Surround retaining wall
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the construction. Surround retaining wall contains blocks comprising the base, the fence, the bottom of which is made in the form of an inclined plate, and buttresses. The upper part of the fence is made in the form of a vertical plate, paired with an inclined plate, and the Foundation in the form of a plate. The units are connected by additional barriers, each of which is made in the form of paired inclined lower and upper vertical plates, and the height of the vertical plate is 0.1-0.5 height of the inclined plate. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il. The invention relates to the construction and can be used in the construction of industrial and public buildings on steep slopes, ravines and hollows.Known retaining wall, including the front described of horizontally stacked blocks and disposable device made of two plates of polygonal shape having horizontal and inclined sections, and plates supported on one another via the ends of the broken sections and horizontal sections of the wound between the blocks of the front fence (SU, ed. mon. N 1571142, CL E 02 D 29/02, 1990).The disadvantage of it is otsumami, garages.The closest technical solution is to surround the retaining wall containing a number of identical blocks, each of which includes a Foundation, buttresses and fencing in the form of inclined plates supporting backfill (BU A. J. Thin retaining wall, L. stroiizdat, 1974, S. 43-44, Fig. 25).The Foundation is made in the form of vertical supports deep foundations. Loads of backfill through the inclined plate perceive buttresses.Its disadvantage is the possibility of using only the resistance of the soil, it does not create a useful volume and considerable depth of laying the Foundation, as the ratio of the depth of the Foundation to the free height of the retaining wall is approximately 1:2.The aim of the invention is to expand the functionality of wall by using it to obtain useful volume and decreasing the depth of laying the Foundation and improvement of technical and economic indicators.For this volume the retaining wall containing blocks, each of which includes a base, a fence, the bottom of which is made in the form of an inclined plate, and the buttresses located with the external frequency, paired with an inclined plate, and between the blocks installed additional fencing, each of which is made in the form of a vertical upper plate and related inclined bottom plate, and the height of the vertical plate is 0.1 to 0.5 the height of the inclined plate. In addition, the volume of the retaining wall may contain overjet, is attached to the bottom of inclined slabs and buttresses, and the coating is located on the buttresses and the upper vertical plates.In Fig. 1 shows a retaining wall (plan) of Fig. 2 cross section of a main unit with a span l1(section a-a) of Fig. 3 is a cross-section of the intermediate block span l2(section b-B) of Fig. 4 plot of the current at the railing of the active lateral earth pressure, Fig. 5 a cross-section of the retaining wall, the inner volume of which is divided by walls and floor, in Fig. 6 surround retaining wall according to Fig. 1 is a perspective view, in Fig. 7 surround retaining wall according to Fig. 5 is a perspective view.Surround retaining wall contains blocks, each of which includes a base plate 1, buttresses 2 located on the outer side, and a fence in the form of paired inclined N. the inclined bottom 5 and top 6 vertical plates (Fig. 1-3, 6).Surround retaining wall erected as follows. In the lower part of the slope 8 of the plan area, prepare the base 7 and produce the concreting of the base plates 1 of the basic blocks. After curing of slabs buttresses erected to a height of 2 h2with simultaneous concreting the bottom of the inclined plates 3 and 5. The slope of the inclined bottom plates 3 and 5 in the direction of backfill 9 provides a reduction of active lateral earth pressure (Fig. 4). The tilt angle depends on the characteristics of the soil backfill (3). The next stage buttresses erected to a height of 21with simultaneous concreting vertical plates 4 and 6.The ratio of the heights of the upper vertical h1and lower inclined h2plates fence is h1h2of 0.1-0.5.When the ratio of h1:h2greater than 0.5 or less than 0.1, the increase of shear force acting on a large retaining wall that entails a substantial increase in the Foundation slab.Mutual arrangement of the buttresses 2, angle 3 and 5 and the vertical 4 and 6 plates fence, above the ratio of the heights of the plates, as well as the implementation of the Foundation in the form of fondimpresa volume retaining wall may be provided with horizontal beams 10, fixed on the lower inclined plates 3 and abutment 2 and the cover 11 located on the abutment 2 and the upper vertical plate 4 (Fig. 57).Thus, the proposal allows simultaneously during the construction volume of the retaining wall to get useful volume and reduce excavation. 1. Surround retaining wall containing the blocks comprising the base, the fence, the bottom of which is made in the form of an inclined plate, and buttresses, characterized in that it is equipped with additional protections, connecting blocks, each of which is made in the form of paired inclined bottom plate and a vertical upper plate, paired with an inclined plate, and the Foundation in the form of a base plate, and the height of the vertical plates is 0.1 to 0.5 of the height of the inclined plate.2. The wall under item 1, characterized in that it contains a horizontal overlap fixed on the bottom of inclined slabs and buttresses, and the coating is located on the buttresses and the upper vertical plates.
FIELD: building, particularly for slope consolidation and for stabilizing deep front landslide areas.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes foundation mat and piles formed in wells grouped in rows. Upper pile parts are embedded in foundation mat, lower one is restrained by not-sliding ground layers. Piles are composite along their lengths. Central pile parts are not filled with concrete. Heights of upper and lower pile parts decrease towards landslide head. Structure to prevent deep front land-slides comprises separate local pile groups connected by foundation mats and located within landslide body boundaries. Each foundation mat has tension bars anchored in stable slope layers and arranged under and above foundation mat along slope to retain thereof against displacement and rotation.
EFFECT: improved slope stability, increased operational reliability of structure built on wide landslides, reduced building time and material consumption.
FIELD: building, particularly engineering structures adapted for protection of linear and separate installations, including motor roads and railroads, against rock sliding, rock sloughing and mudflows.
SUBSTANCE: retaining wall includes relaxation device, face and foundation slabs rigidly secured one to another. Foundation slab is anchored in foundation ground. Relaxation device is formed of reinforced concrete slabs arranged in two longitudinal rows and secured to face slab by springs with variable spring force so that reinforced concrete slabs extend at different angles to horizon line. Low row slabs have lesser angle of inclination. Face slab and low slab row are provided with through slots. Foundation plate has cylindrical base and connected to inclined anchor by means of damping device.
EFFECT: reduced building time and operational costs for accumulating cavity cleaning, reduced labor inputs.
FIELD: building, particularly for bordering or stiffening the sides of foundation pits.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving vertical piles in ground along pit perimeter for depth exceeding pit bottom level; excavating ground up to reaching pit bottom level to open bordering member surfaces facing inwards; securing horizontal distribution beams to above surfaces to create framing belt; installing spaced cross-pieces along pit perimeter; leaning the first cross-piece ends against distribution beams and securing the second ends thereof into pit bottom ground; removing cross-pieces after reinforced concrete pit bottom forming. Ground is excavated to form inner initial pit and then stepped trench is dug out under the protection of thixotropic mix along the initial pit perimeter in direction transversal to bordering formed by piles. Lower trench step is located below pit bottom level and the second cross-piece ends are secured to above step which is then concreted under the protection of thixotropic mix. After hardening support shoe of cross-pieces trench is filled with previously excavated ground and ground is excavated of the pit up to reacting pit bottom level.
EFFECT: possibility to consolidate pit just after the initial pit and framing belt forming.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly retaining or protecting walls.
SUBSTANCE: landslide control structure comprises inclined injection piles arranged in several groups, connected one to another by grillage and built-in stable ground by lower ends thereof. The piles are united in groups each containing three piles arranged in pyramid corners so that one triangular plane defined by each pile group lies against landslide direction and is supported by struts. Above planes of neighboring triangles intersect in lower one-third part.
EFFECT: increased structure reliability and stability.
FIELD: agriculture, particularly steep slope terracing to adapt the slope for fruit trees and other crops growth.
SUBSTANCE: method for terracing slopes having steepness equal to or exceeding natural soil slip angle involves forming step-shaped ledges having depressions; scattering soil excavated from the slope over the ledges; stabilizing the soil with reusable rectangular netted retaining walls. The retaining wall has frame-like wall base created of welded angular or channel bars or bars of another cross-section. The wall bases are installed on the slope along lower ledge bounds and inclined at 60° angle with respect to horizon line. The wall bases are fixed by support and bearing wedges for a time equal to soil conglomeration time, wherein liquid or granular fertilizer is preliminarily introduced in soil and soil is laid down with perennial grass before ledge hardening.
EFFECT: increased slope use factor.
FIELD: building, particularly to stabilize slope landslides.
SUBSTANCE: landslide control structure comprises vertical walls built in base formed under the landslide and located along the landslide so that distance between adjacent walls decreases towards lower landslide end. Vertical walls are made of pile rows defining pleat-like system having pitch preventing ground punching between the piles. The pleats are directed so that corner apexes thereof face sliding ground and grillages of adjacent pleat flanges are connected by transversal beams.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity and increased technological efficiency of structure erection.
FIELD: building, particularly to erect road embankments.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment ground, retaining wall and support structure. Embankment ground is divided with flat geonet webs into several layers. The retaining wall is also divided into layers similar to ground layers and covered with single geonet webs. Each retaining wall layer has vertical through slots filled with macroporous draining material. Flat geonet webs are inserted between hollow layers of retaining wall. Vertical cavities of adjacent retaining wall layers in height direction are superposed in plan view. Length L of ground layers reinforced with flat geonet webs beginning from inner retaining wall surface is determined from a given equation. Road embankment erection method involves forming retaining wall base; laying road embankment ground layers alternated with flat geonet webs; erecting retaining wall comprising several layers and constructing support structure. Base is initially created and then lower erection wall layer is erected on the base, wherein the retaining wall is provided with vertical cavities having heights corresponding to ground layer heights. The vertical cavities are filled with coarse material for 2/3 of volume thereof and then embankment ground layer is poured and compacted. Embankment ground is leveled and coarse material is added in the cavities. The coarse material is leveled and geonet web is placed onto the coarse material within the bounds of retaining wall and embankment ground layer. Next layers are formed in similar manner. Reinforced concrete block for retaining wall forming comprises device, which cooperates with ambient ground. The device comprises one or several vertical through cavities to be filled with granular coarse material. Depression in concrete is formed in lower block surface in front of erection loop.
EFFECT: reduced material consumption and erection time, increased service life, stability and operational reliability.
9 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to reinforce landslide slopes, particularly extensive landslides.
SUBSTANCE: landslide control structure comprises bored piles fixed in stable slope ground layers and retained by anchoring means. To provide stability of lower landslide part inclined bars of anchor means are connected to bored pile heads. The anchor means are drilled down the slope and have fan-like structure. The anchor means are located at different levels in landslide body.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and material consumption for landslide control structure erection and increased stability of landslide massif.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly foundation and retaining wall erection with the use of injection piles.
SUBSTANCE: injection pile comprises concrete shaft formed directly in well and comprising reinforcing cage made as metal injection pipe lowered in well to refusal and spaced from well wall. The injection pipe is provided with lower perforated section having side injection orifices arranged in several layers beginning from lower injection pipe end. Well diameter is not more than 3d, where d is outer injection pipe diameter. Perforated section length is more than 3d, but less than L and is equal to (0.2-0.7)L, where L is well depth. Retaining wall is built on pile foundation comprising injection piles. The retaining wall includes reinforcing cage made as metal pipe having upper part used as head. The retaining wall is composed of concrete blocks laid in several rows one upon another. Blocks of lower row form retaining wall base. At least upper block installed on lower one has through orifice, which is vertically aligned with mounting orifice formed in lower block. Common cavity defined by above orifices is reinforced and concreted.
EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced cost of pile foundation and retaining wall construction.
21 cl, 3 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: equipment for underground mining, particularly slot cutting bit adapted to operate in high-pressure environment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises driving gear put in case, pressurizing means to change pressure in the case and active regulation means. Active regulation means may be operated by control means to change inner pressure in driving gear case. Active regulation means comprises pump and/or equalizing vessel. The pump and the equalizing vessel are communicated with driving gear case through fluid supply and/or discharge pipeline.
EFFECT: increased air-tightness and packing of driving gear due to increased accuracy of oil pressure regulation in driving gear box in dependence of environment conditions.
14 cl, 6 dwg