The port complex of hydraulic structures
(57) Abstract:The use of the invention: hydraulic engineering in the design and development of port hydraulic structures located in a natural Bay with distinct ecological structure. The inventive protective structure 3 in the form of a continuous dam connects the opposite shore of the Bay 2 and separates her from the water area of the port 4, while the water area of the port must be no more than (0,2 - 0,4) from the Bay area, but not less than (3 - 5) settlement areas enter into the waters of port 4 turning circle for vessels with a maximum for a given area dimensions. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 1 Il. The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used in the design and development of port hydraulic structures located in a natural Bay with distinct ecological structure.Known complexes port hydraulic structures located in a natural Cove and including the containment, and the containment facing the sea and is separated from the sea water area of the Bay (Ports and port aarskog complex is the lack of environmental protection of the Bay: the contamination of the outer Harbor, inevitably arising in the area of the port, freely distributed to the entire Bay.The aim of the invention is the environmental protection of the Bay.This is achieved by protecting structure made in the form of a continuous dam connecting the opposite shore of the Bay and separates her from the water area of the port, the area of Swateris selected in accordance with the expressions:
Swater(0,2 0,4)SB< / BR>Swater(3 5)SRK,
SBthe Bay area;
SRKarea type in the port waters turning circle for vessels with a maximum for a given area dimensions.Protecting structure of the proposed hydraulic complex, separating from the Bay harbour area may be equipped with a one-sided culvert with a device to allow ingress of water from the Bay into the port waters.The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows: 1 sea 2 - Bay, 3 protective structure in the form of a continuous dam connecting the opposite shore of the Bay and separates from the Bay 2 harbour area 4 and 5 - sided culvert unit to ensure the delivery of water from the Bay into the waters 3 unilateral topropose 5, the output of which facing the port, ensures the supply of water from environmentally friendly Bay 2 zone of the port, which improves the ecology of the waters of port 4, but does not allow contaminated water from the zone of the port to get to the Bay 2.We offer hydraulic complex to be implemented during construction of a new commercial port, Baltiysk, Kaliningrad region. 1. The port complex of hydraulic structures, located in a natural Bay and includes a protective structure, wherein the protecting structure is made of solid dam connecting the opposite shore of the Bay and separates her from the water area of the port, the area which satisfies the following relationships:
Sandtoin(0,2 0,4) Sb,
Satoin(3 5) Spto,
where Satointhe water area of the port;
Sbthe Bay area;
Sptoarea type in the port waters turning circle for vessels with a maximum for a given area dimensions.2. Complex p. 1, wherein the dam is equipped with one-way discharge device,
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river or channel banks and slopes consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: wall includes gabions formed of net and stones and laid in rows. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders oriented transversely or along flow direction and connected one to another so that gabion ridges of upper layers are offset relative that of lower ones to which they are connected. Parabola in the base of parabolic cylinder is described by the following equation: Y = (4·hg·X2)/Bg , where X and Y are parabola abscissa and ordinate, hg and Bg are correspondingly gabion width and height, here Bg = (2 - 4) hg. In particular cases net may have different shapes of its cross-section, namely trapezoidal with expanded base, stepped with decreasing steps width in upward direction, T-shaped with shoulder oriented downwards and forming foundation or L-shaped.
EFFECT: increased load bearing capacity, reduced cost for foundation building.
5 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river or channel banks and slopes consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: wall includes gabions formed of net and stones and laid in layers. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders oriented transversely or along flow direction and connected one to another so that gabion ridges of upper layers are offset relative that of lower ones to which they are connected. Wall is covered with concrete from one side. Parabola in the base of parabolic cylinder is described by the following equation: Y = (4·hg·X2)/Bg , where X and Y are parabola abscissa and ordinate, hg and Bg are correspondingly gabion width and height, here Bg = (2 - 4) hg. Wall may be reinforced with reinforcing cage from another side. In particular cases net may have cross-section of stepped shape with decreasing steps width in upward direction or L-shaped cross-section.
EFFECT: increased reliability, reduced cost for foundation building, increased service life.
5 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly river and sea structures adapted for artificial change of river flow and to protect river bank against erosion.
SUBSTANCE: device is formed as retaining wall consisting of vertical vessels and filled with ground filling. Wall is formed of vertical reinforced concrete tetrahedral pipes serially arranged in overlapped manner. Pipe diagonal lines are at an angle to flow direction so that broken contour is created in plane. The broken contour restricts river-bed downstream thereof. Lower pipe ends are embedded in ground past the depth of river bottom erosion area.
EFFECT: increased reliability, reduced material consumption and labor inputs for device building and operation.
FIELD: industrial and civil building, particularly to erect retaining and wharfage walls in ground.
SUBSTANCE: sheet piling comprises pile row driven in ground and connected one to another by locks, as well as land ties, metal distribution belt to connect land ties to wall and anchor ground protective panel. Distribution belt is composite and comprises anchor fastening units for land ties fastening located in the piles. Anchor unit is formed in each pile and made as tubular metal frame fixedly secured to each pile and as composite embedded support secured to frame and pile. Embedded support may be installed in front pile part (from water area side) or in rear pile part (from shore side). When embedded support is arranged in front pile part the embedded support is made as traverse and two guiding metal beams forming T-shaped figure in plane. When embedded support is arranged in rear pile part the embedded support is made as figured T-shaped box-like holder. Pile with anchor unit arranged inside the pile is at least partly concreted.
EFFECT: increased strength and stability of sheet piling, increased protection against corrosion and mechanical damage.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic and reclamation construction, particularly bank consolidation structures to protect river banks, dam slopes and other structures.
SUBSTANCE: flexible retaining wall has prismatic structure and includes stone, net and trusses of stable triangular shape. Flexible retaining wall cross-section defines triangular trusses composed of spacing members. Each spacing member is formed of protective concrete in which wire is embedded. The spacing members are united in triangle assemblies by twisting spacing member wire ends around transversal reinforcement bars so that triangular prism nodes are created. Triangular prism is provided with one reinforced concrete face formed of net and concrete and located from upstream prism side. Triangular prism interior is filled with stone. The triangular prism is laid in longitudinal river direction and abut river bottom by one face thereof. Upper wall slope may be vertical or extend at an angle to horizon line. Flexible apron is pivotally connected to the wall in upper pool.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of river bank protection against erosion and extended service life of the structure.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to protect sand beaches from washing away by surf. Method to prevent washing away of sand beaches includes placing of obstacles in form of closed cylinder in zone of action of incoming wave which reciprocates by rolling in zone of action of wave, thus compacting the soil. Energy of wave is used for this purpose at uprush and gravity force of obstacle at backrush. Length of closed cylinder corresponds to length of protected section of beach. Method is implanted using device consisting of shell made of cloth in form of cylinder and filled with liquid and air. Shell is made for rolling and is installed in zone of action of incoming wave.
EFFECT: protection of sand beach from washing away using energy of surf.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly to erect embankments, piers, retaining walls and similar structures, preferably in distant northern territories.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic structure comprises blocks mounted on previously prepared base. The blocks are grouped in row and placed one upon another to form face wall composed of several block layers. Each block comprises face wall member and anchoring unloading device connected with each other. The anchoring unloading device reinforces backfill ground and is made of container previously used for shipping purposes. The container comprises box-like metal case with framed bottom, two side walls, end wall closing the first container end and door connected to the second container end. Face wall member is fastened to one container end. The container is filled with backfill ground. Face wall member has height equal to that of container and width equal to that of container or exceeding container width so that side cantilever parts projecting out of container end are created. In the case of erection of pier structure including two face walls one container end is fastened to one face wall member and another container end is connected to another face wall member.
EFFECT: reduced material consumption, labor inputs and simplified hydraulic structure erection, as well as decreased hydraulic structure influence on water pool ecology during structure usage.
6 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, industrial and civil water-resources and land development.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises buried cantilever retaining wall arranged along outer boundary of territory to be protected at design depth below normal water level. Device also has deep-laid gravity drain system located from the side of territory to be protected in parallel to cantilever retaining wall. Retaining wall top is on maximal water level determined with taking into consideration wave height. Gravity drain system comprises deep-laid fissure drainage and vertical drain wells. Each drain well is connected to corresponding well, which diverts drain water. Gravity drain system may be also formed as deep-laid fissure drainage and perforated vertical inverted drain wells.
EFFECT: reduced ground water level and hydrostatic pressure acting to cantilever retaining wall from the side of territory to be protected, provision of drain flow removal, improved ecological conditions and increased seismic stability of shore protection devices.
FIELD: building of constructions in hydraulic engineering, in particular, of dike-type shore-protecting constructions.
SUBSTANCE: dike head block has lower and upper horizontal faces, rear vertical face, front and lateral inclined faces. Stair-type permeable-design wave suppressor is positioned at front face of dike head block, said suppressor being made in the form of flight of stairs with flared cells between stairs. Head block of dike may be also used for going down into water and for climbing of swimmers onto dike at health resorts.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and improved wave suppressing properties of dike head block.
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly to erect berths, wharfs and retaining walls used for shore consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: wall includes wall members of groove-and-tongue type. The wall members are to be connected by means of interlock means. Each interlock means consists of male and female members made of rolled-steel channel profiles. The male and female members are provided with extensions having round cross-sections. Male member flanges face wall member carrying the male member. Female member flanges face from wall member carrying the female member. The extensions are rigidly connected to inner side surfaces of female member flanges and to outer side surfaces of male member flanges. The extensions have cross-sectional diameters equal to 0.6-0.9 of average space between female member flange surface and outer side surface of male member flange opposite thereto in plan view. Summary clear opening defined by male member and extensions formed on outer side surfaces of both flanges thereof is less than distance between inner surfaces of female member flanges in plan view and is greater than minimal distance between confronting outer surfaces of extensions formed on inner female member surfaces.
EFFECT: increased simplicity and reduced costs of wall erection, improved wall reliability due to wall member unification and due to provision of interlock means impermeability to ground.
20 cl, 8 dwg