The method of optical inspection of transparent liquid level
(57) Abstract:Way of the optical level control transparent liquids, which consists in the direction of a transparent container with a liquid light beam generated by the radiation source, and the capture of the refracted beam receiver mounted on the same level as the source on the other side of the container, characterized in that the formed beam is directed to the plane-parallel wall of the container at an angle of incidence of the beam 30 - 60oand the installation position of the receiver is chosen from the relation
< / BR>where l is the distance from the optical axis of the beam to the receiver on the wall of the container;
- the angle of incidence of the beam formed on the wall of the container;
d is the total thickness of the transparent walls of the container, through which the beam;
D - the distance between the transparent walls of the container, through which the beam;
n1- optical refractive index of the transparent material of the container walls;
n2- optical refractive index of the controlled fluid.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises locating extremums of the profile of spatial gradient of the heat exchange coefficient of the distributed sensor of a meter for measuring temperature profile, which is provided with a built-in heater, by repeatable heating of the sensor and measuring the current profile of the heat exchange coefficient from the formula
where mc, and S are the parameters of the sensor (m is the mass, c is the heat capacity, and S is the area of the outer side), P(z,ti) and P(z,ti+1) are the values of heating power, and are the profiles of temperature measured by the sensor, and are the profile of temperature derivatives at time ti and ti+1, and calculating the current profile of spatial gradient of the heat exchange coefficient . The location of the interface is assumed to be the location of extremums at this profile. The current profile of the heat exchange coefficient is determined from the formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of locating and expanded functional capabilities.
1 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting heating and non-heating thermistors of meters for measuring temperature profile, determining current temperature profiles, calculating current profile of heat exchange coefficients of the thermistors from the formula
where P(z,t) is the current power of heating of the thermistor at point z; m, c, and S are the parameters of the meters for measuring temperature profiles (m is the mass per unit length, c is the heat capacity, and S is the area of the outer side); is the current profile of temperature of the heating thermistor; is the current temperature profile of the non-heating thermistor, and calculating the current profile of the spatial gradient of the heat exchange coefficient . The location of extremums zm at the profile is assumed to be the location of the interface.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of locating and expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: test engineering; measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: indicator can be used as detector of presence of fluid in containers, in particular, in high-voltage discharge conduits of different purpose diesel engine. Indicator has housing, radiation source, reflector, radiation receiver and signal processing unit. There is working cavity in central part of the case. Reflector is disposed inside the cavity onto frame with two parallel channels. Radiation source is disposed in one channel and radiation receiver - in the other one. Radiation source and radiation receiver are connected with signal processing unit fastened to top part of plate. Plate is disposed inside case under frame. There hole for feeding fluid at lower part of side wall of working cavity. There is drainage hole in top part side wall of working cavity. Top cap of the cavity is made in form of screw. Frame is connected with case by thread.
EFFECT: simplified design; reduced cost.
FIELD: engineering of equipment for measuring height of liquid column in vessels filled with specific liquids, for example, sewage water.
SUBSTANCE: device for determining height of liquid column in a vessel includes vessel with pipe, measuring device and air feeding device. Also, one end of pipe is connected to air compressor, while another, open, one is provided with protective mesh and positioned inside the vessel near its bottom. Pipe is provided with locking valve and measuring device, for example, manometer, placed after the locking valve.
EFFECT: simplified construction, facilitated measurement of liquid column height.
FIELD: measuring technique; oil industry; chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for checking level of liquid in reservoirs, for example, at petrol stations. At least one measuring bar is placed in container; there are marks applied onto measuring bar. Image of measuring bar is transmitted by means of TV camera fixed to float (water-proof case of camera can be also made in form of float) through TV signal transmission channel to TV image introducing device and digital computing device, where calculation of level of liquid is performed on the base of digital representation of received original image. Float of waterproof case of TV camera made in form of float is capable of free movement in vertical direction when level of liquid changes. Signal received by TV camera does not depend on position (warps) of float as determination of level of liquid is performed on base of image of glowing areas on surface of light guide, which areas are disposed within field of view of camera. To perceive information, camera needs a small highlight, as camera is located close to measuring bar. When using light guides as measuring bars, highlighting is not required. Precision of result of measurement if defined by technological abilities of microscopic roughness application only with specified pitch onto surface of core of light guide and by resolution of chamber.
EFFECT: very high precision.
FIELD: control equipment.
SUBSTANCE: liquid level fiber-optic signaling device can be used for signaling on availability or absence of liquid inside area of measurement, which liquid is transparent for IR-radiation. Device has radiation source and receiver, feeding and removing optical fibers and sensitive element. The latter is made in form of rod having round cross-section; the element is made of optical transparent material, for which the following requirement is met: n0<nair.av<n1, where n0, nair.av and n1 are refractivity factor of liquid, air and rod correspondingly. Length L of rod is described by formula. R is radius of spherical segment of light-guide turned in the direction of media to be measured: 1,5dfe<=R<=2dfe, where dfe is diameter of envelope of optical fiber. R/L relation should meet specific conditions.
EFFECT: higher manufacturability of sensitive element's structure.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: liquid level meter comprises cylindrical housing (2) whose inner space is in communication with the liquid through passages (5). Float (10) mounted in housing (2) is coated with a mirror layer. Emitter (11) and receiver (12) of radiation are connected with the space of cylindrical housing (2) through optical switch (13) made of a disk provided with ports. The surface of the disk is coated with a reflecting layer. The optical switch has corner reflector. Unit (15) is connected with the emitter (11) and receiver (12) of radiation and drive (14) for rotating the optical switch. The liquid level meter is additionally provided with step cylindrical nozzle (6) having base (7) for fastening to the neck of the reservoir, second corner reflector, and glass baffle (8) that separates hollow cylindrical nozzle (6) into stages. The small diameter stage receives tube (1) provided with housing (2) of the liquid level meter. The ring space between the tube and the housing is closed by baffle (3) with reflecting layer (4) on its inner side to prevent a contact with the liquid. The large diameter stage of cylindrical nozzle (6) receives optical switch (13) one port of which receives the first and second corner reflectors. Emitter (11) and receiver (12) of radiation and drive (14) of optical switch (13) are mounted on base (7) of the step cylindrical nozzle (6).
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
SUBSTANCE: given sign of product is determined by means of the first method of measuring at which the first physical properties of the product are explored, in addition the given sign is determined with, at least, the second method of measuring which is grounded on the second physical properties which differs from the first physical properties, odds of values of the mentioned given sign gained by means of both methods of measuring are determined, and the mentioned odds of values are compared to the given threshold and in case the specified odds of values exceeds the specified threshold, solution on infringement of integrity of the mentioned yield is made.
EFFECT: increase of reliability of product integrity determination.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to control and measurement equipment and can be used for measurement (control) of liquid level in reservoirs. Essence of invention: level gauge includes vertically oriented transparent tube (1) that communicates with controlled reservoir. Float (8) with light source (7) located in this tube forms narrow round (0.2÷0.3 mm) laser beam at some angle α. Round translucent tube there are long flat (planar) beam guides (9) that have two layers. The first layer forms dense semi translucent mirror coating (mirror is inside of beam guide). The second coating layer - light-tight - is complete coating from 3 sides of beam guide that forms cross line code screens (10) from the 4th side. On the one end of beam guides there are photosensors (photodiodes) (5) connected to decoders (3) with digital output through sharpener-amplifiers (4). Float light source (7) is fed by power transformed by high-frequency generator the output circuit (12) of which is wound over beam guide code sensors.
EFFECT: liquid level non-contact measurement, flow metre readings output is performed in digital form to indicators (2) that can be transmitted to computer (1), for instance for production of liquid level dynamic measurement (or pressure drop).
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrothermics field, particularly it concerns to regulation of process variables at manufacturing of fused phosphates, calcium carbide in ore-thermal furnaces and can be used in non-ferrous metallurgy. Regulation method of melt level in bath of ore-thermal furnace includes regulation of phase voltage and electrode current. Additionally it is measured value of constant component of phase voltage, and level of melt at specified value of current is defined according to formula: H=K*Ucc, where H - melt level, mm; Ucc - value of constant component of phase voltage, mV, K - coefficient, depending on value of phase voltage, mm/mV.
EFFECT: achievement of high accuracy of measurement.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex