Composition for immunizing plants against various phytopathogens

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to agriculture, namely, to the means of protection of plants against diseases, in particular, compositions for immunizing plants against various phytopathogens. Composition for immunizing plants against various phytopathogens on the basis of a mixture of fatty acids containing arachidonic acid and/or eykozapentaenovuyu acid or their lower alkalemia esters, antioxidants and urea. The composition has a high immunostimulatory activity, provides consistency and duration of the protective effect against various phytopathogens on a wide range of different crops. The composition is stable, its composition does not change during storage at room temperature for several months. 9 table.

The invention relates to agriculture, namely, to the means of protection of plants from diseases.

Known composition, inducing resistance of potatoes, sugar beets and tomatoes to pathogenic fungi lipoglycopeptide complex (LGB complex) containing as active principle and arachidonic eykozapentaenovuyu acid [1]

The disadvantage of this composition is ned is increased immunostimulatory activity against various kinds of diseases (pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes) on a wide variety of crops and improvement of the properties of the composition, creating compositions that do not contain allergenic components, stable when stored at room temperature for several years.

This is achieved by the proposed composition for immunizing plants against various pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes comprising the active substance and additives target, the distinguishing feature of which is that as the active substances it contains an effective amount of a mixture of higher fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or lower alilovic esters in an amount not less than 10 wt. from the amount of acid, and the target additives antioxidants and urea. Properties of the proposed compositions are determined not so much by way of obtaining fatty acids, not accurate qualitative and quantitative composition of the components in the mixture of fatty acids, but primarily by the presence in the mixture AK and/or EPA, antioxidant and urea.

Fatty acids containing AK and/or EPA receive described in the literature technology, in particular from animal raw materials: from the lipids page is based on microbiological synthesis using a variety of mushrooms-producers: Mortierella hygrophila, Mortierella alpina, Pythium catenu - latum, Pythium coloratum, Pythium insidiosum, Saprolegnia parasitica, etc. basically the technique of culturing fungi, methods of extraction and excretion of fatty acids is well known to specialists.

When using a microbiological method or extraction of animal raw materials receive a mixture of fatty acids with a content of AK and/or EPA from 10% or more of the amount of fatty acids.

The proposed composition is used in the form of tablets with known ingredients (detergent, anti-caking agent and various dyes).

A method of obtaining a composition in the form of tablets is carried out, for example, as follows.

Fatty acids are arachidonic acid up to 50% of the amount of fatty acids produced by cultivation of gameproducer, where the producer used a strain of Mortierella hygrophila FM-V-23 [2], the fungal Mycelium was separated by filtration and lyophilized. For separation of fatty acid to the dried biomass consistently add acetylchloride and ethanol and heated to remove solvent. A mixture containing ethyl esters of fatty acids extracted with hexane. Hexane is evaporated in a vacuum evaporator to obtain ethyl esters of fatty acids.

The composition of fatty acids in the form of these is the exposure to the mixture of fatty acids enter the antioxidant, for example, a hexane solution of butylacetyl, detergents (for better dispersion of the active agent), such as tween-20 and anti-caking agent, for example, Aerosil AM-1-300, and various dyes, then they are mixed with urea. Mixing is carried out in tanks equipped with a stirrer for 10-12 h after which the mixture is discharged from the mixer and loaded into a hopper teletrauma machine. One of the variants of a particular composition used compositions are presented in table.2. The tablet composition of the mixture corresponds to the tablets, intended for processing 1 kg of vegetable seeds, or 1 ton of seeds of cereals, or 4 tons of seed potatoes, or 1 hectare of sown area.

So, the tablet weight of 0.3 g for the composition of the tablet mixture in the presence of ethyl ester of arachidonic acid, about 50% of the mixture of ethyl esters of fatty acids contains about 10 mg of ethyl ester of arachidonic acid. In the presence of ethyl esters of AA and EPA about 10% of the mixture of ethyl esters of fatty acids, the tablet contains about 2 mg of the ethyl esters of AA and EPA.

In the test at the accelerated storage (at a temperature of 91oC for 6 h) composition (tablet) is absolutely stable, and it ravnomernye fatty acids, for example, arachidonic acid is susceptible to oxidation by 5-10% over the three days of storage at a temperature of 37oWith (according to the catalogue of the firm "Serva", 1991).

When using the tablet dissolved in 100 ml of pure cold water for 30 minutes the resulting concentrate of the drug (mother solution) is mixed with the required amount of water depending on the ongoing process and culture.

Tested compositions containing various combinations of fatty acids, their mixtures and their alilovic esters and known similar LGB-complex, containing as active principle arachidonic (AA) and eykozapentaenovuyu acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid in isopropanol. The tubers of potato cultivar Flame treated before planting composition with different content of AK and/or EPA and LPG-complex, and AK in isopropanol were planted on the plots, and then took into account the development of the disease on the leaves of plants grown from tubers induced. Data for testing the biological activity of the composition and LGB-complex, as well as AK in isopropanol are shown in table.3.

As can be seen from the table. 3, the proposed composition has a higher biological activity than LGB-complex and AK, alilovic esters are approximately the same.

The tests were carried out on different varieties of potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, sugar beet, cereals, legumes, vines and other crops. In the method of demonstration experiments involved the comparison of the proposed composition with an untreated control and with a high modern standard fungicides. Take into account the results of both natural and artificial infection near fungal and bacterial pathogens at the pre-treatment of seeds and tubers and during the growing season. Evaluated the quality and quantity of the harvest. Using this composition could induce resistance of vegetative plants, seeds and bulbs to a number of pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes.

Example 1. The potatoes. The scheme of experiment.

Option 1. Double use of the composition: pre-plant spraying seed tubers based 1/4 tablet composition (0.075 g) and 7-8 liters of water per 1 ton of tubers; spraying of plants in the budding stage the rate of 1 tablet composition (0.3 g) and 400 l of water per 1 ha

Option II. Double use of the drug krezacin, 99,9% (ethanol) CR. p. pre-plant spraying seed tubers based 1.6 drug and SS="ptx2">

Option III. System use of chemical remedies (standard): pre-plant spraying seed tubers at the rate of 0.5 kg of the drug Benet, 50% C. p. and 10 l of water per 1 ton of tubers; four spraying plants with fungicides according to the scheme: ridomil MC, 72% C. p. (2.5 kg/ha) ridomil MC, 72% C. p. (2.5 kg/ha) polycarbon, 80% C. p. (2.4 kg/ha) polycarbon, 80% c. p. (2.4 kg/ha). The rate of water flow rate of 400 l/ha

Option IV. Treatment of seed tubers and plants protective stimuliruemoe means is not performed (control).

Processing of tubers composition was held for two days before planting, and drug krezacin and benlate on the day of planting. Data for the tests are given in table. 4-7.

Tests proposed composition showed that the biological effectiveness of the two treatment it potato is almost at the level of two-fold application of krezacin (standard) and five times the use of chemical pesticides (standard). The prevalence and degree of development of black scurf was accordingly 12.1 and 10.1% below control. Also, there was a noticeable downward trend in the spread and development of Alternaria (4.0 and 1.1%, respectively) and late blight (4.0 and 1.1, respectively).

Obrazovalos apical dominance, as a result, we increased the number of stems in the Bush, or 115.1-118,1% of control), and the number of tubers per plant (111,2-119,4% of control). Yield increase healthy tubers in the processing composition was 4.7 t/ha (of 120.5% of control).

Example 2. Grain crops.

Test composition on spring and winter wheat during pre-sowing treatment of seeds and vegetative plants showed that the composition does not yield taken as reference chemicals to benlate and Policoro. On average, for 2 years the development of root rot fusariose-cercosporella type decreased by 35-53% and the value of the stored crop amounted to 5-6 t/ha When spraying grain crops composition reduced the development of powdery mildew on 68-75% septrional spot on 36-41% pianofortes on 37-47% gasparinetti seed pathogens Alternaria when processing crops in earing fell from 12% to 2%

Example 3. Cucumbers and tomatoes protected ground.

The tests showed that the composition was exceeded on the biological efficiency of the reference drugs baytan and bayleton in the protection of cucumbers and tomatoes from powdery mildew. The spraying composition of plants of cucumbers and tomatoes while VEGA is of on vegetative and generative organs of plants: leaf-bearing increased by more than 20% of the number of fruits on 50%

The composition has a high nematocides, antiviral and bactericidal activity when introducing it into the soil, seed treatment and spraying of plants during the growing season. In particular, using the composition for tomatoes biological activity against virus-streak was almost 100% and bacterial diseases (bacterial black spot) more than 50% of the Treatment composition of seeds of tomato varieties Carlson, as well as soil resulted in reduction of infection of tomato root-knot nematodes to the level of 36.3% at 100% infection control. The data presented in table. 8. Example 4. Sugar and fodder beet.

The use of a composition in the fight against powdery mildew and Cercospora in production conditions allowed us to obtain a significant yield increase of at least 20 kg/ha.

Tested protective-stimulating action of the composition in greenhouse conditions on sugar and fodder beet against root borer. Seeds of sugar and fodder beet were soaked for 24 h in an aqueous solution of the composition, or in an aqueous solution of urea, or in the water. Then seeds were sown in trays with soil. Artificial infectious background was created by introducing into the soil at sowing suspension of spores major pathogens of root borer. In f the global data on the biological activity of the proposed composition and urea are presented in table.9.

Presented in table.9 evidence suggests that the proposed composition is effective against root borer (30% reduced the lesion compared with the control), as well as more effective compared with urea.

Thus, the proposed composition for the immunization of plants with a high immunostimulatory activity, ensuring the consistency and duration of protective activity against various pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes on a wide range of different crops that do not contain allergenic ingredients. The composition is stable, its composition does not change during storage at room temperature for several years. this composition can complement the existing Arsenal of plant protection products.

Composition for immunizing plants against various phytopathogens comprising the active substance and the target additives, characterized in that the active substance it contains an effective amount of a mixture of higher fatty acids with a content of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids or their lower alilovic esters in an amount not less than 10 wt. from the amount of acid, and the target additives antioxidants and urine is

 

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