The method of selective water withdrawal

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the invention relates to hydropower, in particular engineering to align the surface temperature profiles of the lower and upper dams dam of a hydropower station. The essence of the invention: selective water withdrawal from the top of the downstream dam hydroelectric carried out by setting before the turbine conduit receiving water from the overflow, provided with a horizontal shelf, for example, mine is floating, thus formed over the shelf Weir wave mix to the center of the Weir, by lowering the atmospheric pressure above the Weir in the area with a large perimeter perimeter waves. 3 Il.

The invention relates to engineering and can be used for leveling the surface temperature profiles of the lower and upper dams hydroelectric power station.

Depending on the construction of hydroelectric dams there are several ways of selective water withdrawal from the top of the downstream dam.

One of the most common methods is the selection of bottom water layers through bottom openings in the body of the dam or through the water turbine, nozzle, which is located at a certain elevation relative to the bottom of the reservoir, as he pounds the dam will always be different. Description of methods is given in (Reference hydraulic calculations Ed. P., Kiseleva. CH. 10 10 15 Energy Meters 1972).

The method of selection of water from the top of the downstream dam using avandamet with weirs of different constructive solutions, to some extent contributes to the alignment of the surface modes of the upper and lower pools, however, due to the fact that the threshold overflow in this case fixed, the change in water level upstream of the dam automatically change the flow of water through the Weir, and thereby changes the temperature of the surface layers of water in the downstream.

Thus, and in this way the desired temperature conditions of the upper and lower pools HES not been able to achieve.

The closest to the technical nature of the invention is a method of water abstraction from the top of the downstream dam using mine floating water intake (ed. St. N 1700136 the receiving water for the abstraction of water from the surface layers of the reservoir). This water intake is the most complete of all existing prior to this technical solution, aligns the temperature conditions of the upper and lower dams hydroelectric power station, because it provides a constant, not about leveling temperature conditions of the upper and lower dams hydroelectric power station, that the waveform of the Weir contributes to the fact that along with the water layer in the reservoir above the level of the threshold water comes from layers located below this level, because the "bottom water". When the Weir through the sharp edge of the wave of Weir (threshold overflow) has the form and parameters (Fig. 1).

From the above diagram shows that at the threshold (face) of the Weir, the water level decreases, thereby altering the hydrostatic pressure in the water layers in front of the Weir. (Handbook of hydraulic calculations CH. 6 6 2. Fig. 6 4). The pressure difference in layers to the brink of overflow (up to 3 H) and the face is the cause of force numerically equal to the integral of the square of the sector "A" (Fig. 1), which "squeezes" of bottom water through the edge of the Weir. The wave form of the Weir (threshold overflow) practically does not change flowing water through the sharp edge (Fig. 1) or the distinction made in the form of the letter "G", i.e., the Weir is made with a horizontal shelf. This overflow threshold overflow (wave) only has a smoother profile and his sole when it is shifted slightly toward the spillway. The wave form of the Weir has the appearance shown in Fig. 2.

The technical result of the invention is the water on the shelf of the layers of the water reservoir below its level.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in order to limit access of water on the shelf overflow water from aquifers lying below its level is formed in front of the shelf wave (threshold overflow) move to the center of the Weir, by lowering the atmospheric pressure above the Weir in the area with a large perimeter perimeter waves.

Thus the forces involving bottom layers of water on the shelf of the receiving water is reduced to the minimum, and thus achieves a more clear separation of layers of water lying above the shelves from the water layers below it.

Thus the solution has the restrictive characteristics of the prototype, therefore it meets the criterion of "novelty."

Comparison of solutions not only prototype, but also with other technical solutions in this field of technology has allowed to reveal in them the distinguishing features of the claimed solution not only from the prototype, but other solutions that allows to make a conclusion on compliance with a criterion of "substantial novelty."

In Fig. 1 shows the wave form of the Weir and its parameters at the Weir through the sharp edge of Fig. 2 shows a cross-section of the wave (threshold) overflow when the water enters the receiving water through horizontal regiment is doliwa (threshold overflow), as an exception, may take the form of a ring.

In real life, the waveform of the Weir in the plan can have various shapes, which depend on the design features of dams, reservoirs and many other factors constructive plan.

In Fig. 3 indicated: 1 tank, 2 pipe for supplying water to the tank, 3 pipe Weir, 4 shut-off valve, 5 threshold overflow (pipe flange overflow may take the form of a ring), 6 hollow ring, 7 - jar, 8 nozzle of the vacuum pump.

Setup works as follows: the pipe flange of the Weir is lowered to a certain depth or water level in the tank rises above the flange. The overflow pipe 3 with the flange 5 simulates mine recipient with a horizontal shelf. When opening a shut-off valve 4 around the cap of the overflow pipe 3 on the shelf 5 is formed of sustainable wave of Weir (threshold overflow). Starting in the flow streams of the dark paint can be sure that the front edge of the horizontal shelf on the shelf will get "bottom" water, i.e. water from the layers lying below the level of the shelf. Close the location of the drain a glass cover 7 is supported on a hollow ring 6. Ring around the perimeter should be more PERIMET and from under the hood part of the air, for example, when the connection pipe 8 to the vacuum ring wave Weir is reduced in diameter, i.e. wave "moves" on the shelf to the Weir. The receipt of the "bottom" of water on the shelf is terminated, i.e. it gives a qualitative selective collection of water layers lying at a level above the shelves of the recipient. To implement the proposed method is easy, because the design features of the receiving water for the abstraction of water from the surface layers of the reservoir (ed.St. N 1700136) allow you to create a vacuum above the Weir, to keep it in automatic mode for a long time and within the given parameters, without energy cost.

The method of selective water withdrawal, for example, of the upstream hydroelectric dams by installing before the turbine conduit receiving water from the overflow, provided with a horizontal shelf, for example, floating mine, characterized in that formed on the shelf Weir wave moves to the center of the Weir by lowering the atmospheric pressure above the Weir in the area with a perimeter larger than the perimeter of the waves.

 

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EFFECT: provision of retaining and bringing young fish out of the limits of influence of diversion facility.

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