Electric flexible heater
(57) Abstract:Usage: for plate heaters. The inventive heater is made of a multilayer consisting of insulating layers alternating with pairs of connected layers of heat-resistant material, between which are resistive heating elements, which improves performance, durability, simplifies the technology. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to heating devices with heating elements, in particular to heating devices with increased surface, mainly two-dimensional, such as plate heaters in which the heating elements are embedded in insulating material.There are electric heaters (heaters) [1, 2] contains the basis of several layers of elastic material such as rubber or rubber-like mass, between which are sequentially stacked heating elements or out of the ordinary cable or from a flat conductive tape.However, these heaters have several disadvantages, such as the device of the heating elements, providing for mandatory prisutstvie, as the heating elements is used in a normal conductor or conductive flat ribbon attached to the body of the heater is a special adhesive tape. In addition, the heating temperature analogues is not high enough, which leads to limitation of scope. As analogues of heating elements are arranged consecutively, for their heating requires high voltage, which reduces the electrical safety when working with them.The closest technical solution is the device described in U.S. patent  where the design of the heating elements much easier. However, between the heating wire and flexible rubber outer shell there is a layer of thermal insulation fabrics, sprinkled to reduce reflective effect of aluminum powder.The aim of the invention is to improve the performance of the heater, increasing its durability, ease of manufacturing technology and improve electrical safety.Improved performance is achieved by using several layers of heat-resistant elastic material, for example, of heat-resistant resigned elements. Elastic Foundation provides full contact with the heated surface, that is, creates good conditions for conductive heating. Use for the base oil-resistant rubber, which is not destroyed by exposure to oil, allows the use of oil as a layer between the heater and the heated surface, which improves conductive heating. In addition, the use of special heat-resistant rubber helps increase the temperature and thereby to expand the scope of the heater.The use of rubber as the outer shell of the heater eliminates electrical arcing and damage to the heater due to penetrating moisture. This increases durability and allows you to operate the heater in extreme conditions, such as outdoors, at subzero temperatures, rain and snow.Improving electrical safety when working with the heater is connected, firstly, with complete electrical insulation of heating elements with several layers of rubber membrane, and, secondly, to the fact that the heating elements are parallel and heating requires less voltage than if they raspolagaet in manufacturing. The presence of a heat-resistant rubber leads to simplification of the device of the heating elements, as there is no need to protect the external elastic membrane from overheating.The use of insulating layers, for example, of glass, alternating with pairs of connected layers of heat-resistant elastic material, between which is placed the heating elements, allows to reduce heat loss to the environment that leads to increased efficiency of the heater and the ability to achieve the desired heating temperature using a heater less power. In addition, the fabric layer can increase the mechanical strength of the heater.The use of electric buses, with cross through the dividing grooves arranged in a checkerboard pattern with a step, multiple step reinforcement heating elements, allows for the preservation technology of manufacturing the heater to substantially expand the range of changes in electrical resistance heater and, accordingly, the variation ranges of electrical power, current and voltage of the heater.The authors have not detected known technical R is In Fig. 1 presents a General view of the heater with a folded edge of one of the layers of rubber cover, to show the General arrangement of the heating elements. Additionally, in Fig.1 presents a cross-section a-a, showing the mutual arrangement of the heat insulating layer and pairwise connected by layers of heat-resistant elastic material, between which is placed the heating elements. In Fig.2 presents different ways of wiring diagrams heating elements elastic heater.Electric flexible heater (Fig.1) contains teploizolyatsii layer 1, are pairwise United 2 layers of heat-resistant elastic material, between which is placed parallel spaced heating elements 3 of the high-resistance material, the opposite ends of which are secured to the parallel electric tire 4 connected via cable 5 with terminal 6 for connection to a source of current. Along the perimeter of the heater are holes 7 for attachment to the heated object.The heater can be equipped with electric buses (Fig.2) with cross through the dividing grooves 8 arranged in a checkerboard pattern with step of the way: first of all, the heater is attached to a heated object by means of fixing elements (Fig. not provided) through the holes 7. After connecting the heater to the power source through terminals 6 and an electric cable 5 heating elements 3 of the high-resistance material is starting to heat up as a result of passage through them of the electric current. Maximum temperature is determined by the type of elastic material, which is made from layers 2, for example, heat-resistant rubber is +250oS. Emitted from the heating elements 3 heat by heat transfer and convective exchange of heat of the heated object to the desired heating temperature.In Fig.1 shows a heater designed for use in low voltage current source, since the heating elements 3 of the high-resistance material are parallel electrical connection. To improve performance, in particular, to increase the range of variation of electrical resistance, power, voltage and current used by heater made according to schemes a,b,C,d, shown in Fig.2.To prove the possibility of using different power sources are the following calculation.As the heating element will choose nichrome the mThe electrical resistance of one of the strands of the heating element length l of 200 mm:
< / BR>where electrical resistivity (nichrome
=1,00510-6Mme at T= +20C, 1,005 10-6Mme at T +20oV).d diameter of the thread,
l is the length of the thread.Find the total electric resistance heater for various schemes wiring of the heating elements (Fig.2):
< / BR>where
P number of parallel sections of the heating elements,
R is the resistance of a single thread,
L is the length of the heater,
h reinforcement step.< / BR>The calculations can be continued further. Current and heater power to the above circuits are respectively equal to:
< / BR>where I is current (amps),
U supply voltage (V),
P U I 220 0,22 48 W,
where P is the power of heater (W).scheme b):
I 220/250 to 0.88 And R 220 0,88 194 W,
I 220/110 2 A, P 220 2 440 W,
I 220/62,5 3,52 A, P 220 3,52 775 Watts.Thus elastic electric heater, representing the subject of this invention is characterized by improved performance, increased durability, simple technologist is actiony heater, containing a multilayer structure of at least two layers of heat-resistant elastic material, between which is placed the heating elements, characterized in that the heater consists of alternating layers of heat-resistant elastic material, mainly thermo-oil-resistant rubber and layers of insulating material, which is tightly connected with one side of the heater is a layer of insulating material, and with another two layers of heat-resistant elastic material, hermetically covering placed parallel to each other heating elements, the opposite ends of which are mounted on parallel electrical tires.2. The heater under item 1, characterized in that the electric bus with cross through the dividing grooves arranged in a checkerboard pattern with a step, multiple step heating elements.3. The heater under item 1 or 2, characterized in that on the surface of the heater-side heat-resistant elastic material is coated with the layer of oil, water or other liquid coolant.
FIELD: furniture, particularly heated furniture piece that may be used in home, possibly for medical-prophylactic purposes.
SUBSTANCE: furniture object includes support for engaging with user having on surface layer of mineral material selected from group containing ceramics and natural stone. Support is provided at least with one electric heating device mounted at least on part of its surface turned to user and placed under layer of mineral material. Said device is in the form of panel electric heater irradiating heat for heating layer of mineral material along its thickness in temperature range 30-50°C in order to generate in said layer elastic acoustic waves in ultrasound and hyper-sound bands. Support is provided with unit for controlling temperature of heating layer of mineral material under which respective panel of electric heater is arranged.
EFFECT: enhanced comfort, intensified process of metabolism of user, keeping healthy state of user and providing prophylaxis of diseases due to heat action upon organism of user.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: production of fabrics which generate heat by means of power source and may be used for manufacture of clothing, seats, quilts, etc.
SUBSTANCE: thermal fabric comprises non-conductive thread, heating thread with positive temperature coefficient, and two current-conductive terminals. Heating thread comprises core, enclosure made from matrix including embedded current-conductive particles, and isolating sheath.
EFFECT: provision for creating fabric free of wires and possessing the function of self-regulating heating.
29 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering, in particular, electrothermics, concerns engineering of electro-heating fabric, which can be used in heating devices for home and industrial use, and also concerns method for producing electro-conductive resistive thread for said fabric.
SUBSTANCE: electro-heating fabric is a cloth formed of intertwined threads, consisting of main non-electro-conductive threads, having first direction, and electro-conductive resistive threads, having second direction, perpendicular to the first one, each one of which consists of central fiber with cover of polymer resistive material, containing carbon filler, consisting of technical carbon and graphite, and provided with conductive threads, main non-electro-conductive threads and electro-conductive resistive threads are intertwined in form of mesh, forming cells, value of step h between electro-conductive resistive threads is determined from mathematical expression. Technical result is also achieved, because method for producing electro-conductive resistive thread, including production of solution of polymer resistive material by diluting polymer binding agent in solvent and mixing of resulting solution with carbon filler, then applying of produced mixture in form of cover onto central fiber by drawing it through solution and draw plate, removing solvent from resistive cover by drying the thread in a flow of hot air, while as polymer binding agent, polyurethane resin is utilized, as central fiber, a thread of polyacrylnitrile fiber is utilized or combined fiber of basalt and polyester fibers, draw plate is mounted in vertical position with possible rotation around its axis and with possible inclination of its vertical position, while lower aperture of draw plate is dipped in solution of polymer carbon-containing resistive material and has larger diameter, than upper aperture, while drying of thread is performed at temperature 150-160°. Angle of inclination of draw plate from vertical position is 10-20°.
EFFECT: stable electrical resistance along whole length of product being produced, reliable electrical contact, method for producing electro-conductive resistive thread also provides for lower costs of product due to creation of continuous process.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: electrothermy, electric heaters such as fiber-plastic ones for medicine, agriculture, liquid and gaseous media heating devices for various industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed woven resistor unit has electricity conducting and heat liberating threads disposed in parallel with power electrodes made of tinsel threads and separated from them by insulating threads; uniformly distributed perpendicular to electricity conducting and heat liberating threads and tinsel threads of power electrodes throughout resistor unit length are additional and current-distributing electrodes made of tinsel threads. Manufacture of woven resistor unit involves cutting of resistor unit blank of desired geometry from current-conducting fabric followed by cutting peripheral zones of all current distributing electrodes and some of peripheral zones of additional electrodes in pack of insulating threads contacting power electrodes on one end and pack of electricity conducting and heat liberating threads, on other end; peripheral zones of additional electrodes are cut out of alternating sides of pack of electricity conducting and heat liberating threads for switching circuit of desired resistor unit; terminal current conductors made, for instance, from copper foil run over with tin and provided with power cord are attached to edges of power and additional electrodes of resistor unit.
EFFECT: enhanced electric safety and reliability of woven resistor unit.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering; thermoelectric mats for heating concrete, soil, fillers, and the like.
SUBSTANCE: proposed thermoelectric mat has layer-by-layer arranged external moisture-proof insulating coating contacting surface being heated in the course of mat operation, heating element made of at least two parallel strips of flexible nonmetal current-conducting material separated by insulating inserts and provided with electrodes at edges, internal insulating layer, heat-insulating layer, and moisture-proof coating; thickness of external moisture-proof insulating coating where h is thickness of external moisture-proof insulating coating; K1 = 0.01 - 0.03 is factor depending on kind of material being heated; K2 = 0.01 - 0.06 is factor characterizing strength of external moisture-proof insulating coating material; S is thermoelectric mat surface area; internal insulating layer is disposed under elastic conducting strips at distance of minimum 1 mm therefrom.
EFFECT: enlarged service life of thermoelectric mat.
1 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of cure includes mode of magneto-therapeutic influence by single-directed magnetic field and/or mode of simultaneous influence of hyperthermia and magnetic therapy at values of magnetic induction of 30-50 mT and temperature of 40-55°C while temperature alternately changes within 40-55°C at temperature gradient of 0,1-1°C per second. Device has two plates for therapeutic influence. Plates are connected together by elastic connecting member and provided with cases made of plastic mass. Plastic mass tightly embraces magnetic filed sources, disposed in it, and heating wires. Heating wires are connected with electric power unit through current input member. Electric supply unit is made for periodical interruption of voltage supply onto heating wires made of Ni-Cr alloy. Magnetic field sources have to be permanent magnets embraced with turns of heating wires. Electric supply unit has voltage converter. First output of converter is connected with input of processor; output of converter is connected with first input of switch. Voltage converter has its second output connected with second input of switch; output of switch has to be output of electric supply unit for connecting to heating wires.
EFFECT: simplified design; improved efficiency of cure.
9 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: flat electric heaters of emitting type, in particular, film electric heaters, used as a basis for creating radiation heating systems of industrial, social, cultural and inhabited rooms, and also in systems for heating young animals and birds.
SUBSTANCE: film electric heater contains meander-shaped thin resistive heating and emitting element made of foil in form of continuous ribbon of precision current-conductive material, positioned between two flexible thermo-resistant electro-isolating films and provided with contacts for connection to electric network. The electric heater is provided with emitting element in form of aluminum foil, mounted between external electro-isolation film and resistive heating and emitting element, and separated from resistive heating and emitting element by electro-isolating film, no more than 30 micrometers thick. The distance between adjacent edges of parallel stripes of resistive element equals 20-100 millimeters.
EFFECT: reduced flow of precision material and increased reliability due to reduction of total length of current-conductive section of heater.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to electric engineering, in particular to multilayer thermostatic pack for temperature control of complex geometric configuration products which contain outer and inner protective layers between which there are mated heat-insulation inserts and strips of current-conducting material with dielectric layers. Multilayer pack follows the geometry of temperature-controlled product. The case is made of separate sections whose layers are formed by dust-proof-and-moisture-proof fabric with textile fasteners interconnected along conjugation lines at joints of heat-insulating inserts which are additionally fixed by mechanical clamps. In this multilayer pack its top part consists of tapered portion and cylindrical portion made of separate sections in the form of a book consisting of two or more mechanically interconnected components where terminating component is fitted with apron with through holes in fabric. In this multilayer pack, resistive components in peripheral zone of current distributing electrodes are located in the array of insulating fibers with interlacing, are cut through alternately on one and on the other side of electric-conducting fiber band. Resistive components together with power electrodes form switching comb of specified resistive component. On tips of power and current-distributing electrodes, tinned foil copper tinned is soldered. Power cords are passed through multilayer pack mass. Each of separate sections along product generatrix are interconnected in series and in parallel by electric connectors.
EFFECT: improvement of operability and operation reliability of multilayer pack for temperature control of complex geometric configuration products.
3 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: air transport.
SUBSTANCE: device contains thermal mat made of flexible woven electric heater closed by protective electric insulating material. Water repellent material and double layer of heat insulation and water repellent are placed at internal and external surfaces of protective electric insulating material. There is DC power supply source. Thermal mat is divided into number of sections, each having its heating area. Sections of flexible woven electric heater are divided into number of units with different power defined by preset length and width of flexible woven electric heater. Thermal mat is fixed at horizontal surface of aircraft by tapes or fast-type fixing.
EFFECT: enhancement of efficiency in snow and ice removal from lateral surfaces of the aircraft; ecologic cleanliness of maintenance with use of safety power supply at optimal regulation of power consumption and simplification of structure.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for heating domestic and industrial rooms, as well as for manufacturing such electric heaters. Ceiling film electric heater includes resistive radiating element having in plan view a meander shape and arranged between two layers of electric insulating films. Resistive radiating element is equipped with outputs to be connected to electric mains. Parallel strips of resistive radiating element are connected in series by means of their L-shaped bending towards the next strip transversely on one and the other side. Edges of upper and lower electric insulating layers are connected be means of tape with self-adhesive base. According to invention, room heating system includes heat insulator representing a foam heat-insulating material with reflecting layer. Outputs of resistive radiating element of ceiling film electric heater are connected via control and protection devices to power network. Device for manufacturing the bed of ceiling film electric heater includes uncoiler for strips of resistive radiating element, uncoilers of upper and lower layers of electric insulating films, device for supply of tape with self-adhesive base, laminating machine with thermal shafts and winding shafts of the ready bed, which are installed in one process line.
EFFECT: low production cost and possible use in large-scale production.
16 cl, 9 dwg