Method of neutralizing organic halogenated
(57) Abstract:Method of neutralizing organic halogenated General formula XMR1R2and/or their mixtures or media containing them, where X=Cl, Br; M is CH; R1- H; X; alkyl, alconox, C6H5; R2-R1; CH=CH2; CH=CHX; CH=CXCH3; CH=CHCH2X; CHXCH2; CH2X; CHOHCH2X; CH2OCH2CH2; CH2N(CH2CH2X)2; CH2SCH2CH2X;
COOH; COR1; with X = F, Cl, Br; R1- X, C1-C6alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy; R2-R1; C(C6H5)= CHX; CH= CHX Use: the clearance of compounds included in waste tonnage. The inventive decontamination to the one carried out by contacting with an aqueous-alkaline solution of lignin waste. 3 table. The invention relates to the neutralization of the compounds included in waste tonnage of such production, as the production of allyl chloride, apologete, glycerol, ethylene oxides and propylene by the chlorine method, as well as such as the production of chlorine-methanes, trichloroethylene, dichloroethane, chloride, vinylidenechloride, chloroprene, benzyl chloride. N is the development of pesticides, or other toxic products that are subject to destruction under international convection.of analogues known method of fire neutralization described in  the Way fire neutralization is characterized as a versatile and reliable enough. This method includes the following stages: high temperature firing treatment of waste halogenated derivatives; quenching the flue gas; recovery of hydrogen chloride from the flue gases. Commodity hydrochloric acid from the flue gas can be obtained when the concentration of chlorine in the chlorine-containing waste more than 60% At the lower chlorine content of gaseous hydrogen chloride usually catch neutralization.The disadvantages of this method are the formation of highly toxic polychlorodibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and active corrosion of the equipment, taking place under the action of hydrogen chloride.An example of neutralization of waste chlorinated with simultaneous production of useful products is chlorobis  this method allows the waste fraction of chlorethylene and haralanov to turn in a mixture of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, and the fraction of dichloropropanol-dichloropropanol in the mixture perchlorethylene useful products, takes place and the formation of harmful by-products such as hexachloroethane, hexachlorobenzene, Hexachlorobutadiene.Of particular concern at present is the need of destroying their stockpiles of chemical weapons. Most types of chemical weapons, developed in 20 of the 50-ies represent a halogen derivatives.To resolve this problem as a way of defusing also serves burning 
The disadvantages of this method of neutralization of toxic substances (S) are the complexity of the hardware design and the necessity of placing the object in remote sparsely populated areas, which, in turn, leads to dangerous traffic S.Along with the burning offers a combination of chemical methods and fire clearance. Of analogues known method of neutralization of mustard gas, sarin treatment with a mixture of monoethanolamine and ethylene glycol  Obtained by chemical neutralization of the reaction mixture is then subjected to a firing treatment. Of analogues known method of decontamination of mustard gas by alkaline hydrolysis in the presence of interphase catalysts  the Products of the neutralization of zataivaniya require scarce reagents.Known methods of chemical neutralization of highly toxic polychlorinated biphenyls.Of analogues known method, as claimed in  According to this method a mixture of polychlor and polybromodiphenyl contained in transformer oils (up to 50oC 100 ppm), neutralized by contacting with an alkali metal alcoholate at a temperature of 50oC 250oC.This method is difficult in hardware design, require pre-drying delaborated product and is not suitable for the neutralization of aqueous media.There is also known a method, as claimed in  According to this method solve the task by contacting halogenated derivatives of sodium or potassium derivative of polyethylene glycol at 20oC 160oC.The method is suitable only for disposal of small quantities polikhlorirovannykh (50oC 100 ppm). When making use scarce glycols.As can be seen from the above examples, the chemical methods of disposal halogen derivatives require the implementation of costly and scarce reagents that can be justified only in the case by the way described in  According to the method of disposal of waste halogenated derivatives, including O, N, S-terjadi, perforirovannykh and polychlorinated biphenyls, reached by contacting halogenated derivatives of rubber crumb. Resulting intermediate product is then subjected to a firing treatment.The method involves the use of available industrial waste and helps to neutralize various halogen derivatives in significant quantities, as well as remove toxic halogen derivatives from aqueous media.The disadvantage of this method is the need for subsequent combustion of the intermediate product.The present invention aimed at solving the task to develop a simple easy way that provides effective decontamination of halogen derivatives.The technical essence of the proposed method is that the disposal of halogenated derivatives of General formula XCHR1R2or their mixtures, or media containing them, and the General formula XCHR3R4or media containing them, reached by contacting halogenated derivatives of industrial wastes.Industrial wastes are lignindegrading with a ratio of halogen derivatives of: alkali lignin by Clason as 1oC 5 10oC 50 moles per 1 kg of lignin on Clason.Below is a comparison between the closest analogue and the claimed method (table 1).As can be seen from table 1, the treatment by the present method provides an effective neutralization of halogen derivatives of simplified technology.The authors argue that the claimed technical solution meets the criteria of the invention "inventive step" as the aggregate of the stated funds are not identified from known scientific-technical and patent sources and may not be well-known specialist of the claimed technology.An embodiment 1.1. In the apparatus, equipped with a mixing device, placed 1 l of an aqueous-alkaline solution of activated lignin obtained by alkaline activation of lignin waste known method (M. And Weirdos. "Industrial use of lignin". L, 1983, S. 140) containing 75 g of lignin on Clason and 2.8 mole of alkali per 1 liter of solution.2. To an aqueous-alkaline solution of lignin waste (p. 1) add 12.7 g (0.08 M) of dichloromethylsilane (DHS).3. The mixture (p. 2) mix with periodic sampling for analysis to provide the acid and defend without stirring.5. Received on p. 4 liquid and solid phases are separated. Both in liquid and solid phases according to GC source DHS is missing.6. Received under item 5 the liquid phase, which represents a salt solution, neutralized to pH 7.0.7. Solid phase under item 5 is dried in air or t100oC.Option run 2.1. In the apparatus, equipped with a mixing device, placed 75 g of lignin and 1 l of 2.8 molar solution of alkali (sodium hydroxide) is added and stirred until homogenization at room temperature.2. To the mixture under item 1 add 12.7 g (0.08 M DHS.3. The mixture according to p. 2 mix with periodic sampling for analysis on the content DHS by GLC until complete neutralization.Further, similar to embodiment 1. Other options the same as option 1, and their variables and indicators are shown in table 3, including the above options 1, 2. Method of neutralizing organic halogen derivatives of the General formula
XMR1R2< / BR>and/or their mixtures, or environments that contain them,
where X is Cl, Br M, CH;
R1H; X; alkyl; alkoxy; C6H5;
R2R1; CH CH2; CH CHX; CH CXC/SUB>X)2; CH2SCH2CH2X; COOH; COR1;
when X is f, Cl, Br, R1X; C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy; R2R1; C(C6H5) CHX; CH CHX,
by contact with industrial waste, characterized in that as industrial waste take lignin waste pre-treated with 0.5 to 5.0 N aqueous alkali solution at a ratio of halogen derivatives of alkali lignin in Clason equal to (1 5) (10 of 50) moles per 1 kg of lignin on Clason.
FIELD: means for protecting against harmful chemical agents.
SUBSTANCE: method for degassing army outfit materials polluted with organophosphorus physiologically active substance, namely O-(3,3-dimethylfluorobutyl)- methylfluorophosphonate involves treating outfit within 30 min. in electrochemically activated water-salt solution of sodium chloride - soda catholyte with pH value of 12.0 - 12.5 under temperature of 50oC, with liquid value of 8.0 l/kg under the action of ultrasonic field with frequency of 18.6 kHz and intensity of 0.76 W/sm2; drying thereof in hot air under temperature of 80oC within 15 min.
EFFECT: reduced treatment time, increased output, simplified system of army provision with degassing solutions and components for preparation thereof.