Polonaruwa and method of construction
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to hydraulic construction, namely to shore protection structures. The essence of the invention: polonaruwa made of a combination of precast-monolithic reinforced concrete structures and consists of two main parts - the hard manual tray and a flexible head. The tray is made of l-shaped blocks made uneven and arranged in a row in pairs against each other. The highest blocks of at least two pairs are installed in the root part, embedded in the shore or slope of the dam, they are at least two pairs of blocks with a height lower. Inside the tray, in places rebar, blocks interconnected and zamonolichennyj concrete. Outside and to the side standing next to the blocks rigidly interconnected in places of inserts with reinforcing wire. Top across the tray, the joints of the blocks, set of ribs in the form of concrete or metal lintels. The drawer front is closed reinforcing bars. Jumpers and wire grid attached to the mounting loops and the fixtures adjacent blocks. The transient portion of the tray loaded with gravel which I am the head of polysaprobic is located at the front of the tray at the bottom of the riverbed and made of precast concrete cubes, pivotally interconnected and reinforcing belts of the tray. In the process of construction of polysaprobic first prepare the ground and make the passage of the trench within its root portion, and after the passages of the trench it is mounted uneven l-shaped blocks, with communicate blocks between themselves and the reinforcing belt tray, and after a set of monolithic concrete bottom tray allowable strength of the bottom tray loaded with gravel and pebbles. 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to hydraulic construction, namely to shore protection structures and method of construction.Known  polysaprobic of stone khvorostyanoy masonry and mattresses.However, they are most effective when flow velocities up to 2 m/s at high flow speeds > 2 m/s they are rapidly destroyed and washed away. In addition, they are characterized by complex and time-consuming construction technology.Also known flexible polonaruwa  made of concrete blocks BGP-1 and BGP-4, pivotally connected with each other and laid on the mattress Foundation of stone khvorostyanov or gabion material. It is designed to foothill areas R the construction of polysaprobic, including the preparation of the base and the passage of the trench in the root of polysaprobic 
However, when the flow velocity > 2 m/s mattress Foundation of stone and wood is destroyed and washed away, and the body polysaprobic precast concrete blocks goes to the bottom as a result of erosion of the riverbed, in this regard, it cannot perform its core functions: deviation of surface flow from the shore in the direction of the main stream and create zones silting near the shore in between polisaprogenic. And gabion mattress is also destroyed when the flow rates of more than 2.5 to 3.0 m/s under abrasive and dynamic effects of flow with pumps. In the area of the top polysaprobic concrete blocks do not protect mesh shell mattress from abrasion and impacts of flood flow, so the destruction of the mesh in this place leads to the destruction of the entire mattress and a significant deterioration of the efficiency of polysaprobic. In addition, for construction of such poulsard require labor-intensive technology and significant financial costs.The purpose of the invention increase the efficiency and reducing the complexity of the construction.The objective in terms of devices and flexible head. The tray is made of l-shaped blocks arranged in a row in pairs against each other, inside the tray in places rebar side and in some places there are fixings blocks are interconnected with reinforcing wire, front tray closes reinforcing bars across the top of the tray in the joints adjacent to the front and over the lattice are ribs in the form of bridges of reinforced concrete or metal, with jumpers and louvers are attached to the mounting loops and the fixtures adjacent blocks, the inner part of the tray is loaded with gravel and pebbles around the tray through the top mounting tabs strapped reinforcing belt, flexible head part of polysaprobic is made of prefabricated concrete cubes that are connected with hinges and reinforcing belt tray.The purpose of the invention in the part of the method is achieved in that in the method of construction of polysaprobic, including the preparation of the base and the passage of the trench in the root of polysaprobic, after excerpts of the trench it is mounted uneven blocks of G-shaped root portion, embedded in the shore to the head part with the formation speed of the tray, with decreasing height of the walls from the shore to the bed,eredi tray to the fixtures attach reinforcing bars, top across the tray in the joints adjacent blocks and the front of the tray above the lattice sets with partial input tray metal or reinforced concrete lintels, attach them to the mounting loops and the fixtures neighboring blocks, and after the curing monolithic concrete at the bottom of the base of the tray it is loaded with gravel and pebbles so that the largest of their faction were in the front near the grill and the top of the tray, and then around the tray through the top mounting tabs retard reinforcing belt, then in front of the tray horizontally in two rows mounted precast concrete cubes, are pivotally interconnected and reinforcing belt tray.In Fig. 1 shows a longitudinal profile along the axis of polysaprobic; Fig. 2 is a plan; Fig. 3 cross section polysaprobic; Fig. 4 reinforcing bars.Combined polonaruwa consists of two main parts of a rigid ladder-type tray 1 and the flexible head part 2. Tray 1 is made of l-shaped blocks, with the highest blocks 3, G-30 or G-25 pairs are located in the root portion, embedded in Bank 4, along with these high blocks 3 are lower blocks (G-20), inside the tray, in places reinforcing schematics is rigidly connected, the front tray is closed reinforcing bars 8, the top and across the tray jumper 9 Tauri form, densely included in the tray and attached to the mounting loops and the fixtures neighboring blocks. The inner part of the tray loaded with gravel and pebbles 10, and around the tray 1 through the upper mounting tabs 11 is covered with the reinforcing belt 12. Flexible head part 2 polysaprobic made of concrete cubes 13, pivotally interconnected with reinforcing flanges 12 of the tray 1 with the reinforcing wire 14.The method of construction of the combined polysaprobic is as follows.In a prepared trench are l-shaped blocks, which are welded together in pairs at locations rebar and embedded parts. Moreover, the installation of these units is as follows: the highest blocks 3 (G-30 or G-25) at least two pairs are placed against each other in the root of polysaprobic, embedded in the shore. Next, you will set next to them at least two pairs of blocks 5 (G-20) to form a stepped tray 1. The inner part of the manual tray 1 is filled with a monolithic concrete 6. Then welded reinforcement grid 8 is attached to the front of the tray by welding to saklad is on the adjacent blocks and the front of the tray above the bars 8 are mounted metal or reinforced concrete lintels 9, which are attached to the mounting loops and the fixtures. And the jumpers have Tauri form, so they are mounted so that were tight to a depth of 10 to 15 cm in tray 1 to provide rigidity and structural strength of the tray.After a set of monolithic concrete at the bottom of the normal strength of the tray 1 is loaded with gravel and pebbles so that the largest of its fixation was located in the front 15 near the grids and the top 16 of the tray to avoid washing them with the water flow. Then around the tray through the mounting loops located in the upper part, without connections, it is arranged reinforcing belt 12, tight all l-shaped blocks, and, finally, in front of the tray horizontally in two rows of installed precast concrete cubes 13, pivotally interconnected and reinforcing belt 12 of the tray by a valve 14 a-1 12-16 mm
Polysaprobic are arranged with a slope of (0,05 0,1) and is directed against the stream at an angle to the 30oto the normal to the axis of the stream.Polonaruwa works as follows.The main burden of flood flow perceive themselves polysaprobic and provide drainage impact forces flow from the shore in the direction of the main stream due and the ka 1 ribs 9 are as a guide wall, which facilitate the flow of water to flow through polysaprobic perpendicular to their axes. Polysaprobic operate as weirs divert the flow of water from the shore and protect it from erosion.The flexible design of the head part 2 polysaprobic provides reliable protection of the coast against possible erosion from the river, it accounts for the largest share of the costs and hydrodynamic effects of flood flow, while padmawar channel it under their own weight falls into the funnel erosion of the riverbed, thus tensioned reinforcing belt 12 of the tray 1, this increases the strength and stability of the tray. When deep maximum possible erosion of the riverbed flexible part 2 polysaprobic must lie along the line of repose underlying soils, and this length l2must be at least hpctg, where hppossible maximum depth of scour of the riverbed below the bottom level, where the precast concrete cubes 13. In this case prevents the spread of erosion of the riverbed toward the coast. The length of the stepped tray 1l1must be at least l2the length of the head part to ensure the efficient and sustainable operation of polysaprobic as overflow. The length of the Pima conditions of the river, and by techno-economic comparison of options. For foothill and mountain meandering river reaches with a gradient of 0.005 to 0.02 is recommended to take the length of poulsard l not more than 20 to 30 m and the distance between them is no more than (2 3) l is their length. At longer poulsard load of flood flow on the opposite shore is greatly increased. The average water head above the tray 1 at the maximum flood expenditures of the river should be in the range from 0.7 to 1.2 m and not more than 1/3 N maximum depth of flow, and the pressure above the root part in the shore area should be not more than 0.5 m, and the pressure above the end part of the stage tray 1 is not more than 1.5 mWidth polysaprobic is chosen from the condition of compliance with stability against shearing forces of the flood flow. The proposed polysaprobic do not lose their shape due to the hard and rigid design speed of the tray, under any possible hydrodynamic impacts of flood flow they work effectively rassredotochivaniya shock force of the flood flow across the channel and creating a zone of silting near the shore in between polisaprogenic. In addition, their construction uses common materials and products, as well as construction machinery. C is wusasa high labour costs and the share of manual labor.Combined polysaprobic designed for the Piedmont and mountain sections of rivers with inclination i of 0.001 to 0.02, flood flows which are characterized by high speeds and superficial modes. 1. Polonaruwa, consisting of precast concrete elements, characterized in that it made a combined structure of the l-shaped blocks forming a stepped tray, and from the concrete cubes forming the head part, thus forming a stepped tray l-shaped blocks are made uneven, and is located in the cross section in pairs opposite each other inside the tray bottom in places rebar blocks interconnected and zamonolichennyj concrete, outside and to the side in places fixings blocks are interconnected by means of rebar, top across the tray in the attachment of the l-shaped blocks arranged ribs in the form of concrete or metal lintels, front side opposite the root portion of the tray is closed reinforcing bars, jumpers and grill attached to the mounting loops and the fixtures adjacent blocks, and the tray prigogin gravel and pebbles and around the covered wire belt passing through the top what's between a concrete cubes and with the reinforcement belt tray.2. Polonaruwa under item 1, characterized in that its length is determined by the formula
l l1+ l2,
where l1the length of the stepped tray, m;
l2the length of the flexible head, m,
while l2l2and l2is determined from the condition
where hpthe maximum depth possible erosion of the riverbed below the base of the concrete cubes, m;
the angle of repose of underlying soils, hail;
3. The method of construction of polysaprobic, including the preparation of the base and the passage of the trench in the root of polysaprobic, characterized in that after the passages of the trench it is mounted uneven blocks of the G-shaped forms from the root portion, embedded in the shore to the head part with the formation speed of the tray, with decreasing height of the walls from the shore to the bed, while the blocks connect to the lower shelves on the base of the tray, which is then poured the concrete in front of the tray to the fixtures attach reinforcing bars, top across the tray in the joints adjacent blocks and the front of the tray above the lattice sets with partial input tray metal or reinforced concrete lintels and attach them to the mounting loops and load gravel and pebbles so, to the largest of their faction were in the front near the grill and the top of the tray, and then around the tray through the top mounting tabs fit a reinforcing belt, and then in front of the tray horizontally in two rows mounted precast concrete cubes are pivotally interconnected and reinforcing belt tray.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.
EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.