The method of growing seedlings of cabbage in hydroponics
(57) Abstract:Usage: agriculture, specifically for growing plants in hydroponic greenhouses. The essence of the invention: a method of growing seedlings of cabbage in hydroponics includes planting, caring for plants, pick, his conduct multilevel narrowshelving hydroponic plants with cells placed in tiers. After exercise in the cells of the upper tier and then at regular intervals of time move cells of the upper tier and each of the tiers from top to bottom, except the closest to the base, and carry out pick seedlings from cells in the layer closest to the base. 1 Il. The invention relates to agriculture, specifically, to a method of growing seedlings of cabbage in the greenhouse for hydroponics.A known method of growing seedlings of cabbage in hydroponic greenhouses, which consists in sowing seeds sown in boxes or cassettes, placing them on the shelves hydroponic greenhouses, plant care, including dosvechivanie, pick seedlings in nutrient pots (A. A. Autka "Seedlings of vegetable crops". Minsk "Uraji" 1992, S. 68 87).As a hydroponic setup used racks with fixed, desimasala will be uneven as the degree of illumination, which degrades the quality of seedlings and reduces the yield of cabbage.The task was to develop a method of growing seedlings of cabbage narrowshelving tiered method of hydroponics, ensuring a higher quality product yield of cabbage by improving the uniformity of illumination and planting density of seedlings per unit area.This problem was solved by the present invention. In the method of growing seedlings of cabbage in hydroponics, including planting, caring for plants, pick, according to the invention, the method is carried out on a multi-narrowshelving hydroponic plants with cells placed in tiers, with the sowing produced in cells of the upper tier, and periodically, through even time intervals to move the cells in each of the tiers except the closest to the base to produce pick seedlings located in the cell layer closest to the base.Periodic permutation of cells with seedlings during the entire cycle of growth with top-tier installation with more vysokointensivnogo irradiation on the lower tier with less illumination increases the uniformity produced by all plants total dose oblucheniyakh will increase the sowing density per unit landing square in Teplice, which will increase its productivity.The method is illustrated in the drawing, which schematically shows a cross-section hydroponic systems for growing seedlings of cabbage.Narrowshelving stacked hydroponic installation 1 with the frame of the inclined beams 2 equip germinators in cells 3, placed in the holes 4 cassettes 5 tiers. In cells 3 sow seeds of plants 6.Seedlings 6 is irradiated by a source of optical radiation 7, placed on the outer side hydroponic plants 1, and irradiation sources 8 installed inside of the frames of the units 1. Irradiation sources 7 and 8 are equipped with reflectors 9.The method is as follows. First sowing produced in cell 3, installed in the cassette 5 of the upper tier hydroponic plant 1 and at equal intervals of time move the cells in each of the tiers except the closest to the base, and produce pick seedlings located in the cells closest to the base. Cultivation of seedlings of cabbage is carried out in a temperature and humidity, light and gas mode, in which the parameters of irradiation and temperature decrease from top to bottom hydroponic setup with which to Finance hydroponic setup 1.1 to 1.2 and 1.2 1.3 times.An example of performing the method. Cultivated seedlings early cauliflower - fast buck, Snowflakes, Leningrad, 126, Early Gribovsky 1355.Seeding was carried out in cells, which are then installed in the cassette at the beginning of the upper tier six-level narrowshelving hydroponic setup in the form of "prism" with the frame of the inclined beams. At equal intervals of time 3 4 days the cells of all layers except the bottom, closest to the base, moved to a place nearby closer to the base installation. In the process of vegetation comply with the following modes: in the lower tier installation provided 16 18oC during the day and 8 to 10oC at night, the top tier, respectively, 17 - 19oC and 9 of the 11oC. the irradiation Intensity in the lower tier of the day was provided by 15 of 17 W/m2HEADLIGHTS, and the upper floor 18 20 W/m2the relative humidity of the air below was 45 to 55% of the top 40 to 50% and the concentration of carbon dioxide, respectively, of 0.07% and 0.06%
Providing the specified modes of cultivation has greatly improved the quality of seedlings of cabbage and duration of the cultivation 95 100 days to increase the yield of cabbage compared to control landing on shelves in 2 to 3 times.Thus, the proposed the b cultivation of cabbage seedlings in hydroponics, including planting, caring for plants, pick, characterized in that the method is carried out on a multi-narrowshelving plants with cells placed in tiers, with the sowing produced in cells of the upper tier and periodically, at regular intervals of time to move the cells in each of the tiers except the closest to the base, and produce pick seedlings from cells in the layer closest to the base.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, soil-free growing of plants in special devices for exposing plant roots to nutritive aerosol.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has vertical pipe used as carrier member for bed and equipped with plant receiving openings arranged in any order. Plants are supported by means of holders resting with their lower edges upon lower edge of opening. Upper part of holder is tightly fixed in, for example, rings of fastening band. Nozzle fixed in upper (narrow) end of pipe is adapted for spraying of nutritive solution aerosol containing gas mixtures. High conical towers-ridges provide for ecologically clean management, since outbursts of liquid nutritive solutions may be utilized by other plants, for example, fruit trees growing beyond greenhouse or nearby, in open ground. Apparatus may be used for decorative purposes on grounds not suitable for plant growing and for agricultural purposes.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and minimal usage of areas of open ground, as well as of greenhouse.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating trays and useful volume of greenhouse, with trays being heated with hydroponic solution having initial temperature below 300C and final temperature of at least 150C, when said solution is discharged from trays; keeping air temperature of at least 40C in useful volume of greenhouse; isolating useful volume of greenhouse from remaining volume.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for heating plants in hydroponic units of greenhouse, convenient maintenance and reduced costs of materials.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: peat industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with peat industry, in particular, with production of nutrient mediums on the basis of peat for growing of seedlings of forest cultures and garden species and bushes with the closed root systems and a non-polluting vegetable production in a glass-covered ground. The method of preparation of the peat substrate provides for clearing of the peat raw material from large remains of wood and other impurities, introduction of a bio-activator, commixing, fermentation, gauging, packing. In the capacity of peat raw material a weakly decomposed high sphagnum peat or a mossy waste are used and in the capacity of the bio-activator they use a nutrient yeast or a compost ferment in amount of 0.9-1.1 kg per 1 m3 of peat with a density of 0.02-0.1 g / cm3. Fermentation is conducted at the temperature of 10-36°C and moistures of 50-60 %, and gauging after fermentation - up to the particle size of no more than 24 mm. The method ensures production of a product of a loose fibrous structure with the optimal hygroscopic properties, optimal concentration of the nutrient substances and a low toxicity.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of a product with a loose fibrous structure, optimal hygroscopic properties, optimal concentration of the nutrient substances and a low toxicity.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular vegetable farming on area under glass.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes single-step sodium selenate introducing into reservoir with water of drip irrigation system in amount of 7.5 g/hectare at the beginning of tomato fruiting stage. Obtained tomato production contains biological selenium in fruit in amount of 24.0-67.0 mug/kg of raw material for 5-6 months.
EFFECT: selenium-enriched tomato product for long period, obtained by single-step selenium introducing in law dose.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, hydroponic growing of plants.
SUBSTANCE: method involves growing plants in trays in substrates possessing capillary properties, said substrate being wetted with nutritive solution supplied under plant roots and protected from rain; growing plants in bottom-free boxes mounted on film substrate, which is preliminarily spread on open horizontally leveled ground surface, turned under box walls tightly thereto to form pallet and fixed in said position by additionally spilled ground; spilling boxes with substrate; covering with film from the bottom to the top; providing slots in film and performing planting through said slots into substrate; automatically wetting plants with nutritive solution as plants grow, with composition of nutritive solution changing each time of growing period in compliance with designed losses of nutritive elements.
EFFECT: simplified and low cost growing of plants.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has vessel manufactured from composition containing powdered cereal threshing wastes, nutritive substances, polymeric binder and biocides. Composition components are used in the following ratio, wt%: powdered cereal threshing wastes 20-7; nutritive substances 50-70; polymeric binder 5.0-20; biocides 0.1-1.0. Polymeric materials with acetate, or hydroxyl, or carboxyl, or ketone, or urethane, or nitrogen-containing, or ethereal functional groups or mixture of said materials may be used as polymeric binder. Mineral nutritive admixtures such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, copper, zinc, boron, molybdenum may be used as nutritive substances. Apparatus may be utilized for growing of plants as well as for transportation thereof, has stable form and is fully biodegradable.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities, increased efficiency and reduced injure to environment.
3 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, growing of agricultural crops with the use of multiple-flow apparatuses arranged at different levels for exposing plants growing in containers to light.
SUBSTANCE: lighting apparatus is composed of individual modules, each including light channel, comprising guides, and mini-hotbeds movable along guides. Mini-hotbeds are mounted on wheels of different diameter for moving by gravity so as to provide their horizontal position by placing them onto inclined guides. Each mini-hotbed may be used as independent module, is furnished with light-transparent hood which simultaneously serves as water accumulator and spreader. Lighting apparatus may be mounted in special industrial, household, supplementary and other rooms provided that stabilized temperature of 15-20° is maintained and phyto-sanitary requirements are fulfilled. Apparatus of such construction is characterized in that rigid coupling between mini-hotbeds is avoided and in that gravity is used for movement of mini-hotbeds along inclined guides in light channel. Apparatus of such construction provides year-round growing of pre-basic sanitated seed potato, seedlings of potato and other vegetables and flowers, as well as products of said crops, tree, fungi, algae seedlings and other biological objects under regulated artificial conditions while eliminating conditions for contacting of seedlings with pathogens.
EFFECT: simplified construction, enhanced reliability in operation and reduced consumption of power.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, production of hydroponic newly prepared feed possessing therapeutic, prophylactic and forage properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves laying seeds on biopallets and irrigating with heated water; mixing; leveling; laying thereon uniform layer of ground dry frondiferous bog moss; germinating seeds without illumination for 70-75 hours; irrigating twice or three times a day; providing irrigation with nutritive solution combined with illumination and growing green mass under light conditions for 115-125 hours with period of exposing to light constituting 12-14 hours and illumination intensity of 1,500-2,000 lux; irrigating sprouts with water having temperature of 20-10 C three or four times a day; maintaining air temperature within the range of 20-24 C during eight-day production cycle. Utilization of dry frondiferous bog moss in feed composition presupposes creation of production lines in the vicinity of animal keeping houses to thereby allow feeding of animals with feed of said composition immediately after production thereof and strengthening animals' immune system.
EFFECT: improved therapeutic, prophylactic and nutritive properties of feed, reduced production costs, increased yield of newly prepared feed per weight unit of seeds used, increased weight of feed per weight unit of grain seeds, reduced volume of manual work owing to optimized processes.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, aerohydroponics.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing water and nutrient mixtures; regenerating nutrient solutions; treating air in commercial rooms; planting and cultivating plants on growing field; using in nutrient mixtures homeopathic solutions of solid, liquid, gaseous substances apart from actual solutions; restructuring, sterilizing and activating nutrient solutions, said activation being performed by way of any of combined and/or individual action, for example, laser; adding pulsed light source illumination to any known plant illumination system, as well as providing additional action by way of non-light types of illumination, for example electromagnetic, acoustic; changing basic receipt of nutrient solution with any other receipt through the use of any of existing methods, including energy information transition method, utilization of said other receipt resulting in alteration of metabolism and controlling the processes of forming, accumulation, retention of microelements, vitamins and other biologically active substances in various parts of plant. Air delivered into growing room is treated and sterilized by means of additionally used germicidal lamps and/or quartz burners disposed at sites where air is discharged from influx branch pipes.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and provision for producing of plant products safe for feeding of population.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, open type hydroponic units for growing of plants on the base of flow-through neutral substrate combined with thin-layer aqueous culture.
SUBSTANCE: ridges are formed on field plot having gradient of at least 3 deg, said ridges being formed from polymeric film laid immediately onto plot surface. Straw or reed mat is laid onto film and is laterally restricted by rolls filled with straw or reed. Nutrient solution flows down over ridges to moisten mat and, thereafter, flows back into receiver. Such an embodiment allows earlier existing disadvantages of identical apparatuses being eliminated, said disadvantages being connected with labor intensity due to necessity of digging in soil of special ditches for providing soil-free ridges, and increased width of ridges hindering leveling of soil to be sown.
EFFECT: reduced labor intensity, decreased consumption of straw and reed for producing of cords over the entire width of ridges.