shaft 9 carries also a gear wheel 21 and secures the hollow shaft 17.The forest today is Tue rotation with axial fixation also on the auxiliary shaft 22. This gear wheel 23 can be translated using parts 24, 25, 26 second switchable clutch K2 in the state of the drive connection with the auxiliary shaft 22 or to ask them this drive connection. When closed, the clutch K2, the second hydraulic machines H2 are connected in such a way, through the second transfer unit formed by the parts 23, 21, 20, of the small gear 13.On the hollow shaft 17 without the possibility of rotation fortified gear wheel 27 which engages with the toothed wheel 28, which is fortified with possibility of rotation with axial fixation on the first auxiliary shaft 22 connected in drive relation with H2 hydraulic machines. The toothed wheel 28 can use parts 29, 30, 31 of the first switchable clutch K1 are transferable from state drive connection with the auxiliary shaft 33 or be derived from this state of the connection. When closed, the clutch K1, the second hydraulic machines H2 is connected, thus, through the first gear unit formed by the parts 28, 27, 17, 14 located on the output side of the main shaft 10.On the hollow wheel 18 from the front side of the fixed gear 32 in mesh with which is a gear wheel 34, fortified with the possibility of rotation with which Romashina H1. A gear wheel 34 may use the parts 35, 36, 37 third switchable transmission K3 to transfer to the state of the drive connection with the auxiliary shaft 33 or be removed from this state, the drive connection. When closed the clutch K3 H1 hydraulic machines, due to their speed and direction of rotation determines the number of revolutions and direction of rotation of the hollow wheel 18. The number of turns located on the output side of the main shaft is summarized primarily from the values of the number of revolutions of the large sun wheel 12 and the hollow wheel 18, which in turn determines the operating speed of the planetary wheels 15 or ribs 14. In addition, located on the input side main shaft 9 includes a stationary mounted on it a gear wheel 38, which engages with the toothed wheel 39, which are mounted for rotation with axial fixation on the second auxiliary shaft 33. This gear wheel 39 can use parts 40, 41, 42 of the fourth switching clutch K4 to transfer to the state Executive connection with the auxiliary shaft 33 or be removed from this state, the Executive connection. When closed the clutch K4 H1 hydraulic machines through the branch 39, 38 transmission connected with rafo device using the accelerating transmission.In accordance with this hollow wheel 18 can use parts 43, 44. 45 fifth switchable clutch K5 to transfer to the state Executive connections located on the trailing side of the main shaft 10 or to be derived from the Executive connection. When closed the clutch K5 is provided, thus, the synchronous number of revolutions between the hollow wheel 18 and located on the output side of the main shaft 10, and this condition is also implemented in the range of accelerating transmission.It should be noted that SHL-box 2 transmission may also be of a design different from that shown in Fig. 1. The focus is only that with the clutch K1 can be installed or newly repaired the connection between H2 and hydraulic machines located on the output side of the main shaft 10: using clutch K2 can be installed and re-addressed the connection between H2 and hydraulic machines small sun wheel 13; with clutch K2 can be installed and re-addressed the connection between H1 and hydraulic machines hollow wheel 18; with clutch K4 can be installed and re-addressed the connection between H2 and hydraulic machines located on the inlet side of the main shaft, as well as using the clutch K5 can ensure the clutches K1 and K2 to mean less spatially, the switching clutch. In addition, if necessary, to abandon one of the two auxiliary shafts depending on the location of the hydraulic units H1 and H2 in the case of the mechanical part of the box 2 transmission.The impact on the Executive unit of the components K1, K2, K3, K4, K5, H1, H2, D, U box 2 gears and components of a drive motor 1, for example, fuel pump, throttle valves are controlled with electronic control device 8, namely on the basis of signals that the driver initiates pedal 46 accelerator, the brake pedal 47 and the lever 48 selection forward or backward, and through the use of the provisions of idling and programs emergency motion, as well as on the basis of the internal working of the data recorded in the memory management system. Of these reference signals and operating data in accordance with a stored program microprocessor calculates the necessary measures, which are then transmitted to the control device in the form of the corresponding switching commands, control or regulation of the connected components of the drive device.With this configuration, SHL-box 2 transmission is possible or smooth Gerome is purely mechanical four-speed mode switching loads.In Fig. 2 smooth range hydromechanical transmission shown shaded. While these features are complemented by data table (Fig. 3), in which certain relations in columns should be transferred from top to bottom.Example 1. HM first hydromechanical range with n2/n1not more than 0.5.The terms are as follows:
the hydraulic machines H1 operates with a reverse rotation pump and the hydraulic machines H2 is rotating in the forward direction as the engine, the characteristics values of the number of revolutions nH1nH2Fig. 3;
clutch K1 and K3 are closed, the clutch K2 and K4 are open (Fig. 3), for this reason, the hydraulic machines H1 is connected to the hollow wheel 18, and the hydraulic machines H2 through the rib 14 is connected with located on the trailing side of the main shaft 10;
characteristics of pressure PH1PH2and adjustment of the angle of rotationH1,H2presented in the diagram in Fig. 3;
adjustment of the reversing unit U of Fig. 3, in accordance with this both lines 5 and 6 included in the parallel transmittance;
hydrostatic share the power of NHor H1 and H2 in the diagram of Fig. 3.Example 2. HM second hydromechanical range with n2/n1=0,5-0,8.
the hydraulic machines H2 is rotating in the forward direction as the pump, characteristics speed of rotation nH1nH2in the diagram of Fig. 3;
clutch K2, K3 are closed, the clutches K1, K4, K5 are open (Fig. 3), in accordance with this, the hydraulic machines H1 is connected to the hollow wheel 18, and the hydraulic machines H2 with small sun wheel 13;
characteristics of pressure PH1PH2and adjustment of the angle of rotationH1,H2in the diagram of Fig. 3;
adjustment of the reversing unit U of Fig. 3, in accordance with this and both lines 5 and 6 includes cross-mode transmission;
hydrostatic share the power of NHor H1 and H2 in the diagram of Fig. 3.
the hydraulic machines H1 is valid from rotation in the forward direction as the engine, hydraulic machines H2 with the rotation in the forward direction as the pump, the ratio of the numbers of revolutions nH1nH2the H1 is connected with located on the input side main shaft 9, and hydraulic machines H2 with small sun wheel 13;
characteristics of pressure PH1PH2and adjustment of the angle of rotationH1,H2in Fig. 3, with both lines 5 and 6 are cross pattern included in the state transmittance;
hydrostatic share the power of NHfor H1 and H2 in the diagram of Fig. 3.Switching hydraulic H1 of the state of its initial connection on the side of the hollow wheel in the first (1.HM) and second (2.HM) range, i.e. in the direction from the hollow wheel 18 to the slave side (the small sun wheel 13), is the ratio of the number of revolutions n2/n2=0,72, namely in the fully rotated state (H1=max), but at the synchronous speed and without changing between the pressure sides and suction, i.e. in a very short time (about 0.4 c) trims speed and pressure due to the release of the clutch K3 and the circuit of the clutch K4. Because at the moment the switch is fully turned also the hydraulic machines H2 (H2=max), the transition to the next state briefly raises a very high hydrostatic share of reactive power, which is marked on the chart in Fig. 3 with an asterisk. For this reason, this range should be in the range (the range of the accelerating transmission) with n2/n1=1-1,5.The terms are as follows:
the hydraulic machines H1 is valid from rotation in the forward direction as engines and hydraulic machines H2 is effective when rotated in the forward direction as the pump, the ratio of the number of revolutions nH1nH2in the diagram of Fig. 3;
clutch K2 and K4 are closed, the clutches K1, K3 and K5 are opened (Fig. 3), in accordance with this, the hydraulic machines H1 is connected with located on the input side main shaft 9, and the hydraulic machines H2 is connected with the small sun wheel 13;
characteristics of pressure PH1PH2and adjustment of the angle of rotationH1,H2in the diagram of Fig. 3;
adjustment of the reversing unit U of Fig. 3, in accordance with this both lines 5 and 6 are cross pattern included in the state transmittance;
hydrostatic share the power of NHor H1 and H2 in figure 3.Example 5. HM fifth hydromechanical range (extreme range of the accelerating transmission) with n2/n11.5 to 4.The terms are as follows:
the hydraulic machines H1 when rotating in the forward direction acts as a pump and hydraulic machines H2 is effective when rotated in the opposite direction as the engine, the ratio of the numbers of revolutions nH1nH2diacetylene with located on the input side main shaft 9, and hydraulic machines H2 is connected with the small sun wheel 13,
characteristic pressure PH1PH2and adjustment of the angle of rotationH1,H2in the diagram of Fig. 3;
adjustment of the reversing unit U of Fig. 3, in accordance with this both lines 5 and 6 in parallel is included in the state transmittance;
hydrostatic share the power of NHor H1 and H2 on the chart at fiege. 3.When working in ranges of 1.HM 5.HM on the basis of the specified SHL box 2 transmission can be achieved continuously variable hydrostatically mechanical force transmission when the ratio of the numbers of revolutions n2/n1=0-4, i.e. also in the range of accelerating transmission (n2/n1=1-1,5 and in the extreme range of the accelerating transmission (n2/n1=1,5-4) with a small hydrostatic share of the total transmitted power, and hydrostatic reactive power remains relatively small or does not occur at all except the third range (3.HM). When starting place with regard to instantaneous valve pressure limiting, since the state of rest of the vehicle, when fully rotated, the hydraulic machines H2 (H2=max) and the current in the same direction when hydraulic H1, and a drive motor rivadeo of the engine 1.R movement back in hydromechanical mode when n2/n1=0-0,5.The terms are as follows:
the hydraulic machines H1 acts as a pump and hydraulic machines H2 when rotated in the opposite direction acts as a motor. The ratio of the numbers of revolutions nH1nH2in the diagram of Fig. 3;
clutch K1 and K3 or selectively K4 are closed, the clutch K2, K5 and K4 or selectively K3 are opened (Fig. 3), in accordance with this, the hydraulic machines H1 or connected in rotation in the opposite direction with a hollow wheel 18, or selectively with located on the inlet side of the main shaft 9, and the hydraulic machines H2 are connected through an edge 14 located on the output side of the main shaft 10;
characteristics of pressure PH1PH2and adjustment of the angle of rotationH1,H2in the diagram of Fig. 3;
adjustment of the reversing unit U of Fig. 3, in accordance with this both lines 5 and 6 included in the cross-state transmission;
hydrostatic share the power of NHfor H1 and H2 in the diagram of Fig. 3.If reversing is preferable to swing through a stepless transition between modes of motion forward and back without a rest state of the vehicle, this case is closed) hydraulic machines H1, H2 (H1 connected to 18, H2 - 14 to 10), and when moving forward.With the aim of raising the rear of the slave the moment when the transition mode reversing clutch K3 can be opened, and the clutch K4 be snapped together with the corresponding switch reverse block U, which requires intermittent vehicle is stationary.The first and fourth transmission can be achieved using a purely mechanical mode SHL box 2 transmission, and an interrupt on both the connecting lines 5 and 6 due to the corresponding adjustment of the reversing unit U (Fig. 3, column 1.M S1-2, 4.M using the appropriate symbols) completely rejected the hydraulic machines H1 at low samoobrazovanie and low-loss fixes the hollow wheel 18, or hydraulic machines H2 captures the small sun wheel 13 when appropriate, the necessary conditions for the opening and closing of the clutches K1, K2, K3, K4, K5. The second and third mechanical transmission can be achieved in mixed hydrostatically mechanical mode transition SHL-box 2 transmission, and this is done by switching the two connecting lines 5 and 6 due to the corresponding adjustment of the reversing unit U is of ojani the opening and closing of the clutches K1, K2, K3, K4, K5 and necessary measures on hydraulic machines H1, H2.Separately for a continuous process of acceleration from a state of slow motion or state of rest of the vehicle up to the maximum speed of 250 km/h) the following conditions occur:
1.M first mechanical transmission.Clutch K1 and K3 from the outset closed, the clutch K2, K4, K5 are open. Hydraulic lines 5 and 6 are locked on the side of the reversing block (corresponding symbols in Fig. 3). The hollow wheel 18 in accordance with this connected with completely rejectedmaxworking as pump hydraulic machines H1 and located on the trailing side of the main shaft 10 is connected with neutralized rotating (min) H2 hydraulic machines. With increasing number of turnover of a drive motor 1 in the region of n2/n1=0.2 to 0.5 is reached the switch point 1-2 (transition from first gear to second).Switching to second gear (2.M) is due to the disconnection of the clutch K1 and the locking clutch K2. Clutch K3 remains closed, the clutch K4 and K5 are open, lines 5 and 6 remain locked on the reverse side of the block (Fig. 3). Coupled now with the small sun wheel 13 hydraulic machines H2 short (0,14) completely the ü characteristics number of turns n1after a period of 1-2 switch box 2.HM in Fig. 2).2.M second mechanical transmission.The end of the above-mentioned implementation speed is achieved by neutralization adjustment (minboth hydraulic machines H1, H2 and implemented on the side of the reversing unit short circuit lines 5 and 6. This gives rise to a synchronous speed in the mechanical part SHL-box 2 transmission, i.e. the same circumferential velocity components. Immediately after reaching this condition occurs, the circuit also clutch K4, clutch K2 and K3 remain closed, the clutches K1 and K5 remain open. In accordance with this, the hydraulic machines H1 is connected now also located on the input side main shaft 9. Due to this, the number of revolutions of the drive motor 1 can again increase to the maximum.To shift from second gear to third when n2/n1=0,7, is the opening of the clutch K3. Other clutches K1, K2, K4, K5 remain in the current position of the switch. After this disconnection clutch K3 hydraulic H1, H2 short (0.4 sec) is rejected formaxthat in turn leads to the realization of the number of turns in the drive motor 1 (falling branch characteristics is the situation of the components in the sense of implementing the same angular velocity. After achieving this synchronization is achieved, the point S2-3switch, switches from the second gear to the third (3. M) that is provided by the circuit of the clutch K5 (clutch K2, K4 remain closed, the clutches K1, K3 are open).3.M third mechanical transmission.After closure of the clutch K5 planetary differential SHL 4-box 2 transmission is blocked. Due to the newly neutralized (minnow adjust both hydraulic units H1 and H2, the number of revolutions of the drive motor 1 can again be quickly increased to the maximum. At this stage hydraulic H1 and H2 are again short-time (0.4 sec) rejected completely in maxthat in turn leads to the realization of the number of turns in the drive motor 1 (falling branch characteristics number of turns of the field 4.HM in Fig. 2).At this stage is reached the point S 3-4 switch, i.e., shifting from the third gear to the fourth (4.M). This switching is accomplished by opening the clutch K5 (clutch K2 and K4 remain closed, the clutches K1 and K3 remain open), and by neutralizing adjustment hydraulic H1 in relation to the stateminand adjust operating as a pump guy the process of switching hydraulic H1 again connected with located on the input side main shaft 9, and hydraulic machines 2 with the small sun wheel 13, resulting in the number of revolutions of the drive motor 1 can be again increased rapidly in the direction of the maximum. At the end of the fourth transmission can be achieved the maximum speed of the vehicle.After this phase of acceleration in order to continuously further movement, you can go to the fifth hydrostatically-mechanical band 5.HM, which corresponds to the extreme accelerating mode transmission at a low engine speed in the ratio of n2/n1= 1.5 to 4. Corresponding to this mode conditions have already been described above.We should point out that due to the short-term partial removal of the load during the transition from a mechanical transmission to another, which is caused by control device 8 through the respective impact on the fuel pump and the throttle drive motor 1, even when accelerating at full throttle, you can keep samoobrazovanie hydraulic units H1 and H2 within acceptable bounds.To increase acceleration by typing the function "kickdown", which is transmitted to the control device 8 by full pressure on the pedal 46 accelerator from sootvetstvenno load of a drive motor 1 to operate the first hydromechanical operating range (1. HM), but should be considered with increased hydrostatic noise.During braking of the vehicle occurs, the pumping of hydraulic machines H1 and H2 in all ranges in the direction against at least one valve D for limiting the pressure which can achieve a particularly effective brake function using the corresponding invention of the concept of the drive.When using friction clutches K3, which is shown in Fig. 1 by the dashed lines, by moving the adjustment to support H1 hydraulic control device 8 in the range of driving and, consequently, to achieve the capabilities of the emergency vehicle is in motion on the first three gears even when the failure of high pressure hydraulics.When using the slip clutch K6 and possibly the next one, depicted by the dashed line in Fig. 1, a multiple disc clutch 7, it is possible by appropriate sliding adjustment of the latter with commands received from the control unit 8, to provide synchronization of the load at the time of switching hydraulic H1 and H2 on the other side of the transmission, resulting in the clutches K1, K2, K3, K4 can also be realized not t the device of the vehicle, contains located between the driving motor (1) and branch (11) drive the hydrostatically-mechanical resetlayout power transmission (2), which has at least chetyrehbalnoy planetary differential gear (4) with at least two rows of planet gears (15, 16), two sun wheels (12,13), one planet carrier (14) and one wheel (crown) (18) with an inner toothed gearing, the two main shaft (9,10), forming an entrance or exit and respectively connected to the various shafts of the planetary differential (4), and at least two hydrostatic machines (H1, H2), which alternately can operate as a motor or pump, characterized in that razvitsya transmit power (2), in addition, has locked or terminated using the included clutch (K1) of the kinematic chain (28, 27, 17, 14 ) between the hydrostatic machine (H2) and the output main shaft (10), abridged and interruptible using the included clutch (K2) of the kinematic chain (23, 21, 20) between the hydrostatic machine (H2) and lower (13) of the two sun wheels (12, 13), abridged and interruptible using the included clutch (KZ) of the kinematic chain (34, 32) between the hydrostatic machine (N1) and the crown (18), abridged and terminated with p the th shaft (9), first, connected with the hydrostatic machine (H2) intermediate shaft (22), the second connected to a hydrostatic machine (N1) intermediate shaft (33), and on the first intermediate shaft (22) is installed nodes (23, 30, 31) of the first clutch (K1), which can connect hydrostatic machine (H2) through the kinematic chain (28, 27) and led (14) with the output main shaft (10), and nodes (24, 25, 26) of the second clutch (K2), which can connect hydrostatic machine (H2) with less (13) of the two sun wheels (12, 13) through the kinematic chain (23, 21), and on the second intermediate shaft (33) is installed sites (35, 36, 37) of the third clutch (KZ), with which the hydrostatic machine (N1) via a gear (34) can connect with crown (19), as well as parts (40, 41, 42) of the fourth clutch (C4), with the help of which the hydrostatic machine (N1) via the kinematic chain (39, 38) can be connected with the input main shaft (9) on the output main shaft (10) is installed nodes (43, 44, 45) of the fifth clutch (K5), by which the crown (18) can be connected with the output main shaft (10) to lock the planetary differential transmission (4).2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the two hydrostatic machines (H1, H2) waitaria by means of a switching unit can switch to parallel and intersecting the passage, can be completely blocked or shorted, as well as to connect with a controlled limiting pressure valve through at least one pipeline (7).
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle contains frame 1 with cab 9, front and rear steerable wheels 4, 6 and middle wheels 5, engine placed behind the cab along vehicle and covered by hood 11. hydrostatic transmission contains pumping station 21 consisting of matching reduction gear driven by engine placed behind the cab, and three pumps connected by pipelines with hydraulic motors providing separate drives of wheels. Hydraulic motors are arranged along frame 1 between sidemembers on solid brackets made in form of boxes with flanges connected with wall of side member between its webs. Invention makes it possible to create ecologically clean and reliable multipurpose all-wheel-drive vehicle of high cross-country capacity with hydrostatic transmission to drive all wheels.
EFFECT: provision of convenient mounting and servicing of transmission units.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.
FIELD: transport engineering; automobiles with positive displacement hydraulic drive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission includes constant-capacity guided-vane hydraulic pump mechanically connected with vehicle engine communicating through pressure, drain and suction hydraulic lines through hydraulic distributor enclosing pressure and drain hydraulic lines and playing the part of reversor with at least one constant-capacity reversible guide-vane hydraulic motor to transmit torque to one or two driving wheels of automobile. Spaces of suction and drain hydraulic lines communicate with space of hydraulic tank. Suction hydraulic line passes through adjustable hydraulic restrictor whose control lever is mechanically coupled with automobile accelerator pedal.
EFFECT: simplified design of transmission, reduced fuel consumption and weight of transmission and its cost, and increased efficiency of automobile.
18 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; machine building hydraulics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used on vehicles and machine-and-tractor units operating under unsteady conditions of movement. Proposed device contains planetary train 1, reactive link 3 connected with drive gear of oil pump 5. Planetary train is connected through carrier shaft with gearbox 9 and is set into operation by engine 11. Two-step adjustable restrictor 12 is installed in pressure main line of pump. Safety valve 14 and control cock 15 are connected to input of adjustable restrictor, being also installed in pressure main line of pump pneumohydraulic accumulator, being end member of pressure main line, is provided with three spaces. It consists of hydraulic cylinder, free piston, piston with rod, piston position regulator, oil line and oil channel. Space between pistons is filled with oil which regulates volume.
EFFECT: reduced influence of vibrations of external traction load onto functioning of machine-and-tractor unit.
FIELD: transport engineering; hydrostatic transmissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrostatic transmission contains pumping unit consisting of main and makeup pumps driven by vehicle engine, hydraulic motors connected by main hydraulic lines with pumping unit and forming circulating hydraulic circuit, and electrically driven self-contained pump whose delivery space is connected with hydraulic circuit formed by main hydraulic lines. Hydrostatic transmission is furnished additionally with sealed hydraulic tank with device for charging its air space with compressed air from vehicle pneumatic system and containing shutoff cock, compressed air pressure regulator in sealed hydraulic tank with safety valve and vacuum manual control valve to discharge compressed air from sealed hydraulic tank, two-position manual control valve for alternate hydraulic coupling of suction space of self-contained electrically-driven pump with hydraulic tank and with device for charging the tank with working liquid, check valve arranged in drain hydraulic line at inlet of sealed hydraulic tank, and manually controlled shutoff valve in suction hydraulic line at outlet of sealed hydraulic tank.
EFFECT: improved reliability of hydrostatic transmission of vehicle designed for operation under various road conditions.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in different vehicles and in devices and mechanisms for clashless engagement of driven shafts. Proposed torque converter contains drive and driven units of converter. Drive unit is made in form of disks 2-5 with slots freely fitted on splined shaft 1. Movable blades are fitted in said slots. Driven unit of converter is made in form of cylindrical housing 7 with driven shaft 16 and rings 11 and 12 fitted on shaft. Disks 2-5 with blades 6 of drive unit of converter are arranged inside rings. Slots in disks 2-5 of drive unit of converter are made through being arranged tangentially. Each of rings 11, 12 in cylindrical housing 7 of converter driven unit is installed for rolling on guide 13, being connected with axle-shaft 14 flush-fitted in cradle of step bearing 15 whose body is in rigid engagement with cylindrical housing 7. With drive unit rotating, summary driven torque is formed from its hydraulic and inertia components. Formulas for calculating the torque are given in description of invention.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of hydraulic - inertia converter, its control system, gearbox of converter and method of torque conversion.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle hydraulic drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed recuperative reversible stepless hydraulic transmission of wheeled vehicle contains drive engine 5, recuperator 20 with overrunning clutch 24, controllable reversible hydraulic machine 18 with pressure and suction and control plunger 8 communicating with hydraulic control system through pipelines, follow-up hydraulic booster with variable-capacity pump 12 of reverse capacity, four non-controllable hydraulic machines 29-32. Each of said hydraulic machines has vehicle wheel, and wheels of vehicle are in contact with road pavement. Recuperator 20 is made in form of planetary reduction gear whose carrier 19 is connected with pump 12 and with hydraulic machine 18 provided with two diametric pressure and two diametric suction spaces and connected with hydraulic machines 29-32 by pipelines. Hydraulic machine 18 contains "floating" plunger 33 with two cylindrical grooves between two end face spaces and "polar" plunger by channels of which end face spaces of floating plunger 33 are communicated, overlapped or reversed with pressure and suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Cylindrical grooves of floating plunger 33 synchronously overlap or hydraulically communicate two pressure and two suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Lever 6 of polar plunger is mechanically connected with corresponding slot of plate 3 of vehicle speed and reverse control member.
EFFECT: reduced number of control members, dispensing with brake system improved cross-country capacity of vehicle, reduced fuel consumption, reduced acceleration time, increased efficiency.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: public building structures, particularly drives for showcase rotation.
SUBSTANCE: drive to rotate showcase substantially formed as superimposed disc 4 installed on pin 5 provides force transmission from drive 12 to disc 4 by means of flexible tie having tensioning means. Flexible tie is formed as closed loop of chain 10 having rigid links. The chain passes around the disc 4 along disc surface generator. Drive has sprocket 11 of driving means. The sprocket 11 is installed on shaft of hydraulic drive 12. Hydraulic drive 12 is mounted on plate 13 moving in radial direction relative disc 4 by hydraulic power cylinder 16.
EFFECT: increased safety of the drive, improved disc position adjustment, reduced size, simplified mounting and enhanced maintainability.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises electric means for measuring working volume of pumps and hydraulic motors and pickup (60) for measuring the speed of rotation of the shaft of the pump station. The electric circuits are provided with threshold control members (67) and (80) interconnected between pickup (6) and the electric means. Between threshold control members (67) and (80) and electric means for changing working volume of pumps (67) and (80) and hydraulic motors (13), (14), (17), and (18) of the drive of end wheels are variable resistors (77), (78), (86), and (87) that are controlled by pickups (89) and (89) of pressure difference in hydraulic circuits of the drive of the intermediate wheels and the drive of each pair of end wheels.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering and may be used in production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles. The self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission contains: an input shaft 9 and an output shaft 6, a centrifugal type nonadjustable hydraulic pump 3, a gear differential unit 2 with two output shafts 5, 6 and a nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4. The hydraulic pump 3 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 5. The nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 6, which is an output shaft of the gear differential unit output shaft. Self-regulation of a torque of the output shaft is depending on a load by changing the number of revolutions per a minute of the centrifugal pump using the differential gear of the he self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission. The technical result is an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: gear box contains a body with drive shaft, dummy shaft, driven shaft, dummy shaft of reverse, hydraulic motor and hydraulic pump installed in body. The hydraulic motor is assembled in an auxiliary section of the body and screwed on to the back wall of latter; the back end of the shaft of the blade hydraulic motor passes through an aperture in the back wall of the body. A blade hydraulic pump is secured in the front part of the gear box body; a pinion gear meshing a tooth rim of the motor flywheel is fastened on the shaft of the blade hydraulic pump. Via hydro system with drive valve and controlled throttle the blade hydraulic pump is connected with an oil tank and the blade hydraulic motor. A control mechanism of the blade hydraulic motor is kinematically tied with the controlled throttle and the drive valve.
EFFECT: upgraded operational characteristics of gear box and simplification of design.