(57) Abstract:Usage: in the field of wind and hydropower as an Autonomous energy source. The inventive conversion efficiencies, increase capacity of the unit, simplifying the kinematic scheme and transmission when exposed to multiple receivers on one generator, and getting guaranteed source of supply significant power. The technical result is ensured by the fact that the power plant includes a primary Converter 1 in the form of receivers 10, slidably mounted on the rods 11, 12 of the hydraulic cylinders 7, 8, 9, the secondary Converter 2 in the form of two pumps 15, 16, the crankshafts are connected aprocalypse transmission ratio 1:2 and the generator 4. The message of changing volumes of the cylinders 7, 8, 9 transducers 1 and cylinder secondary conversion oil 3 forms a rigid kinematic relationship of all moving parts of the plant at which the centrifugal movement of the receivers in a moving stream cause the rotation of the crankshaft of the secondary Converter 2 with the sum of their power and the AI alternately on different sides of the moving direction of the flow and return them to their original position the sharp end edge with a minimum of resistance to a moving stream. 10 Il. The invention relates to the field of wind and hydropower, and can be used as the working bodies of the wind turbines and hydroelectric power plants (HPP) to convert the energy of wind or water flow into electrical energy.As you know, working bodies of wind turbines and hydroelectric run as so-called windwheels and turbines. Their theory was developed in the early XX century N. E. Zhukovskiy. He determined the value of the maximum possible utilization of the energy of a moving stream of ideal wheels. CPV was equal to 59,3% Modern wind and hydraulic motors have KPV about 15% below the ideal, i.e., does not exceed 45% (see e.g. 1, pp. 77, 78).Therefore, the main disadvantages of wind power are low efficiency of a wind turbine and low unit power units, wind turbines, and hydro can't work with small variations of the velocity head of water, require the construction of high-rise costly hydro-mechanical structures (dams) and inundation of large areas of valuable cultural lands, which upsets the natural balance of the physical-geographical systems, changes the climate, the conditions of reproduction of fish use the AI and the potential of water resources.Currently, hydropower produces less than 19 per cent of the domestic electricity, almost no small hydropower plants (3, page 24, 25), ineffective tidal hydroelectric station (PES), does not use energy lowland rivers.Also known plant that uses wind turbines with vertical power axis, the power axis is connected to the generator and rotates the vertical sails, which are mounted on movable horizontal rods rotating in bearings.During the reverse course of the sails against the wind drag is reduced due to rotation in the horizontal plane 90oaround the rods under the action of the guide disk, the angular position of which is determined by the vane (4, page 4).Double forced rotation of the working area around the terminals spent a significant proportion of the active site, which reduces the efficiency of such a plant.Enhancing capacity of the unit is also limited to linear dimensions and number of sails, attached only on one power axis.A study of the patent and technical literature shows that the effectiveness of isplsi the complexity and cost of the entire unit (see for example, 5).The closest technical solution of the power plant (prototype) is a wind turbine  containing installed on the mast (strength axis) with orientation on the flow rotary working bodies of rectangular shape with semi-axes, and associated with powertrain Energomonitor. The mast is provided with a horizontal swivel chute in the form of g and the horizontal rotary guides and each working body parallel rods placed in the guide. Its axis is equipped with rollers installed in the gutters, and transmission interacting with her arms mounted rotatably around axes passing through the centers of the loops of the gutters.This design significantly reduces the aerodynamic resistance to movement of the working bodies in the stream and increases the efficiency of the power plant, but the guide grooves and the ov-swivel joints with parallel rods complicates the kinematic scheme and design of wind turbines in General, especially when combining several working bodies on one load, and makes it difficult operation of wind turbines due to the large exposed surface t of the volumes and transmission installation when exposed to several working bodies for a total load (generator, pump and so on), increase resource and simplifying maintenance when operating such facility.The objective is achieved by the refusal of the guide grooves in the form of eights, ov-swivel hinge and parallel rods, as well as transmission with fork levers interacting with the axes of the working bodies.The invention consists in that the power plant is designed as a hydraulic system that includes three cylinder primary transducer for each power receiver and three cylinder General secondary transducer. Variable volume cylinder primary and secondary converters communicated between the oil lines. In the primary Converter of the Central hydraulic cylinder pivoted on the frame, is connected to the rod side of hydraulic cylinder acting on the Central as to swing the connecting rod and its piston rod pivotally connected to the power receiver. The angle of rotation of the power receiver relative to the rod and the direction of flow is changed under the influence of the piston rod of the third cylinder, also movably mounted on the common frame. The frame, in turn, movably mounted on the power axis, which can Schulzweida transmission piston pump, gear ratio connecting gear 1: 2. Two cylinder oil pump parallel, and a third reported side hydraulic cylinder of the primary Converter, perpendicular to them. The length of the power receiver is selected commensurate with the value of its translational movement perpendicular to the moving direction of flow. For semioriental a moving stream of primary transducers are placed on the shared frames in pairs opposite and symmetrically with respect to the flow direction. To create a uniform torque on the shaft of the secondary Converter connected to an electric generator, all the receivers are uniformly shifted in phase of the movement.The power plant is designed to work primarily with asynchronized synchronous generator and. C. N 1503643, CL H 02K 17/26, 1986, having the property of drive and ensures the independence of the power quality from the flow velocity.The results of the patent search showed lack of power with the proposed set of features.Thus, in this case, the known elements combined with new contacts, make new power plant properties, manifested in the floor is mnost of the invention is illustrated by drawings, where in Fig. 1 shows a kinematic diagram of the operation of the power plant; Fig. 2-9 shows the locations of the primary and secondary converters for two revolutions of the output shaft every 90oFig. 10 shows a variant of Association of the serial connection of any number of pairs of transducers with one common secondary inverter and the generator.The power plant consists of at least one of the transducer 1, the secondary Converter 2, which connects from the oil lines 3 and the electric generator 4.The primary energy Converter 1 includes a frame 5, movably mounted on the power axis 6, which is also movably secured to the Central cylinder 7, the side of the cylinder 8 and the third hydraulic cylinder 9, which defines the angle of rotation of the power receiver 10.The power receiver 10 middle part movably mounted on the stem 11 of the Central cylinder 7 and the piston rod 12 of the hydraulic cylinder 9. The distance l is equal to the magnitude of the asymmetry of the left and right loops of the figure-eight trajectory, and the distance between the axes of the fastening of the Central cylinder 8 and the third hydraulic cylinder 9 of the frame 5 is half of this asymmetry, i.e., the rod 11 qi rigidly connected with the piston 14, made in the working chambers of the hydraulic cylinders 7, 8 and 9.Each hydraulic cylinder 7, 8 and 9 are formed by two changeable volume of the rod and Rodless cylinders cavity. These changed amounts reported by the oil lines 3 with equal volume working chambers of the secondary Converter 2 without any locking or regulatory authorities.The secondary Converter 2 consists of two piston oil pump 15 and 16, the United aprocalypse transmission so that the rotational speed of a crankshaft of an oil pump 15, running on a Central cylinder 7, two times the frequency of rotation of the crankshaft of the pump 16, working on the side of the cylinder 8 and the rotary cylinder 9. This is achieved, for example, by connection of their shafts, two gears 17, having a gear ratio of 1:2.In principle, the oil pump 15 can have one cylinder, and the oil pump 16 two cylinders arranged at right (to shift the phase of movement on the 90o) angle to each other and communicated with the hydraulic cylinders 7, 8 and 9, the oil lines 3 as shown in Fig. 2. But for a serial message to the rod end of the Central cylinder 7 with Rodless cylinders cavity Pavarotti diameter of the cylinder 9, as shown in Fig. 2, or the compensation for the volume taken up by the rod 11, an additional cylinder 18 in the pump 15 with the same diameter all cylinders, as shown in Fig.1.The action of the main and compensating cylinders of the pumps 15 and 16 must be simultaneous, which is achieved, for example, the location of their rods on the same crank.Power plant with one of the primary transducer 1 is only functional in the presence of a vane or other device that forcibly orienting the power receiver 10 according to the flow, which is a significant drawback.To resolve on the frame 5 are arranged in pairs on two primary transducer 1. Their receivers 10 height power offset axis 6 is not less than width and are arranged opposite each other relative to the flow direction, as shown in Fig. 3.When you require more significant power unit installation on the secondary Converter 2 serial communication of the measured quantities can be closed any number of transducers 1, as shown in Fig. 3.It is also possible parallel message rod and Rodless cylinders cameras to persistpolicy the total number of cylinders transducers 1.Message oil 3 changing volumes of the cylinders of primary converters with equal volumes of the working chambers of the secondary Converter 2 and the filling of these volumes, for example, oil due to practical nsimemory fluid conclude all movable elements of the described construction in rigid kinematic relationship in which each angular position of the shaft of the generator 4 and crankshaft oil pumps 15 and 16 corresponds to a single spatial position of the pistons of the hydraulic cylinders 7, 8 and 9, and hence the points of rolling fastening receivers 10 on the rods 11 and 12 cylinders 7 and 9 (points a and b).I.e. here applied hydraulic rigid kinematic relationship in which the trajectory of the receivers consists of longitudinal-transverse movement of the cylinders 7, 8 and 9.Hard kinematic relationship of the elements of the plant determines the interdependence of their spatial position and causes the shaft to rotate the payload when moving receivers 10 under pressure (pressure) wind or water flow, and Vice versa: the rotation shafts of the pumps 15 and 16 causes movement etc is when the point of attachment of the receiver 10 to the shaft 11 does womanhorny trajectory, and the power receiver 10, doing useful work motion direct the flow of the working plane from one side of the stream, under the action of a stream and useful work already other, shifted in phase motion transducers 1 and continuing the rotation shaft of the secondary Converter 2 is returned to its original position for subsequent Mach on the other side of the flow direction from the end edge at an angle close to zero than are achieved significant reduction in aerodynamic (hydrodynamic) resistance to its movement and high efficiency of the power plant.The above refers to the n-th number of pairs of kinematically connected through the secondary Converter 2 receivers 10.It should be noted that, since the turn of the power receiver 10 is organically under pressure to flow simultaneously with the reciprocating movement of the points of its attachment on the rods 11 and 12, i.e., with the establishment of changing from maximum to zero torque on the shaft payload can operate a power plant with one pair of opposed spaced receivers 10, if the conditions will be created in their passage through the position (phase) 3 e required.Thus, the kinematic connection must be enabled on two or more pairs of transducers to align the resulting torque on the shaft of the payload, reliable pass receivers 10 through a point of unstable equilibrium shoulders and create significant capacity of the plant.The expected efficiency of the proposed power plant, if we neglect the internal mechanical and hydraulic losses in the transmission, will depend on the resistance to movement of the working bodies in the stream.To reduce the resistance to movement of the receivers 10 back to its original position against the flow of intended rotation of the receivers 10 with the rod 12 of the cylinder 9, so that its impact was provided the movement is not a plane and the end edge.Therefore, the efficiency of the ideal power with the power receiver 10, moving against the flow strictly end edge (a zero angle to the plane of the direction of flow), will be equal to one, because, as already noted, the rotation of the power receiver 10 occurs under the action of the stream creating a useful torque transmitted to the secondary shaft is m the position of the power receiver 10.theoretical efficiency of an idealized (without internal losses) of a power plant can be estimated by the formula
< / BR>flow in the plane of the power receiver.In General the efficiency of the installation can be expressed by the relation
< / BR>where k is a constructive factor characterizing the minimum aerodynamic resistance of the power receiver when the wrapping his thread, if = 0;
furthe coefficient of internal mechanical losses;
HYDRthe coefficient of internal hydraulic losses.Thus, when the angle of rotation of the power receiver to the direction of flow from 0 to 30oThe efficiency of the proposed installation is always greater efficiency known windwheels and turbines, because lies within = 10,5.The advantages of the proposed plant should include the possibility of receiving units of any unit capacity due to the removal of technological barriers inherent in the known wind turbine; a more complete use of wind energy and the flow of water; a small dependence of the rotation speed of the payload, and with the use of the generator. C. application N 4246840 full independence from the wind speed; the situation primarily for use of wind energy, lowland rivers and tidal currents containing located on one or more power axes snoozetime on a moving stream receivers, converters, and associated with the transmission power generator, characterized in that it is made in the form of a hydraulic system that includes three cylinder primary transducer for each power receiver, three main and three additional cylinder General secondary transducer cavity are communicated between the oil lines, and in primary Converter Central cylinder movably mounted on the frame, with the possibility of rotation around the power axis, connected to the rod side of the hydraulic cylinder, acting on Central, as the tilting wings, his rod movably connected to the power receiver rectangular shape, the rotation angle of the plane of which relative to the rod and the direction of flow is changed under the influence of the piston rod of the third cylinder, also movably mounted on the common frame, and the secondary Converter, the crankshaft of which is connected to an electric generator, consists of two connected through aprocalypse perrinton, cavity which communicates with the cavity side of the hydraulic cylinder of the transducer, the length of the power receiver is selected commensurate with the value of its translational movement perpendicular the moving direction of the flow, all the receivers in pairs, first, uniformly shifted in phase of the movement and, secondly, are symmetrically positioned and arranged relative to the direction of the moving stream.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydroelectric station includes energy converter consisting of chain of hydraulic turbines. Hydraulic turbine is built on hollow carrying shaft-cylinder with conical fairings on bases inscribed into inner ends of blades-semicylinders whose outer ends are clamped together in several places over length of hydraulic turbine by narrow rings-hoops and form multiblade cylinder with hollow belts with ballast on end faces providing neutral buoyancy of hydraulic turbine. Adjustable ballast in hollow part of carrying shaft-cylinder provides variable buoyancy of hydraulic turbine to submerge hydraulic turbine in water completely at neutral buoyancy or rising to surface. Energy converter is connected with electric generators arranged on the bank through system transmitting rotation and arranged in bank cavities. Rotation transmitting system employs different modes of transmission of rotation and connection and movable power unit with travel motion mechanism by means of which it displaces inside cavity. Movable power unit is connected with energy converter and, moving vertically, can set power converter at required depth.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed power generator contains turbine installed in turbine housing for turning around vertical axis. Turbine is connected with support column resting by lower section for turning against lower section of turning housing which is in meshing with upper section of inner wall of turbine housing through great number of turnable members. Thanks to it turbine can be selectively turned in turbine housing by means of turnable members.
EFFECT: provision of effective operation at both directions of water current.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: support system intended for, at least, one underwater turbine plant incorporates turbine units made up of turbine assemblies 3 and load-bearing column 1 coming vertically from underwater and seated on the seabed. The system includes a load-bearing structure for, at least, one turbine assembly mounted on column 1 and turning around it, and an appliance allowing selective motion of the load-bearing structure relative to column 1. Column 1 length section, top section 8, wherein the turbine assembly move, consists of two separate sections 9, 10 facing each other and separated by a certain distance between them to make lengthwise gap 11 between the said sections 9 and 10. Sections 9, 10 have a D-shape and form a cross-section of column 1 in the form of a complete ellipse or an oval. Bottom section 12 of column 1 features a round cross-section.
EFFECT: higher reliability of the support system allowing the turbine repair and lower costs.
22 cl, 27 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for anchoring floating structures incorporates mooring bar with ends furnished with the appliance to turn the aforesaid rod about its axis of rotation. At that the rod free end is provided with a sleeve letting the chains or cable to pass there through. The anchor chain passed through one of the aforesaid sleeves is fastened at one end faces of the said floating structure. Besides that, to up the structure stability, the proposed device can be furnished with links connecting the free ends of both mooring rods to the structure in question.
EFFECT: anchoring system causing no floating structure trim difference and providing for stable positioning with minor drift, reduced distance between anchor and floating structure.
11 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed power generation plant exploits the power of sea wave and tides. The plant comprises a hollow cylindrical housing with its bottom open. It communicates with seawater and is anchored to sea bottom. The said housing features a narrowing forming a smaller cylinder. The casing is attached to the aforesaid cylinder. The aforesaid casing houses an impeller driven by air sucked in/out from the housing inner space via air ducts formed by the aforesaid casing and non-return valves mounted inside the upper small cylinder, the air force being directly dependent upon the water level caused by the running wave.
EFFECT: simple low-cost high-efficiency power generation unit to be mounted at whatever sea- or-ocean coast line.
4 cl, 22 dwg
SUBSTANCE: turbine plant driven by water to produced power from the water flow column comprises a rectangular deck with streamline cross section furnished with a lower and upper surfaces incorporating front and tail edges relative to the water flow direction at least one turbine and a turbine assembly going up from the deck upper surface and deck support. The said support stays permanently on the water column bottom so that the deck, when installed onto the aforesaid support, the vertical space between the deck power surface and water bottom, and includes an appliance to move the deck relative to the support elements for the deck to move from operating into uplifted position whereat every turbine assembly is accessible on water column surface.
EFFECT: production of bearing structures to support hydraulic turbines.
10 cl, 26 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydroenergetics, to low pressure flows of seas, rivers and water outlets of hydro electric stations and reservoirs. A tidal hydroelectric plant contains a cylindrical body of the machine compartment with a gear box and electric generator of the tail hydroturbine with arms, mounted on its axis and the axis of rotation. On the upper part of the body is fixed a flat pylon, on the end of the pivot system and the axis of rotation. The body is suspended on a crossbeam in the passage of the catamaran for lifting the power station to the level of the servicing platform on the grooves of the support bridge pier, connected by the arch with a lifting mechanism. Arms of the hydroturbine are made short and wide sweptforward on the leading edge and with a concave surface in the form of a parabolic curve, and a convex surface of the tailpiece perforated with slanting slits.
EFFECT: reduces the depth of the low pressure power stations, increases the hydrodynamic quality of the hydroturbines arms, and ensures periodic lifting of the power station from the water.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tidal power stations. Device (1) for the tidal power station contains at least one underwater sail (14), essential construction (2, 4) and at least one transmitting element (10). The underwater sail (14) connected with the transmitting element (10) can move between two storage devices (18). When the sail is in the storage devices, it is not connected with the transmitting device.
EFFECT: reduction in the cost of producing electric energy, reduction in the operational problems and increase in efficiency.
9 cl, 6 dwg