Bearing assembly slip

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in industry, in particular for bearing slides, working in distortions. Essence: supports consist of a trunnion shaft and covering their sleeves. The gap of the trunnion-hub Assembly into the manufacturing process is identical to the gap lapped mates. This gap is fixed in a regular pattern. The proposed size and shape of the gaps needed to increase the actual area of the sliding contact surfaces of the friction. This leads to increased endurance and reliability, and reduced high specific pressures, the decrease in the initial wear rate, reducing the time running. 7 Il.

The invention relates to mechanical engineering, in particular for the bearing slides, and can be used in friction units operating in distortions.

The closest technical solution, selected as a prototype, is the friction bearings of the crankshaft of the engine ZMZ-53. It contains a sliding bearing consisting of journals (Zapf) shaft and bearings (bushings). Elements of friction pairs of a given node are characterized by a cylindrical friction poverkhnosteyj and universal. The angle of contact for this form of the rubbing surfaces when considering the work of individual support is in the practically acceptable range the most rational. However, obtaining in the process of manufacturing the same for all the supports of the gap does not take into account the specific features of the friction unit and the machine where the node is used. This is primarily misalignments of the shaft affecting the efficiency and supports specific to the crankshaft ZMZ-53 and others similar to him of friction.

The technical result of the invention, the reduction of high specific pressures, the decrease in the initial wear rate, reduce the time of the break-in.

The result is achieved that, in a bearing unit slip, consisting of a trunnion shaft and bushing clearance between the working surfaces of the sleeve and the axle shaft in each pererabatyvaemogo support at a relatively stable operation of the shaft equal to the value:

< / BR>
where (0,5 Sm)jthe size of the bearing gap at a distance (Lm)jattacki of intersection of the axes of the shaft and bearings;

m 1.n sequence number support;

j relatively stable position of the mechanism;

(Lm)jthe distance from m supports up to tor up to the nearest pererabatyvaemogo support in position j;

0,5 Soptthe value of the optimal gap for this type of pairing is determined by the gap nearest pererabatyvaemogo support to the point of intersection of the axes of the shaft and bearings;

a quantity that characterizes the machining tolerances, defective Assembly, shaft deformation and supports in the process.

In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of a three-shaft with joints lapped mating longitudinal section.

In Fig. 2 shows a diagram of a three-bearing shaft with equal initial clearances in the bearings, longitudinal section.

In Fig. 3 depicts a schematic relatively resistant work positions of the crankshaft ZMZ-53.

In Fig. 4 shows the curves of changes of wear of bearings from experience.

In Fig. 5 depicts a first bearing crankshaft ZMZ-53 cross section.

In Fig. 6 depicts a fifth bearing crankshaft ZMZ-53 cross section.

In Fig. 7 shows a diagram of the p-supporting shaft.

The friction (see Fig. 1) contains three sliding support I, II, III, consisting of the trunnion shaft 1 and bushing 2. All supports have different initial gap (0.5 S1)I, (0,5 S2)I, (0,5 S3I. Size and shape of the gap depends on constructive parametro shaft relative to the bearings. In this case it is constant and the magnitude and direction. The algorithm for calculating the gap lapped pairing is as follows:

is determined by the tangent of the rotation angle of the shaft axis relative to the axis of the supports:

,

where (0,5 Sopt) the value of the optimal gap for this type of interface

L3the distance from the point of intersection of the axes of the shaft and bearings to the nearest support,

define rational gaps in each support shaft:

< / BR>
where L1, L2, L3the distance from the point of intersection of the axes of the shaft and bearings to, respectively, first, second and third pillars.

The friction works as follows.

When the shaft has a loading force P, which shifts the shaft about the axis of the supports. The shaft position is characterized by the point of intersection of the axes of the shaft and bearing and structural dimensions of the friction.

The ratio of gap to 0.5(S1.S3)I between them allows you to receive the mating pin connector maximum valid size of the sliding contact surfaces, which allows you to hold the shaft in a relatively stable position. The size of the gap may vary as change is what if the manufacturer shall take into account the misalignment of the shaft and hence the unevenness of the gap width of the bearing. For example, the size of the gap in the points A and B of the first support (see Fig. 1):

< / BR>
< / BR>
where LAand LBthe distance from the point of intersection of the axes of the shaft and bearings to points A and B.

As evidence of the effectiveness of the present invention examine the work of the friction with equal initial clearances for all the supports of the shaft (see Fig. 2). As in the first case, the shaft operates at an angle determined by the magnitude and direction of the force p Under the action of uneven wear of bearings is adjust to any misalignment of the shaft, i.e., the mechanism occupies a relatively stable position, characteristic of the lapped mates.

Obtaining clearances lapped mates in the machining process increases the durability of the bearing Assembly slip due to the possibility of reducing the total size of the gap and reducing loads in the bearings of the shaft. Receipt of the proposed clearances can be done using paleobotany processing or bulkheads during the operation of replacing one of the elements of the friction pair on the other element size is somewhat cyclical. In this case, there may be several relatively resistant provisions of the mechanism. Tests were carried out on patiparn the crankshaft of the engine ZMZ-53. Studies using modeling techniques, this type of friction, as well as studies of the wear of the shafts showed that the shaft is in one of two stable positions (see Fig. 3). Lines 1 and 2 correspond to the lines supporting surfaces indigenous necks of the shaft. For readability of the drawing line 2 is a mirror image of its actual position relative to the axis of the supports. Data line on the neck of the shaft are located on opposite sides. Therefore, areas of wear of the first and fifth supports for both steady state coincide. This means that the gap lapped pairing will be determined by the maximum possible number probatively supports (K) for each relatively stable position.

Kj=n-n1< / BR>
where j is the number of stable positions,

n the number of shaft bearings;

n1the number of poles, breaking of which is difficult or irrational, for example, due to a significant reduction in oil pressure in the lubricating system of the engine.

The value of n1t is the actor includes the following major specific features of friction, as the design parameters of the bearing Assembly slip, methods of lubrication, as a lubricant and more. Specific features of the machine are defined through its action on the site, and it supports the loading forces and moments, as well as the influence of vibrational and other processes. The value of n1is based modeling, or data of wear experienced lots of friction.

In Fig.4 is determined by the difference between the time of friction with bearings made according to the technical conditions/1/ (curve 1, constructed according to the statistics) and friction units with clearances lapped mates obtained at the production stage (curve 2 theoretical). Curve 3 corresponds to the experimental tests of friction (according to statistics). Graphics build for the first and fifth indigenous necks in a plane relatively resistant provisions of the work shaft. Curves changes clearances built without the wear liners. This is due to the fact that in the ordinary conditions of operation of the engine anti-friction layer liners filled with abrasive particles and to judge the changes in their geometric parameters is practically impossible. The saturation of the abrasive trousered running mate. Inclusion of this factor reduces the reliability of the comparison of the results in the time between the actual and theoretical friction in the reduction of their difference.

Analysis of the graphs shows that obtaining clearance lapped mates before the start of operation to increase the life of indigenous bearings of the crankshaft of the engine ZMZ-53 is not less than 20% of a Relatively small increase in the time trial batch with serial friction (10%) due to low levels of approximation to the gap lapped mates.

Obtaining the necessary clearance was achieved by changing the cylindrical surface of the first and fifth indigenous necks shaft (respectively Fig.5 and 6). On the neck, in the planes of relatively resistant provisions of the work shaft is removed, a layer of metal on the value of J1and J5. Shows the form of journals is achieved on a universal grinding machine 3A-423 by displacement of the centers of the machine.

in the real friction always there are some tolerances in the manufacture or repair of one or another detail. Valid values of J1and J5for an experimental batch of the ramparts was the amount 0,0250,005 mm Precision equipment not Posey according to technical specifications /2/.

On the basis of the conducted research proposes an algorithm for determining clearances lapped pair of bearing assemblies slip, working in conditions of distortions (Fig. 7).

1. The definition of relatively stable positions of the mechanism and the allocation for each point of intersection of the shaft axis with the axis of the poles.

This operation is performed on the basis of modelling, or the study of the wear of an experimental batch of friction.

2. Determination of the maximum possible or the most rational numbers lapped supports for each relatively stable situation:

nj=n-n1< / BR>
3. The definition of the tangent of the angle of rotation of the shaft relative to the bearings for each position j:

< / BR>
4. Determining the size of the gap lapped pair in the plane of the relatively stable position j of the operation of the mechanism.

< / BR>
5. The choice of method of obtaining clearance lapped mates.

This method is selected from the technological capabilities and economic costs to the manufacture or repair.

Bearing unit slip, consisting of a trunnion shaft and bushings, characterized in that the clearance between the working surfaces of vtalk is not

< / BR>
where (0,5 Sm)jthe size of the gap m-reliance on the distance (Lm)jfrom the point of intersection of the axes of the shaft and bearings;

m 1.n sequence number support;

j relatively stable work position of the shaft;

(Lm)jthe distance from m-reliance to the point of intersection of the axes of the shaft and bearings;

0,5 Soptthe value of the optimal gap for this type of pairing is determined by the gap nearest pererabatyvaemogo support to the point of intersection of the axes of the shaft and bearings;

(Li)jthe distance from the point of intersection of the axes of the shaft and bearings to the nearest pererabatyvaemogo support;

a quantity that characterizes the machining tolerances, defective Assembly, shaft deformation and supports in the process.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to bearings

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to intermediate bearings of engines and more precisely to devices and methods for installation of intermediate bearing on crankshaft. Method consists in the fact that intermediate bearing (162) is placed on central hub (160), and further intermediate bearing (162) is pressed between central hub (160) of crankshaft and central partition (116, 118) of engine tray. To install intermediate bearing (162) in tray (110) of engine and to connect it to central partition (116, 118), device is used, which represents tool (200) comprising two halves (210, 230).

EFFECT: creation of simplified method for installation of intermediate bearing, in which: number of elements required for installation is reduced, installation flexibility and adaptability are provided.

44 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to automobile engineering, to river craft and marine. The bearing for an internal combustion engine with reciprocal motion of a crank mechanism consists of a separator, rollers and of internal and external rings. Also the separator is connected to the housing of the engine by means of threaded connection wherein wear of the separator, rollers and internal and external rings can be regulated.

EFFECT: increased service life of engine.

2 dwg

Sliding bearing // 2398141

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: sliding bearing consists of half-round upper insertion and half-round lower insertion separated one from another. The upper insertion consists of the first oil-conducting channel for supply of lubricating material (motor oil) from outside into a gap between the bearing and a shaft and the second oil-conducting channel facilitating flow of oil in a circular direction of the bearing. The first channel includes an opening in internal circumference opened into internal circumference of the upper insertion. The upper insertion includes a part without an internal recess without a channel on a back side relative to the opening in internal circumference in the direction of shaft rotation. An auxiliary oil-conducting channel for oil release from the second channel is made in at least one of lower insertions and in a zone on the next side of the opening in circumference in the direction of rotation. The second channel runs to a front side in the direction of shaft rotation from the opening in internal circumference to the auxiliary channel. In the second version the upper insertion of the bearing included a front end part on the front side relative to the opening, while the lower insertion includes the back end part corresponding to the front part. The auxiliary channel is formed with channels of an unloading recess and a face made on the internal circular side of at least one of the front parts of the upper insertions and the back part of the lower insertion. Oil consumption of the face channel is bigger, than oil consumption of material in the channel of the unloading recess. Also there is claimed the facility of torque transfer and the engine containing the sliding bearing.

EFFECT: sliding bearing with decreased amount of lubricating material coming out of oil gap preventing damages caused with foreign impurities.

14 cl, 48 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to bearing unit of crankshaft of internal combustion engine. The bearing unit consists of bearing (10) mounted on crankshaft (16) of the internal combustion engine, of seat (11, 15) of the bearing designed for placement of bearing (10) and of system (20) of packing designed for sealing relative to crankshaft (16) and seat (11, 15) of the bearing. At least one part of seat (11) of the bearing has a reinforcing element (12) positioned in the seat of the bearing. Also, surface (13) of at least one part of seat (11) of the bearing adjoining bearing (10) is made out of plastic. There are also claimed the internal combustion engine comprising the said bearing unit and a hand tool with a mechanical drive containing the said internal combustion engine.

EFFECT: improved bearing unit of crankshaft due to bearing unit sealing and optimal installation of bearing and/or bushing of bearing in seat of bearing with decreased allowances, which prevents bearing and/or bushing of bearing rotation in bearing seat; minimised hazard of bearing distortion and bearing and/or bushing of bearing compression in bearing seat under force causing finite destruction of bearing and/or bushing of bearing.

13 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: unit of transmission mechanism, particularly, of internal combustion engine, consists of shaft (1) and of at least another one part (2, 3); also, shaft has bearing journals for installation in corresponding bearing orifices made in said part (2, 3). Surface of a bearing journal is equipped with antifriction coating; also, surface of a corresponding bearing orifice directly contacts this anti-friction coating. Anti-friction coating has a multi-layer structure. Here there is also claimed the shaft for the said unit of the transmission mechanism; the shaft can be a crank- or camshaft of the internal combustion engine.

EFFECT: simplified design of transmission mechanism unit; reduced weight and cost of units.

14 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method involves measurement of diameters of primary supports of case, main journals of crankshaft, their misalignment values, thickness of upper and lower inserts, sorting of parts as per dimensional groups, selection of sets of parts in a batch by simulating the assembly considering all the measurement parameters and calculation of total completing error. At that, inserts are chosen as to their thickness by calculating "working" gaps in the zone of their maximum approximation under load, considering the measurement parameters of each primary support and similar main journal. Parts are sorted, and at the same time, accuracy of radial gap is calculated by comparing it to allowable limit values of radial gaps and by choosing the measured dimensions of contact surface of completing parts, which are the closest as to the value. Simulation is performed by using geometrical plane model of mounting assembly and performing mathematical simulation and computer-aided selection of the required combination of sizes of thicknesses of upper and lower inserts of secondary journals. Then, the required thicknesses of inserts are chosen by deducting from "working gap" value the corresponding values of limit values of radial gaps in each similar pair of main bearing-main journal of crankshaft, by using the data of actual measured sizes of diameters of holes of primary support of diesel engine casing, main journals of crankshaft, thicknesses of upper and lower inserts of main sliding bearings using combinatory relationship of design radial gap.

EFFECT: improving the accuracy of radial gaps and efficiency of assembly process due to automation of completing process of multi-support bearing assembly.

6 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: metal cap (1) comprises an arched section (2) forming the bearing surface, left and right flange sections (3) which are placed and connected with the opposite ends of the arched section (2), bush sections (4) placed so that to rest on the back surfaces of the left and right flange sections (3) and through which assembling bolts are inserted, and a recess (12) formed between the two bushes (10). Each of the bush sections (4) is formed with a recess (12) and includes two holes (11) for a bolt passing through each of the flange sections (3), and two bushes (10) embracing the holes (11) for the bolt. The bushes (10) are interconnected by a rib (13) placed so that to be able of crossing the recess (12) between the bushes (10) on the front end face side.

EFFECT: provision of a cap that shall be cast inside a light-metal element as a frame and that provides for the reduction of bearing surface deformation and is suitable for improving the connection with the light-metal element.

4 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to and crankshaft bearing caps, in particular, to attachment of these bearing caps. Cap (10) of crankshaft bearing of internal combustion engine has a shape of semicylinder (13) with its axis aligned with crankshaft axis and comprises diametrically opposite attachment supports (20). Each support (20) is made in the form of a post resting on the heel (26), and has essentially oval top surface (18), which includes a support surface (16), surrounding the hole (15) for passage of a fastening screw and bearing surface for screw head, the said surface surrounding passage opening (15). Attachment Support (20) comprises at least two vertical slot on its outer side surface extending from the base support on heel (26) and continued in the section support height. Slots are arranged outside of vertical support cylinder, its base equal to the support surface (16), and outside the volume confined by crosswise plane passing through the axis of the fastening holes and located symmetrically relative to direction along the length.

EFFECT: optimised shape of bearing cap supports.

6 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: machine engineering.

SUBSTANCE: instrument for turning the parts of a bearing assembly lining comprises a lining divided into at least two parts. The instrument comprises a device designed to affect one of the at least two mentioned parts of the lining and rotate all parts of the bearing assembly liner.

EFFECT: maintenance of the lining parts is provided without disassembling the machine or its parts.

9 cl, 22 dwg

Up!