(57) Abstract:Usage: in the nuclear industry. The inventive container is made in the form of a vertical glass cover. The container has a double membrane, the inner layer which is made of a composite material of the following composition, wt. %: polystyrene 10-15; polymethylsiloxane lead the rest, and the outer layer is made of polyethylene. The container is provided with a bayonet catch. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il., table 4. The invention relates to the nuclear industry, in particular for the manufacture of radiation-protective containers from CT x-ray and gamma radiation and Assembly on the basis of the transport packagings for the transport of radioactive substances.Known protective metal container with double metal walls (lead or steel), filled in between with polyurethane foam  the Disadvantage of this technical solution is the lack of reliable sealing, resulting in the danger of radiological leaks. This means that there have not been completely solved the problem of protecting humans and the environment.The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is protect izgotovlenie of the metal lead  in accordance with the requirement THAT 95.656-79.The disadvantage of this protective container is not sufficiently high reliability sealing, and therefore the possibility of a radiation leak, the environmental risk of contact staff with metallic lead and chemical corrosion (dissolution) in acidic and alkaline environments. The latter circumstance makes it difficult decontamination of lead containers.The purpose of the invention to increase the reliability of sealing, environmental and radiation safety protective containers KT intended for storage and transport of radioactive sources.This goal is achieved thanks to the fact that radiation-protective shell of the container is made of two-layer polymer shell: a protective polymer composite of high impact polystyrene, such as the brand MTC (GOST 28250-89) filled with highly dispersed hydrophobic oligomer - polymethylsiloxane lead in the following ratio, wt.Polystyrene 10-15
Polymethylsiloxane lead the Rest
and the outer layer (shell) made of polyethylene with a bayonet catch. Used low-density polyethylene (HDPE).The filler for polistirena particles is not more than 2 μm, in which atomic lead is chemically bound in the siloxane chain (=Si-O-Pb-O)nand does not represent a biological hazard. In terms of the elementary composition of the lead content in the filler is me. Polymethylsiloxane lead has hydrophobic properties, i.e., not wetted by water (increases waterproofing properties) and it is compatible with the polystyrene matrix.Polystyrene composition with polymethylsiloxane lead is a thermoplastic mass, being formed in items (parts of the container, the Cup and cover) by hot pressing.Thus, the proposed protective container differs from the known containers replacement of metallic lead to a new type of two-layer thermoplastic polymer composition.The technical essence of the invention is illustrated in the drawing.Protective container consists of a cylindrical glass 1 with the cover 2. It is made of two-layer polymer membranes: the inner protective 3 and the outer shell 4. Inside the shell of the Cup 1 and the lid 2 is the cavity (chamber) 5 for insertion of a retail container 6 with a radioactive substance. Between the lid and the Cup is rubber seal 7., the e is fixed, for example by using foam pads 8. The container is equipped with bayonet catch 9.For testing radiation-protective properties of the protective layer were made five samples of the material proposed in the present invention (see tab. 1).The test results radiation-protective properties of the samples listed in table. 1, are presented in table. 2.The thickness of the outer layer of polyethylene covering not less than 2 mmFrom table. 2 shows that the polymer composite is made of the proposed protective container has a high radiation-protective characteristics. With respect to the metal lead radiation-protective properties below just in 3-3,5 times. However, given that the density polymer composite (3,85-3,9 g/cm3) 2.9 times less in comparison with the density of lead (11,34 g/cm3), equivalent protection is achieved by increasing the thickness of the protective layer of polymer composite container just 2-2,4 times (table. 3). So we offer you the type of protective container, for example CT-Bel adequate well-known container CT or container CT-Bel adequate container CT and so on (table. 3). Mass adequate types of containers (proposed and known) ptx2">From table. 4 shows that the proposed protective container has a high reliability seal, and therefore a higher radiation safety without elements of the outer transport packaging (protective packaging type TOO). In known protective container KT reliable sealing is ensured only if the packaging transport kit thanks to the sealing metal Bank (GOST 5981-82), at the opening of which is broken sealing of the container at the workplace.Thus, the proposed protective container is a work complex reusable and durable. This is due to its chemical indifference (in contrast to the known protective container against acidic and alkaline aqueous solutions, which allows, if necessary, to carry out the decontamination of the container data solutions.The proposed container provides and environmental safety work in accordance with the norms of the SES when working with lead materials.Technical efficiency of the proposed solutions is to achieve high technological process thermoplastic molding materialsscience in the production of protective containers that will contribute to the improvement of working conditions.Application of the proposed technical solution will significantly expand the range of radiation-protective containers. 1. Protective container made in the form of a vertical cylindrical Cup with lid, characterized in that it is made of double-layer polymeric shell, in which the inner protective layer using the polymer composite polystyrene-filled polymethylsiloxane lead in the following ratio, wt.Polystyrene 10 15
Polymethylsiloxane lead the Rest
and the outer layer sheath made of polyethylene.2. The container under item 1, characterized in that provided with a bayonet catch.
FIELD: shielding against ionizing rays.
SUBSTANCE: proposed material has sublayer in the form of polybutyl titanate solution or solution of heteroorganic compounds and coating layer of material using silicone polymer as matrix. Coating layer also uses powders of heavy metals, their oxides and carbides as inorganic filler, and cross-linking agent based on mixture of orthosilicic acid ether and products of its hydrolysis. In addition, it has process cross-linking agent in the form of amorphous pyrogenetic silicon dioxide, and curing agent in the form of tin diethyl dicaprylate or catalyst in the form of amino silane solution in orthosilicic acid. Coating layer has following proportion of ingredients, mass percent: silicone polymer, 8.2 - 37.1; heavy-metal powders, their oxides and carbides, 60.7 - 92.0; cross-linking agent, 0.2 - 0.5; process cross-linking agent, 0.2 - 0.5.
EFFECT: enhanced physical, mechanical, and shielding properties of material.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: manufacture of roentgen-ray shielding materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes joining of material layers and curing to produce stack of woven and X-ray shielding material layers by mixing ingredients of cold-hardening X-ray shielding composition. X-ray shielding composition incorporates silicone rubber as binder, shielding filler made of oxide of rare-earth elements mixed up with antimony oxide (III), catalyst, polyamine, and modifying agent, proportion of ingredients per every 100 parts by weight of silicone binder being as follows: epoxy-containing hydrocarbon, 5.0 - 15.0; ortho-phthalate and monatomic alcohols, 0.5 - 3.0; rare-earth element oxides, 160 - 180; antimony oxide (III), 200 - 210; catalyst, 6.0 - 8.0; polyamine, 0.6 - 3.0. Prior to producing stack of fabric layers material is impregnated with organic solution of organometallic compound out of group of organic tin salts. X-ray shielding composition is prepared by sequential mixing up of silicone binder with modifying agent, then catalyst and hardener, followed by their mixing with filler to obtain viscous paste, then catalyst and curing agent (polyamine) which are added to viscous paste just prior to applying the latter to finished woven material. Stack obtained is subjected to compression molding and hardening.
EFFECT: facilitated manufacture.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: roentgen-ray shielding materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed X-ray shielding coating has sublayer incorporating cured and plasticized epoxy-containing compound and basic elastic X-ray shielding layer also based on epoxy-containing binder; curing agent from group of cold-curing agents; shielding filler in the form of powdered mixture of rare earth element oxides or mixture of rare earth element oxides with antimony oxide (III), or mixture of rare earth element oxides with tungsten or its compounds, proportion of ingredients being as follows, mass percent: binder, 13.3 - 20.8; shielding filler, 78.6 - 86.3; amine curing agent, o.4 - 0.6. In addition, it has solvent which is essentially mixture of acetic esters, aliphatic and aromatic solvents in the amount of 30 - 40 mass percent per every 100 g of basic X-ray shielding material. Shielding filler content of basic polymerized layer ranges between 78.5 and 88.7 mass percent.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of shielding personnel and patients, improved mechanical and adhesive properties of material.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: cloths, compounds, and films affording protection against detrimental impacts presenting safety risk (radiation, chemicals, biological agents, fire, missiles).
SUBSTANCE: proposed radiation shielding compound is produced by mixing material opaque to radioactive radiation, such as barium, bismuth, tungsten, or their compounds with powdered polymer or liquid solution, emulsion, or polymer suspension in solvent or water. Liquefied polymeric film of two extruders is preferably combined so that they are interleaved between two sheets of cloth or any other material such as shielding polymer films or canvas used for chemical or biological protection overalls, bulletproof jackets, or fire-resistant overalls.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness and economic efficiency of miscellaneous means for protecting against detrimental impacts.
23 cl, 20 dwg
FIELD: radiation shielding means and their manufacturing processes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed radiation shielding mat has mesh 2 made of copper fibers 3 interwoven with carbon fibers 4 and liquid oak moss solution 5 applied to mentioned mesh 2. Mat creates shielding barrier protecting against terrestrial and electromagnetic radiations and ensures deviation of these radiations.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of protection against terrestrial and electromagnetic radiations.
10 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: construction material on the basis of gypsum is produced by addition of water to composition, in which basic material represents combination of hydraulic gypsum and one type or two or more types of dry-hardening calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide, or is producd by means of mixing emulsions of synthetic resins with it and inorganic filler with high specific weight so that to execute reaction and setting or drying, at the same time composiiton differs by the fact that it includes 100 weight parts of at least one type or two or more types of main materials, selected from the group including calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, and also emulsions of organic synthetic resins and 50-3000 weight parts of at least one type or two or more types of inorganic fillers, true specidic weight of which makes 3.5-6.0, selected from the group, including barium chloride, zinc oxide, aluminium oxide, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate.
EFFECT: protection against radioactive radiation, small weight, convenience in use, safe for human body.
FIELD: physics, nuclear.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of radar absorbing materials which reduce the level of secondary radiation, provide electromagnetic compatibility of onboard equipment, correction of directional patterns of onboard antenna systems during prolonged operation and exposure to aggressive media. Radar absorbing material contains dielectric binder - foamed polyurethane and electroconductive filler which absorbs electromagnetic radiation. The material also contains a polyurethane based protective coating. The electroconductive filler which absorbs electromagnetic radiation used is carbon fibre taken in amount of 0.0003-0.005 vol. % or carbonised fibre taken in amount of 0.003-0.05 vol. %.
EFFECT: good radio properties, moisture resistance, resistance to aggressive media, longer use with low density of the material.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument making. Radiation-protective coating contains a transition metal of the sixth period of the Periodic system of chemical elements, a post-transition metal of the sixth period of the Periodic system of chemical elements and/or a lanthanoid and an absorbent material containing a chemical element with an atomic number less than the said chemical elements. Radiation-protective coating consists of multiple alternating layers from particles of at least one transition metal of the sixth period of the Periodic system of chemical elements, a post-transition metal of the sixth period of the Periodic system of chemical elements and/or a lanthanide and from the said absorbent material.
EFFECT: invention allows to ensure optimal protection of hardware components from natural ionizing radiations from the space environment.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition for protection from the effects of ionizing radiation is made in the form of layers, each of which is a matrix of radiation-resistant polymeric material with a filler. The filler contains one or more chemical elements or their compounds. As the filler matrix, facing the source of primary radiation, boron compounds were used. The fillers of each successive layer are selected from the condition of increasing the effective atomic number of the chemical element of the filler material. The attenuation coefficient of each layer is 0.2-0.6.
EFFECT: invention allows to increase the coefficient of attenuation and to reduce the weight and size characteristics.
FIELD: safety facilities for handling radioactive materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed internal container designed for long-time storage and transport of high-radioactivity materials such as plutonium dioxide has container body closed with sealed cover and specified-volume charging box placed in this body and provided with its respective cover. Container body has cylindrical passage for charging box that mounts additional internal cover provided with gas filtering device and hermetically installed relative to its surface for axial displacement. External cover of container body is provided with shut-off valve accommodating gas filtering device installed therein between inner space of container and valve seat. Such mechanical design of container enables reducing irreparable loss of plutonium during its long-time storage and transport.
EFFECT: enhanced safety and reliability , enlarged functional capabilities of container.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: handling radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for nuclear fuel storage in container includes introduction of nuclear fuel in fuel collector, as well as preparation of formwork to receive concrete body and installation of fuel collector into formwork. Formwork is immersed in tank and concrete is placed in immersed formwork to form concrete housing. Formwork with concrete housing formed therein is extracted from tank. System for manufacturing nuclear fuel storage container and for holding fuel in fuel collector installed in concrete housing that forms part of storage container has water tank. In addition it has tools for assembling formwork for storage container concrete housing and facilities for conveying formwork and fuel collector to water tank. It also has facilities for introducing nuclear fuel in fuel collector, facilities for concrete placement in formwork, and those for removing formwork from water tank. Nuclear fuel storage method includes piling of containers so that their central channels are aligned and held open for intercommunication. Fluid cooling agent is supplied to bottom end of central channel in lowermost storage container and discharged from top end of central channel in uppermost storage container.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of radioactive waste isolation.
25 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: storage of hazardous materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device for keeping in storage hazardous materials such as spent radioactive nuclear fuel has cylindrical concrete housing accommodating three-dimensional pre-stressed hardware and axially elongated hazardous-material storage area. Pre-stressed hardware includes hardware fittings spirally passed about storage area and disposed in concrete housing close to outer surface.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of hazardous material storage.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: shipment and storage of highly active wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed container for transport and dry storage of spent nuclear fuel has hermetically sealed storage tank and can holding spent nuclear fuel. In addition, it has external steel-reinforced concrete casing with outer and inner metal shells and bottom, cooling ducts, and fixing dampers. Hermetically sealed tank is provided with transport ring that holds shell in position relative to longitudinal axis of casing and with three detachable lids. It is also provided with dampers disposed over entire perimeter of inner cylindrical shell that function to lock cylindrical shell on lid and outer steel-reinforced concrete casing and to transfer heat therefrom. Cooling system is designed so that cooling air flows through cylindrical gap between outer surface of tank and inner surface of external steel-reinforced concrete casing over cooling ducts.
EFFECT: enhanced operating reliability of container.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: handling spent nuclear fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed module designed for storage of spent nuclear fuel has tight case with inner space to receive spent nuclear fuel. Module is provided with ring made of solid ferromagnetic material possessing magnetocaloric properties. Ring is provided with drive and is free to rotate about its axis. It is disposed so that part of this ring is inside module in immediate proximity of tight tank holding spent nuclear fuel. Other part of ring is placed in constant magnetic field outside of module and can be cooled.
EFFECT: enhanced safety of spent nuclear fuel dry storage.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device for storage and/or transport of spent nuclear fuel has housing and cover forming inner space for holding spent nuclear fuel. Inner space is divided by means of partitions into compartments, each compartment being meant to receive spent fuel assembly. Each compartment accommodates two tanks holding metal hydride or intermetallic compound. These tanks are provided with channels pressurized with respect to inner space of device which are used to discharge hydrogen produced due to heat released by fuel assembly. Hydrogen outlet channels are designed for charging metal hydride through them and are provided with closing valves.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of spent nuclear fuel storage and its safety in transit.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placement of fuel assemblies in transport package incorporating container and split damping casing designed so as to minimize lift of container when inserting it in split damping casing. Transport package is conveyed to storage place where container is freed of casing, whereupon spent fuel assemblies are kept in storage place. In the process spent fuel assemblies are first placed in container and then the latter is inserted in vertical position into split damping casing made in the form of removable drum with butt-end covering and base that functions as end lid of this drum. Charged container is installed on base, covered on top with removable drum, and the latter is fastened to base. Then split damping casing is secured to container, whereupon transport package is conveyed in transport position to storage place.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of storage and transportation.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes loading spent fuel assemblies in metal-concrete container, conveying the latter to intermediate storage site, and holding it on storage sire. Shipping unit for conveying spent fuel assemblies to intermediate storage site has flat-car for carrying vertically mounted container holding spent fuel assemblies. Container is provided with external removable circular supporting member engageable with mating supporting surface of flat-car frame and means for locking container relative to mentioned frame. Shipping unit is provided with jacks for lifting the frame to load spent fuel assemblies in container. Side surface of container body has rigging members in the form of seats on its top and bottom ends. Bottom end of container is installed inside mentioned circular supporting member. Container locking means include radially disposed submersible adjustable stops.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and safety of proposed method and device.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: storage and transportation of used nuclear fuel.
SUBSTANCE: metal-concrete container for transportation and/or storage of used assemblies of fuel elements of nuclear reactors has case with bottom, internal protection air-tight cap, edge damping members. Casing with central cell is inserted inside cavity of case. Peripheral cells are disposed around central cell for mounting housings with used assemblies of fuel elements. Peripheral cells are made in form of tubular members that are mounted to have spaces in relation to internal protection air-tight case and bottom of case. Casing has longitudinal rod members disposed around circle in relation to central cell of casing. Container has first and second sheet members which are mounted along height of case and are connected for disconnection by means of longitudinal rods. Edge damping members are made in form spring-shaped members and they are mounted onto internal protection air-tight cap each in opposite to corresponding cell of casing for interaction with housing under normal conditions of exploitation of metal-concrete container.
EFFECT: higher safety of handling of loaded container.
6 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed metal-concrete container for transportation and/or storage of nuclear-reactor spent fuel assemblies has housing with bottom, internal pressurizing safety cover, hood inserted into housing and provided with cells to receive boxes with spent fuel assemblies. Container also has damping members engageable with cover on inner surface end, with housing bottom, and with housing internal wall. Hood is installed within housing in a space relation to housing internal wall. Side damping members are installed between the latter and hood. Each damping member is made in the form of longitudinal rod passed through holes in respective first and second sheet members installed throughout container height on internal wall of housing and on hood and disposed in parallel with housing bottom.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of spent nuclear fuel storage.
6 cl, 5 dwg