The method of water treatment in the process of joint cultivation of fish and plants
(57) Abstract:Usage: when the joint cultivation of fish and plants in systems with circulating water. The inventive of the fish tank water is directed to mechanical and biological treatment, and then divided into two streams. One return in the pool with the fish, and the other (with high concentration of suspended solids) accumulate and share on nagashino water and thickened sludge from sludge receive compost soil, and the supernatant water is passed through the root system of plants. During the growth of seedlings of the supernatant water is served for biological treatment. During the vegetative growth of plants in the water contribute nutrients and add water into it after mechanical cleaning. Before returning water to the pool with the fish is saturated with oxygen, is mixed with fresh water and bring to a certain temperature. The method allows to dispose of sludge and supernatant water without dumping them into the external environment, to ensure the required quantity and quality of water for growing fish and plants. 1 Il. The invention relates to a waste-free methods of water treatment for growing fish and plants in systems with oborotnyami discharge of water and sediments, as well as providing recycling of nutrients contained in the water and sediments.A known method of purification of recycled water for growing fish (1), namely, that all the water from the fish tank passes the mechanical purification from suspended particles, then part of the water passes nitrification, and the other part of the water and half of the water after nitrification together are denitrification, both water after settling mix after mixing purified water fed fresh water is then heated and saturate it with oxygen, after which it is fed to the fish tank.The downside of it is the need of the sludge discharge together with transporting water after mechanical and biological treatment of water coming from the fish tank, which causes environmental pollution, irretrievable loss of valuable, environmentally friendly nutrient.A method of processing water in the joint process of growing plants and fish (2), by which all the water from the fish tank is circulated for hydroponic cultivation of plants, and then returns back to the fish pool.The disadvantages of this method javlautsa for growing plants, depending on the age of the fish (physiological phases of growth) and plants, in addition, of the fish tank you need to remove sediments in order to avoid contamination in the water, resulting in lost valuable nutrients, is environmental pollution. Furthermore, the reduced fish productivity due to the inability to provide a high density of fish.There is a method implemented in the device for the cultivation of plants and fish (3), through which water from the fish tank force is applied to the irrigation of plants, while it profiltruyut through the porous layer, where the roots of the plants is collected and discharged into the fish pool. The method involves cleaning the water from the fish tank by filtration through a porous layer located at the bottom of the fish tank, and the subsequent forced supply of water for irrigation of plants and drain it on the tray, where the roots of the plants in the fish pool.The disadvantages of this method are the accumulation of sludge in the porous layer through which profiltruyut water, pollution of water in the fish tank by the degradation products of precipitation, as well as the impossibility of providing WIA is the inability to control water quality, as returned in the fish pool and used for growing plants. In addition, during the removal of detainees precipitation is lost valuable nutrients.There is a method implemented in an apparatus for cultivation of fish  According to this method, the water from the tank for growing fish is served in the aeration tank settling tank, divided into (and aerobic nitrificator, in which the upper part is placed containers with higher aquatic plants for water treatment for nitrate, and then in the pressure filters of coarse-grained materials for biological purification. Purified water is returned to the working tank, and the excess activated sludge is periodically removed in the sewage system.The disadvantages of this method are the inability to control the quality of water as supplied to the plants, and obtained after contact with the plant, depending on the age of the fish and plants (physiological growth phase), and the need for removal and sludge discharge into the sewer after biological treatment, resulting in the loss of valuable nutrients and pollution.There is a method of water treatment process combined hydropool to the invention. According to this method, the water from the fish tank is subjected to mechanical and biological treatment, then it is sent into the tank, where the water is forced back into the fish tank, and a portion of the water guide for hydroponic cultivation of plants, after contact with which it returns into the tank where it is mixed with water from the fish tank, past the mechanical and biological treatment. Alternatively, the water from the fish tank after mechanical treatment in full goes for hydroponic cultivation of plants, then goes to the tank from which forcibly returns to the fish tank. In both cases located to the tank water is subjected to high temperature and simultaneously mixed with flowing fresh water and nutrient solution.The disadvantage of this method of water treatment is that the water coming into the tank after mechanical and biological cleaning, contains precipitation, which leads to additional contamination of the water in the fish tank, and also to the irretrievable loss of valuable environmentally friendly nutrient. The method does not allow for regulation of the quality of the dependence on the age of the fish and physiological phases of plant growth.The technical result of the claimed invention is a method of water treatment in the process of growing fish and plants in a closed system, which provided for the elimination of precipitation after mechanical and biological treatment and simultaneous disposal of sludge and supernatant water is discharged into the external environment.Thus the proposed method can provide the required quantity and quality of water for fish production and the required quantity and quality of water for growing plants with recycling of nutrients contained in the supernatant water (transporting precipitation in the form of pulp after mechanical and biological treatment), and to dispose of sludge from mechanical and biological cleaning of obtaining compost soil, increase fish productivity due to high stocking density of fish and profitability by creating optimal conditions for cultivation of fish, plants and preparation of compost soil.This technical result is achieved due to the fact that after mechanical and biological cleaning of water received from the fish tank, part of it to the high concentration of suspended particles (vydate in the course of its circulation passes through the root system of plants and depending on the physiological phases of plant growth add water from the fish tank, past mechanical cleaning, and nutrients. When the excess water produced part of it is sent for biological treatment together with water, which undergoes mechanical treatment. The thickened sludge after mechanical and biological cleaning of water from the fish tank is directed to the receiving compost soil. Another part of the water from the fish tank fed by fresh water, is subjected to high temperature and before feeding fish in the pool is saturated with oxygen.The drawing shows a diagram of the proposed method.The method is as follows.From the fish tank 1 water is fed into the dirty water tank 2, where its force is directed to the mechanical removal of suspended solids in the filter 3. Filtered water from the filter 3 is sent for biological treatment apparatus 4, depending on the physiological phases of plant growth (per day up to 20% of the time flow of water in the circulation tank 5.After biological treatment in the apparatus 4, where for intensive biological treatment administered oxygen, purified water, add fresh water, carry out the necessary temperature exposure apparatus 6 and send ovocny pool enter the air. Accumulated in the filter 3 and the apparatus for biological treatment 4 suspended solids in the form of slurry is directed into the collection of sediment 8, where the slurry is separated into the supernatant water and thickened sludge. The supernatant water from the collection of sediment 8 is sent to the circulation tank 5 from which the force served in trays 9 for hydroponic cultivation of plants 10, after which the water returns to the tank 5. Part of the supernatant water up to (50%) of the circulation tank 5 depending on the physiological phases of plant growth serves on the biological treatment apparatus 4. With a lack of supernatant water and/or/ biogenic elements, depending on the physiological phases of plant growth in the circulation tank 5 serves of the water (per day up to 20% of the time water consumption) after mechanical cleaning of the filter 3 and /or/ nutrients.Thickened sludge from the collection of sediment 8 is directed to the preparation of compost soil in the device or collar 11, mixing it with additives.The implementation of the method is characterized by the following example.Fish pool 1 caribsea 5000 pieces fry carp weighing 30 g of Water from the fish tank 1 28 m3/h is fed into the dirty water tank 2, from which the pump is supposed to be fish), filtered water from the filter 3 is directed to apparatus for biological treatment 4: oxitec-settling tank where aerobic microorganisms using supplied to the aeration zone of oxygen, removal of organic contaminants, and denitrification-sump, where with the help of microorganisms of denitrification cleaning are nitrates and nitrites, in the apparatus for biological treatment increases the number of microorganisms (activated sludge), the excess amount which precipitates. Water after biological treatment is fueled fresh water brought in the apparatus 6 to a temperature of 25 1oC and sent to the device 7, which is saturated with oxygen up to 25 g/m3and at the rate of 28 m3/h arrives at breeding pool 1. Detainees in the filter 3 suspended solids intermittently when its automatic washing together with rinsing water in the form of pulp served in the collection of sludge 8.The collection of sediment 8 periodically in the form of direct pulp sludges from biological treatment apparatus 4. Just a day in the collection of sediment 8 receives 1.5 m3the pulp. After settling in for the night in the collection of sludge produced 1 8 m3the supernatant vodka 8 daily flows 1 m3the supernatant water. Trays for hydroponic cultivation of plants planted 9 8000 pieces of tomato seedlings. The trays 9 serves water from the circulation tank 5, which is then returned to the specified tank, ensuring its continuous circulation. During the growth of seedlings of the water (up to 50%) from the circulation tank 5 is fed to the biological treatment apparatus 4, and from the collection of sediment 8 supernatant water in quantities of 1 m3/day. served in the circulation tank 5. After the onset of the vegetation period, when 8000 pcs. tomatoes begin to consume more than 1 m3/day. the supernatant water in the circulation tank 5 additionally begin to apply part of the filtered water from the filter 3 gradually increasing the flow rate to 5.6 m3/day. fully compensate for the consumption of tomato water. At the same time water loss, circularise to install, fill with fresh water, feeding it into the water after mechanical cleaning. For 75 days. tomatoes from seedlings to grow vegetative phase of fruiting. To 90 days. remove 12.5 tons of tomatoes, while during the same period, the fry of common carp increased from 30 to 300, For the next 90 days. of new seedlings (8000 units) grow harvestable tomatoes and bring more of 12.5 tons of tomatoes, and the carp reach the by 1 cycle (180 days) marketable carp breeding and at the same time two cycles of growing tomatoes. For the year (360 days) product output amounted to: carp 5 tons and 50 tons of tomatoes. Thickened sludge from the collection of sediment 8 in the amount of 0.5 m3/day. or 91 m3for one cycle of cultivation of carp (180 days) used for making compost soil, for which purpose it is mixed in the pile with 1000 kg of straw, 1500 kg of broiler litter and 2000 kg horse manure with bedding. After maturation, received 5 tons of compost soil. Two cycles of growing fish received 10 t compost soil, suitable for growing plants. The method of water treatment in the process of joint cultivation of fish and plants, including the diversion of water from the fish tank, its mechanical and biological treatment, bringing to a certain temperature, a mixture of fresh water and nutrients, a circulation passage of water through the root system of plants and return to the fish pool, characterized in that water after mechanical and biological treatment is divided into two streams, fish pool return one thread, another thread with high concentration of suspended particles accumulate and separated into supernatant water and evaporated the residue, and the latter is directed to obtain compost soil, and for circulational supernatant water serves to biological treatment, nutrients contribute in the supernatant water during the vegetative growth of plants and in the same period, it added the water after mechanical cleaning, mixing with fresh water and bring to a certain temperature is subjected to the flow of water returned to fish the pool, and his before serving in the pool is saturated with oxygen.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, soil-free growing of plants in special devices for exposing plant roots to nutritive aerosol.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has vertical pipe used as carrier member for bed and equipped with plant receiving openings arranged in any order. Plants are supported by means of holders resting with their lower edges upon lower edge of opening. Upper part of holder is tightly fixed in, for example, rings of fastening band. Nozzle fixed in upper (narrow) end of pipe is adapted for spraying of nutritive solution aerosol containing gas mixtures. High conical towers-ridges provide for ecologically clean management, since outbursts of liquid nutritive solutions may be utilized by other plants, for example, fruit trees growing beyond greenhouse or nearby, in open ground. Apparatus may be used for decorative purposes on grounds not suitable for plant growing and for agricultural purposes.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and minimal usage of areas of open ground, as well as of greenhouse.
2 cl, 4 dwg