The method of selective water withdrawal
(57) Abstract:Usage: the invention relates to hydropower, in particular engineering to align the surface temperature profiles of the lower and upper dams dam of a hydropower station. The essence of the invention: selective water withdrawal from the top of the downstream dam hydroelectric carried out by setting before the turbine conduit receiving water from the overflow, provided with a horizontal shelf, for example, mine is floating, thus formed over the shelf Weir wave mix to the center of the Weir, by lowering the atmospheric pressure above the Weir in the area with a large perimeter perimeter waves. 3 Il. The invention relates to engineering and can be used for leveling the surface temperature profiles of the lower and upper dams hydroelectric power station.Depending on the construction of hydroelectric dams there are several ways of selective water withdrawal from the top of the downstream dam.One of the most common methods is the selection of bottom water layers through bottom openings in the body of the dam or through the water turbine, nozzle, which is located at a certain elevation relative to the bottom of the reservoir, as he pounds the dam will always be different. Description of methods is given in (Reference hydraulic calculations Ed. P., Kiseleva. CH. 10 10 15 Energy Meters 1972).The method of selection of water from the top of the downstream dam using avandamet with weirs of different constructive solutions, to some extent contributes to the alignment of the surface modes of the upper and lower pools, however, due to the fact that the threshold overflow in this case fixed, the change in water level upstream of the dam automatically change the flow of water through the Weir, and thereby changes the temperature of the surface layers of water in the downstream.Thus, and in this way the desired temperature conditions of the upper and lower pools HES not been able to achieve.The closest to the technical nature of the invention is a method of water abstraction from the top of the downstream dam using mine floating water intake (ed. St. N 1700136 the receiving water for the abstraction of water from the surface layers of the reservoir). This water intake is the most complete of all existing prior to this technical solution, aligns the temperature conditions of the upper and lower dams hydroelectric power station, because it provides a constant, not about leveling temperature conditions of the upper and lower dams hydroelectric power station, that the waveform of the Weir contributes to the fact that along with the water layer in the reservoir above the level of the threshold water comes from layers located below this level, because the "bottom water". When the Weir through the sharp edge of the wave of Weir (threshold overflow) has the form and parameters (Fig. 1).From the above diagram shows that at the threshold (face) of the Weir, the water level decreases, thereby altering the hydrostatic pressure in the water layers in front of the Weir. (Handbook of hydraulic calculations CH. 6 6 2. Fig. 6 4). The pressure difference in layers to the brink of overflow (up to 3 H) and the face is the cause of force numerically equal to the integral of the square of the sector "A" (Fig. 1), which "squeezes" of bottom water through the edge of the Weir. The wave form of the Weir (threshold overflow) practically does not change flowing water through the sharp edge (Fig. 1) or the distinction made in the form of the letter "G", i.e., the Weir is made with a horizontal shelf. This overflow threshold overflow (wave) only has a smoother profile and his sole when it is shifted slightly toward the spillway. The wave form of the Weir has the appearance shown in Fig. 2.The technical result of the invention is the water on the shelf of the layers of the water reservoir below its level.This technical result is achieved by the fact that in order to limit access of water on the shelf overflow water from aquifers lying below its level is formed in front of the shelf wave (threshold overflow) move to the center of the Weir, by lowering the atmospheric pressure above the Weir in the area with a large perimeter perimeter waves.Thus the forces involving bottom layers of water on the shelf of the receiving water is reduced to the minimum, and thus achieves a more clear separation of layers of water lying above the shelves from the water layers below it.Thus the solution has the restrictive characteristics of the prototype, therefore it meets the criterion of "novelty."Comparison of solutions not only prototype, but also with other technical solutions in this field of technology has allowed to reveal in them the distinguishing features of the claimed solution not only from the prototype, but other solutions that allows to make a conclusion on compliance with a criterion of "substantial novelty."In Fig. 1 shows the wave form of the Weir and its parameters at the Weir through the sharp edge of Fig. 2 shows a cross-section of the wave (threshold) overflow when the water enters the receiving water through horizontal regiment is doliwa (threshold overflow), as an exception, may take the form of a ring.In real life, the waveform of the Weir in the plan can have various shapes, which depend on the design features of dams, reservoirs and many other factors constructive plan.In Fig. 3 indicated: 1 tank, 2 pipe for supplying water to the tank, 3 pipe Weir, 4 shut-off valve, 5 threshold overflow (pipe flange overflow may take the form of a ring), 6 hollow ring, 7 - jar, 8 nozzle of the vacuum pump.Setup works as follows: the pipe flange of the Weir is lowered to a certain depth or water level in the tank rises above the flange. The overflow pipe 3 with the flange 5 simulates mine recipient with a horizontal shelf. When opening a shut-off valve 4 around the cap of the overflow pipe 3 on the shelf 5 is formed of sustainable wave of Weir (threshold overflow). Starting in the flow streams of the dark paint can be sure that the front edge of the horizontal shelf on the shelf will get "bottom" water, i.e. water from the layers lying below the level of the shelf. Close the location of the drain a glass cover 7 is supported on a hollow ring 6. Ring around the perimeter should be more PERIMET and from under the hood part of the air, for example, when the connection pipe 8 to the vacuum ring wave Weir is reduced in diameter, i.e. wave "moves" on the shelf to the Weir. The receipt of the "bottom" of water on the shelf is terminated, i.e. it gives a qualitative selective collection of water layers lying at a level above the shelves of the recipient. To implement the proposed method is easy, because the design features of the receiving water for the abstraction of water from the surface layers of the reservoir (ed.St. N 1700136) allow you to create a vacuum above the Weir, to keep it in automatic mode for a long time and within the given parameters, without energy cost. The method of selective water withdrawal, for example, of the upstream hydroelectric dams by installing before the turbine conduit receiving water from the overflow, provided with a horizontal shelf, for example, floating mine, characterized in that formed on the shelf Weir wave moves to the center of the Weir by lowering the atmospheric pressure above the Weir in the area with a perimeter larger than the perimeter of the waves.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish passes in water-intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water stream free of young fish in waterway; forming hydraulic screen near water-intake influence area to separate above area from main stream of water-intake structure; forming whirlpool area near water-intake shore edge. Water stream is formed upstream water-intake structure. Water for users is taken from whirlpool area formed by inner water spray boundary and shore edge. Facility includes water-intake structure arranged at shore line, water-intake pipes connected with pump, stream former and means for water stream creation in waterway. Means for water stream creation is made as channel operating in non-pressure regime and having outlet part arranged upstream water inlet. Marks formed on channel bottom and waterway bottom coincide one with another. Stream former is located downstream water intake and directed in downstream direction.
EFFECT: creating of hydraulic conditions to protect young fish from ingress in water-intake structure.
14 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed for preventing getting of young fish into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield made in form of hollow guides arranged in tiers across water channels in depth with displacement of each upper tier towards diversion channel. It contains also perforated air duct located on bottom of water channel directly before said shield and train-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of channel in parallel with air duct and connected with outlet and device to let out young fish arranged in height of fish retaining shield. Guides of U-shaped are installed at angle to current of intake channel, their planes are perforated and open end part is pointed to bottom of water channel. Young fish let out device is made in form of perforated shields installed side guides for vertical displacement by drive in height of fish retaining shield relative to additional guides made from side of bank edges of intake channel. Perforation holes of shields and u-shaped guides do not coincide in light.
EFFECT: possibility of retaining and bringing young fish out of limits of influence of diversion facility.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in channel and made in form of perforated pipelines arranged in horizontal tiers along entire depth of channel and connected with source of working medium, perforated air duct placed on bottom of channel directly before shield and trash-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of shield parallel to perforated pipeline and air duct which is connected with fish outlet. Perforated pipelines are furnished with ejectors and fish gathering troughs. Ejectors are connected with pressure line of pump and are placed inside perforated pipelines and in communication with fish gathering troughs through perforation holes made in horizontal plane along both sides of pipelines, fish gathering troughs being rigidly fastened opposite to perforation holes. Inner space of fish gathering troughs is provided with longitudinal horizontal partitions dividing the troughs into separate fish intake parts. Surfaces of fish gathering troughs pointed to surface and to bottom of water channel are made perforated. Cross partitions found inside separate fish intake parts form fish intake channels. Initial part of fish outlet is made with fish intake pocket over entire depth of water channel. End face parts of perforated pipelines pointed to side of fish outlet communicate with inner space of pocket.
EFFECT: provision of retaining and removing of young fish over entire depth of water channel.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in water channel in tiers in depth of water channel with displacement of each higher tier to side of water intake channel, perforated air duct made in form of guides installed across water channel before shield on bottom of water channel, and trash-and-fish trough connected with fish outlet and arranged in upper part of shield parallel to air duct. Guides are made in form of flat plates rigidly installed at angle to flow in intake channel. Each plate is provided with horizontal axle in its upper part on which additional plate is secured from side of water intake channel for turning. Lower end face end of additional plate is provided with radial baffle whose surface has perforation holes. End face part of additional plates is provided with sector stopper from side of fish outlet, horizontal axles of plates being connected with drive. Additional plates can be perforated.
EFFECT: provision of retaining and bringing young fish out of the limits of influence of diversion facility.
3 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering; fish protective facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to draw off young fish from zone of influence of water diversion front. Method comes to ejecting young fish into intake part of ejecting plant from section of pond with higher concentration of young fish, creating active ejecting working stream in mixing chamber by entraining volume of water containing young fish into stream created by central ejecting hydraulic jet and further conveyance of water-fish mixture along pressure conduit into fish outlet. At the last stage of conveyance young fish is transported into fish outlet under no pressure conditions by forming hydraulic jet angle to trough of fish outlet, young fish being dropped on surface of fish outlet stream. Invention provides effective conditions for drawing off young fish into fish outlet and reduces damage to young fish. If working ejecting stream is preliminarily saturated with atmospheric air, its outer borders are saturated with air in form of finest microbubbles which form boundary layer ("air cushion") at contact with which young fish do not suffer from discomfort and easily take up hydrodynamic pressure built in mixing chamber. Moreover, provision of boundary layer saturated with microbubbles of air makes it possible to considerably reduce value of friction coupling of two streams, main getting from working nozzle and ejecting, containing young fish.
EFFECT: provision of good conditions for letting out young fish into fish outlet, reduced damage of young fish.
7 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices protecting young fish and preventing their getting into diversion facility. Proposed fish protective facility includes filtering water-separating dam made in form of vertical water-separating wall arranged along water intake channel and separating inlet part of channel from water conduit, device for preliminary drawing off young fish made in form of vertical rod installed for rotation by drive arranged before water-separating wall from its end face part pointed opposite to water flow. Rod is displaced relative to water-separating wall towards water intake channel. Device for preliminary drawing off young fish is furnished with additional means to increase fish draw-off effect, said means being made in from of flat round disks rigidly secured in height of rod coaxially with rod. Disks are installed parallel to each other forming slot water intake channels. End face part of water-separating wall adjoining the rod is provided with slots located opposite to planes of arrangement of disks. Disks are installed for free passing relative to slots. Invention provides higher efficiency of drawing off young fish out limits of zone of influence of diversion facility owing to provision of disks considerably increasing area of contact with surrounding medium and creating powerful circulation flow providing diversion of young fish and trash entrained by water behind outer surface of dam.
EFFECT: provision of effective conditions for drawing off young fish out of limits of zone of influence of diversion facility.
15 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fish protective facilities used in diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective facility includes vertical gauze shield installed in inlet part of water intake channel at angle to its longitudinal axis, fish outlet arranged in place of mating of shield with side of channel, and device for creating whirlpool current for washing the shield containing jet guide member and made in form of chambers adjoining outer surface of shield and forming water intake holes over entire depth of water intake channel. Chambers are made cylindrical being formed by surface of shield and jet guide member and are placed in communication through water intake holes formed by edges of shield of adjacent chambers and edges of jet guide members at place of their butt joining. Each chamber is provided with independent fish outlet made in form of vertical perforated pipe arranged coaxially to chamber and communicating by independent fish duct with fish outlet. Inlet part of water intake channel is made with tangential inlet, edge of left side of channel, shield and tangential inlet are arranged in one plane.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of washing of gauze shield and drawing off young fish and trash.
24 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish-passing devices included in water intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on young fish's tendency to follow moving objects. Method involves forming water permeable screen including flexible elastic members and extending for the full stream depth; providing means for flexible members displacement and installation in working position; providing preliminary young fish concentration in previously created artificial water-plants and transferring young fish into fish-passing channel. Water permeable screen is formed of flexible elastic members on level of stream carrying young fish with maximal concentration. Screen is created in horizontal plane, wherein flexible elastic members are reciprocated from one bank to another along with directing young fish concentrated inside screen in fish-passing channel. Flexible elastic members imitate natural water flora, which is native fish habitat.
EFFECT: provision of controllable water intake during change in vertical young fish descent dynamics.
27 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device designed to prevent young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective device includes suction branch pipe lowered under water level, water permeable shield, device to bring young fish off made in from of hydraulic wash-away device with slot arranged coaxially with suction branch pipe out of the limits of suction hole, feed pipeline connected with pressure line of pump and made inside suction branch pipe coaxially with the latter, and ring conical partition made coaxially to suction branch pipe and rigidly secured on outer surface of suction branch pipe. Hydraulic wash-away device is formed by two cup-like deflectors with concave side pointed to suction hole and installed one over the other to form ring slot directed along water permeable shield. Lower deflector is provided with central outlet hole whose diameter is smaller than diameter of jet forming nozzle arranged coaxially to hydraulic wash-away device and rigidly connected with end part of feed pipeline. Ring conical partition is installed with its larger base to side of suction branch pipe, its smaller base being arranged in plane of suction hole.
EFFECT: simplified design of fish [protective device, provision of effective bringing young fish of limits of influence of suction branch pipe.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering and water supply.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to prevent getting of young fish into diversion at water supply of objects from fishery rivers. Proposed water intake has massive head with crushed stone or stone cushioning layer, filtering cassettes on water intake hole with filtering charge, water intake bell connected with gravity or siphon water conduit. Charge of filtering cassettes is floating, made of different-diameter ball elements of positive fall diameter. Racks are installed in upper and lower parts of filtering cassettes horizontally. Distance between bars of racks is less than diameter of ball elements of floating filtering charge. Distance between upper and lower racks is 30-40% greater than thickness of charge layer which should be not less than 400 mm. Protection is provided by scaring young fish at active movement of ball elements of floating filtering charge in cassettes between upper and lower racks at hydrodynamic action of flow of water getting into water intake, and owing to mechanical prevention of getting of young fish into charge.
EFFECT: improved reliability of water intake in operation, reduced energy consumption at back flushing.