The method of construction is embedded in the ground and/or underground and/or underwater buildings, structures and utilities construction and method of operation and/or repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration is embedded in the ground and/or underground, or underwater buildings, structures and utilities construction

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of construction, and in particular to methods of construction and operation, and/or repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration is embedded in the ground and/or underground and/or underwater buildings, structures and utilities construction. The objective of the invention is to increase the reliability of protection against corrosion while reducing the amount of excavation work and labor and materialsfrom. The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the construction of the complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection using anodic earthing, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode, which is immersed in the soil near at least part of the metal and/or metal-containing objects of protection, install at locations corresponding to the operating conditions taking into account the climatic, geographical and geophysical factors, at least one transforming substation protected from the weather and sunlight casing, and between the transforming substation and securable pave electric power and the measuring circuit specified in transforming substation enter the trailing edges of these chains, shields and p is tel protective potentials, includes power unit based on the power constant current source supplying between the protected object and the anode earthing difference of protective potentials of the control system with the functional blocks, including the block allocation controlled potentials and unit control and protection, and the input control unit with switch at least three security modes, connect the ends of these chains with the findings of the shaper of protective potentials of transforming substation, and their other ends with a securable object, the anode grounding, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode, moreover, connection blocks and shaper of protective potentials of conduct among themselves and with chains with the formation depending on the actual potential on the protected object and both electrodes of the respective protective potential on the protected object, and the control unit and protection and at least another one of the blocks of the control system is placed on one common Board, and all other blocks and items shaper protective potentials of transforming substation on another Board. 2 C. and 94 C.p. f-crystals, 15 ill.

The invention relates to the field Builder shall I sunk into the soil and/or groundwater, and/or underwater buildings, structures and utilities construction.

Known most similar to the invention of the method of construction is embedded in the ground and/or underground and/or underwater buildings, structures and utilities construction, which make the preparation and layout of the site, the delivery and storage of products and designs, carry out excavation works on the formation of openings in the ground open and/or closed method, erect bearing structures located in the soil lining of structures and/or portions of the walls, floor, floors of buildings, structures, joint separate the structural elements, their protective, hydraulic and/or thermal insulation and complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection, at least part of the above objects in areas with high corrosivity of soils and/or groundwater, or in the presence of stray currents, and then perform backfill structures erected educated in an open way excavation in the ground, and/or injection of hardening materials for lining erected by the closed method structures [1]

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of reliability of the protection of metal and/or metal underground the water, or in the presence of stray currents, which affects the durability of the structures, the reliability of their work, labor and material as in the construction of the structures and their repair. Frequent disruption of the complex corrosion, cathodic protection, as well as the inability to ensure the accuracy of modes and replacement in case of violation of one mode to other, more efficient, lead to a significant increase in the volume of earthworks, labor and materialsfrom to identify defective areas of structures, exposure, repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration of load-bearing structures, and/or butt joints, and/or hydraulic and/or thermal insulation.

The present invention is to increase the reliability of protection against corrosion while reducing the amount of excavation work and labor and materialsfrom.

The task is solved in that the method of construction is embedded in the ground and/or underground and/or underwater buildings, structures and utilities construction, which make the preparation and layout of the site, the delivery and storage of products and designs, carry out excavation works on the formation of openings in the ground open and is in the walls, the bottom floors of buildings, structures, joint separate the structural elements, their protective, hydraulic and/or thermal insulation and complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection, at least part of the above objects in areas with high corrosivity of soils and/or groundwater, or in the presence of stray currents, and then perform backfill structures erected educated in an open way excavation in the ground, and/or injection of hardening materials for lining erected by the closed method of buildings, for the construction of specified complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection using anodic earthing, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode, which plunge into the ground near at least part of the metal and/or metal-containing objects of protection sections of lining structures and/or bottom, walls, floors of buildings, constructions and other objects, butt joints of structural elements, set in places that meet the conditions from the point of view of climatic, geographical and geophysical factors, at least one transforming substation protected from the weather and sunlight casing, between the pre is connected transforming substation enter the trailing edges of these chains, boards and Board, which secure the blocks and elements converts electrical substations that form shaper protective potentials, including the power block on the basis of the power constant current source supplying between the protected object and the anode earthing difference of protective potentials of the control system with the functional blocks, including the block allocation controlled potentials and unit control and protection, and the input control unit with switch at least three security modes, connect the ends of these chains with the findings of the shaper of protective potentials of transforming substation, and their other ends with a securable object, the anode earthing, the reference electrode and the auxiliary electrode, and connection blocks and shaper of protective potentials of conduct among themselves and with chains with the formation depending on the actual potential on the protected object and both electrodes of the respective protective potential on the protected object, and the control unit and protection and at least another one of the blocks of the control system is placed on one common Board, and all other units and elements of form and the auxiliary electrode may be positioned between the protected object and the anode earthing;

also the fact that in the preparation and layout of the site can split up and marking the locations of the anode grounding, reference electrodes and auxiliary electrodes, as well as transforming substations complexes corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that when performing excavations in an open way can produce the excavation of pits and/or trenches mechanized, and plots of the cathodic corrosion protection of diving into the ground anode ground, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode is carried out in the process of earthworks;

also the fact that the excavation of pits and trenches can perform an excavator equipped with a bucket "backhoe", and the trench tear without disrupting the structure of the soil at the base with the shortage, not exceeding 10 cm for excavators with bucket capacity of 0.25-0.4 m3, 15 cm for excavators with bucket capacity of 0.5-0.65 m3and 20 cm for excavators with bucket capacity of 0.8-1.25 m3;

also the fact that the excavation for the passage of pits and trenches can perform an excavator equipped with a bucket "dragline", and the trench tear without Nar is SUP>320 cm for excavators with bucket capacity of 0.5-0.65 m3and 25 cm for excavators with bucket capacity of 0.8-1.25 m3;

also the fact that with the passage of trenches to a depth exceeding the design, can make the filling sand or homogeneous with the developed soil layer thickness of not more than 0.1 m layer-by-layer seal it to the natural volumetric weight of the soil skeleton;

also the fact that during the course of excavation in rock and frozen ground, at least part of the excavation can be carried out using external and/or internal charges of explosives placed in the formed in the areas of production blasting discretely spaced boreholes or wells and carry out the blasting charges for loosening and/or release on one side;

also the fact that during the course of excavation in rock and frozen ground, including marshy frozen soils for at least part of the sites with the aircraft can reset garland explosive substances and carry out simultaneous or sequential explosion of the charges with the formation at the site of the trench under the erected structure;

also the fact that when you work in places where RA is esumi structures, at least in areas under the existing facilities;

also the fact that while working at the intersection of the existing communications can perform the positioning of these communications relative to the location of the erected structure and elements of the complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection by excerpts holes not less than 25 m along the ground with their fencing and lighting, and after positioning of the existing communications exercise their opening hand with measures that exclude the bumps and shocks of the soil, after which the parts of the opening erect temporary structures, which attach to existing communications, and after completion of works on the construction of built structures before backfilling temporary supporting structures to be dismantled;< / BR>
also the fact that the development of pits and trenches can mount them to the walls of the spacer structures, including metal mounting rack, at least one of which is used as the above electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that the development of pits and trenches Boguchansky well point, and after drainage and/or dewatering at least one of the well point left in the ground and used as an electrode and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that dewatering can be accomplished with the use of electroosmosis using WellPoint systems, metal rods and a constant current generator, and the well point is included in the branch circuit to the negative pole of the cathode, and the metal rods in the branch of the electric circuit with the positive terminal of the anode, the cathodes are placed in the vicinity of excavation and/or trenching, and metal rods are placed in the soil in rows parallel to the cathode with a gap between the rows of 0.8-3.1 m and between terminals 1.0 to 3.5 m, after completion of dewatering at least one metallic element WellPoint systems leave in the ground and used as an electrode and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that at negative ambient temperature atsurround existing communication, at least parts of the opening warm.

also the fact that the location of atsurround the th insulating material, and/or a combination of heat-insulating or heat materials with different parameters porosity;

also the fact that the location atsurround existing objects in the area of the groundwater insulation is realized by the concrete, and additionally perform an enhanced waterproofing or use waterproof closed-cell insulation insulation materials;

also the fact that when performing excavations in silnomagnitnyh soils can produce artificial grouting freezing, for which the perimeter framing into the ground dipped ternoway increments of 1-3 m, which serves the refrigerant, and after completion of the work on artificial pinning at least one ternoway leave in the ground and used as one of the electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that in the course of excavation of sand and silentresident rocky soil can make artificial grouting bituminaria or silicatization using metal tubular injectors, at least one of which, after the completion of the consolidation of the soil isaku fact, when earthwork in the winter before excavation of frozen soil can make cuts in it cracks, and after cutting the slits excavation produced either directly after cutting, or prepared for excavation area warm ash or sawdust, or peat, or loose snow to prevent freezing of the ground;

also the fact that while working in winter in urban conditions, the intersections with existing utilities, as well as at sites of minor earthworks can perform the thawing of frozen ground fire method using solid, liquid or gaseous fuel and/or steam and/or water and/or electrical methods using metal needles or electrodes, at least one of which, after the completion of the defrosting leave in the ground and used as an electrode and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that when shooting thawing of the soil over the site thawing install lapped boxes from steel sheet of thickness 1.5 to 2.5 mm, a height of 0.5-0.6 m and a length of 2 m with the formation of the channel d is Rob insulating material with a layer thickness of 0.1-0.2 m, moreover, after completion of the thawing of the soil boxes, at least partially transferred to a new area and/or cut and used as elements of the complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that when using a solid fuel furnace can perform continuously for 6-8 hours, after which withstand the boxes for 16 to 18 hours, and then the boxes were removed and carry out the excavation of the upper ottange layer of soil, then install again, and pipe and furnace swap and the defrosting process is repeated until the thawing of the soil at the desired depth;

also the fact that when using liquid fuel can be gravity fed, then sprayed a jet of air, and the furnace operate continuously for 15-16 hours, after which withstand the box the rest of the day, and then the defrosting process is repeated until the thawing of the soil at the desired depth:

also the fact that an electrical method defrosting can be performed in two stages, the first of which carry not less than 16 hours, and the second not less than 8 hours, with a break between stages is not less than 8 hours, after which the cycle is repeated; the

also the fact that when defrosting abundantly nasusunog autonaut three times;

also the fact that when performing excavations in tranches bearing structures may be formed by the method of "wall" of the teams and/or solid, and/or precast monolithic concrete structures, at least on the part of sites supporting structures perform with the outer metal waterproofing and anode earthing, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection plunge into the ground in the vicinity of load-bearing structures with the outer metal waterproofing;

also the fact that when the bearing structures using "wall in the ground" after the erection of the walls can develop soil in the space bounded by walls, and the soil develop ledges, beginning at a depth of 5 m excavator equipped with bucket "backhoe" loaded into dump trucks, and then at a depth of 10 m excavator equipped with bucket "dragline", leaving the slopes at the walls, fixing production executions that attach to the walls, and the subsequent excavation of slopes bulldozer;

also the fact that at the bottom educated in the ground in an open way roadways can perform the subgrade, and at least part of the structures with the following weights to prevent the ascent;

also the fact that the subgrade under the discharge section can be performed by deepening 0.5-0.6 m below the sole of the construction of the bottom framing and aligning the bottom by running training thickness of 0.5-0.6 m of sand or gravel, or crushed stone, or lean concrete;

also the fact that the subgrade in wet clay soils can perform three-layer consisting of the lower sand layer, the intermediate gravel layer and the top sand layer;

also than that of the intermediate layer can be made of gravel with factions 3-15 mm and used as the reservoir drainage to lower the groundwater level;

also the fact that in the construction of buildings in wet soils can perform the associated drainage as drainage wells, drainage pipes and two-layer filter, the inner layer which are made of gravel with factions 3-15 mm, and the outer of coarse-grained sand;

also the fact that the movable pipe can perform perforated made of asbestos cement and placed in the production holes down;

also the fact that the laying of drainage pipes can produce up the slope on the smooth gravel or sand layer;

also the fact that drainage manholes mogush angles facilities;

also the fact that the Assembly of drainage wells can perform with lubrication of joints fatty cement mortar 1:5;

also the fact that the immersion of the sections can be done by ballasting with water and/or sand and/or gravel and/or stone and/or concrete mixture, forming at least the lower section of part of the supporting structure;

those that can use the bottom section of the structure from the released reinforcement bars, and all of the overlying vertical channels, and the immersion of the overlying sections of the reinforcing rods are passed through the channels, and after installing all sections carry out compression joints by tension rebar and fill channels hardening expanding, hardening the material;

also the fact that after compression of the joints and hardening of the material in the channels can be injectiona hardening material under the bottom of the structure through prescribed therein channels that before injection close destructible tubes;

also the fact that when performing work in a volatile water-bearing soils and under hydrostatic pressure developing in the soil can be carried out under compressed air to release water into the array ground sponte can be used as a shaft, and all other facilities perform closed method using the shaft to remove soil and feed components supporting structures and equipment for production operations;

also the fact that the auxiliary electrode may be placed between the anode earthing and the reference electrode;

also the fact that the reference electrode can be run from mediasurface material;

also the fact that the reference electrode and auxiliary electrode can be combined into a single whole;

also the fact that the point of connection of the protective object with the power circuit from the power unit of the shaper protection potential and the measuring circuit can pass each other at a distance, eliminating the influence of the load current at a controlled potential;

also the fact that the said electrical circuit, at least power, can run cables;

also the fact that between the transforming substation, protection, anode earthing electrodes in the soil can run trough or pipe, inside of which lay the cables and measuring circuit;

also the fact that the power unit can supply electrical leads for connection of mains supply, the load, measure the species can perform in the form of plug sockets;

also the fact that a separate circuit and/or the elements of the power unit can perform with leads for connection to the circuit ground;

also the fact that the shaper protective capacity could supply unit power supply control system;

also the fact that the unit of the power management system can perform with a few conclusions from the respective power sources, each having its output voltage level;

also the fact that after completion of the absorption of the DC generator can be used as the specified constant current source power unit shaper protective potentials;

also the fact that as the specified power source DC power shaper protective potentials can use a rectifier controlled valves, which converts the mains voltage rectified in the difference of protective potentials;

also the fact that the casing of the transforming substation can be performed in a Cabinet, in which form at least one opening for mounting and/or dismantling of its elements, wiring and components, and the opening will be equipped with rotary and/or a removable locking element;
the CSOs body, which is attributed, at least in part the shape of the body of rotation or a complex shape from a combination of elements of polyhedra and elements of the rotation bodies;

also the fact that the protective cover can be done in the form of a Cabinet with at least one internal dividing wall, on which are mounted, at least part of the blocks and details of the transforming substation;

also the fact that the protective cover can be performed with a degree of integrity, providing the opportunity to work under water to depths of 300 m or in the layer of soil in underground and/or underwater conditions, for which the contour of the openings perform single-circuit or two-circuit lock-type tooth-groove" with damping tight gasket;

also the fact that the blocks of the device commute flexible wires, collected into bundles fixed to the separation wall and other internal surfaces of the casing;

also the fact that forcing the lining is erected by the closed method of constructions can be carried out by stages, the first of which for the pump lining cement-sand mortar 1:3 in non-irrigated soils and 1:2 in flooded, and the re-injection of produced cement milk to stop its absorption when Yes is additive to improve the technological properties of the solution;

also the fact that the solution can enter additives that reduce the separation, or slowing down or accelerating the hardening period, or increasing the permeability of the solution into the pores and cracks of the substrate;

also the fact that the primary forcing for the lining can produce first on either side of the longitudinal axis of the structure simultaneously and symmetrically located holes in the walls, starting from the lower part of the walls, and after discharge from the walls of the injection for the free part of the lining structures simultaneously and symmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis of the structure, and the discharge is produced before the "failure" or the appearance of a solution in overlying wells.

There is also known a method of operation and/or repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration is embedded in the ground and/or underground and/or underwater buildings, structures and utilities construction, which shall identify the corroding metal and/or metal-containing sections embedded in soil and/or underground and/or underwater structures and/or drainage structures, and/or observation wells, butt joints of structural elements, produce earthworks on abnaa protective hydro - and/or heat insulation, and also defective areas supporting structures, repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration and execute, at least in the areas of buildings, structures, complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection in areas with high corrosivity of soils and/or groundwater, or in the presence of stray currents and backfill Nude sites [2]

The disadvantage of this method, which is the closest to the invention in its purpose, objectives and total number of significant features is the lack of reliable protection against corrosion due to frequent disruption of elements of the complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection in areas with high corrosivity of soils and/or groundwater, or in the presence of stray currents, which affects the durability of structures, reliability of operation, leads to frequent repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration of these structures, i.e., to increase labor and materialsfrom. Frequent disruption of the complex corrosion, cathodic protection, as well as the inability to ensure the accuracy of modes and replacement in case of violation of one mode to other, more efficient, lead to sackstrasse, their outcrop, repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration of load-bearing structures, and/or butt joints, and/or hydraulic and/or thermal insulation.

The present invention is to increase the reliability of protection against corrosion while reducing the amount of excavation work and labor and materialsfrom.

The task is solved in that in the method of operation and/or repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration is embedded in the ground and/or underground and/or underwater buildings, structures and utilities construction, which shall identify the corroding metal and/or metal-containing sections embedded in soil and/or underground and/or underwater structures and/or drainage structures, and/or observation wells, butt joints of structural elements, produce earthworks on the exposure of the subject to repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration, removal and/or repair of existing protective hydro - and/or thermal insulation and defective areas of load-bearing structures, repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration and execute, at least in the areas of buildings, structures complex corrosion ka the Cove and backfill Nude sites, for the construction of specified complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection using anodic earthing, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode, which is immersed in the ground drove at least part of the protected areas of metal and/or metal-containing objects of protection sections of lining structures and/or bottom, walls, floors of buildings, constructions and other objects, butt joints of structural elements, set in places that meet the conditions from the point of view of climatic, geographical and geophysical factors, at least one transforming substation protected from the weather and sunlight casing, between the transforming substation and securable pave electric power and the measuring circuit specified in transforming substation enter the trailing edges of these chains, shields and fees, which are fixed blocks and elements converts electrical substations that form shaper protective potentials, including the power block on the basis of the power constant current source supplying between the protected object and the anode earthing difference of protective potentials, the system was and protection and the input control unit with switch at least three security modes, connect the ends of these chains with the findings of the shaper of protective potentials of transforming substation, and their other ends with a securable object, the anode grounding, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode, and connection blocks and shaper of protective potentials of conduct among themselves and with chains with the formation depending on the actual potential on the protected object and both electrodes of the respective protective potential on the protected object, and the control unit and protection and at least another one of the blocks of the control system is placed on one common Board, and all other blocks and items shaper protective potentials of transforming substation to another Board;

also the fact that the reference electrode and auxiliary electrode may be positioned between the protected object and the anode earthing;

also the fact that the identification of the corroding metal and/or metal-containing sites can produce using Pathfinder whereby carry out the detection of the electromagnetic field created around the subject Uch is W ill result from the use of the receiving fixture locators, and the definition of defective areas of the remaining structural elements are produced by connecting the generator to the structures, the excitation electromagnetic oscillations and determine the strength of the magnetic field at a fixed volume in the receiving fixture locators, after completion of the detection of corroding metal and/or metal-containing sites generator is used as the specified power source DC power shaper protective potentials of complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that the excavation work on the exposure of the subject to repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration can be done manually with the exception of a breakthrough in the face of gases, water, or the contents of cesspools;

also the fact that during the course of excavation for the exposure of the subject to repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration sites take measures to avoid the bumps and shocks of the soil, after which the parts of the opening erect temporary structures, to which attach subject to repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration of parts of the structures as they outcrops, and after the work is Aut backfill;

also the fact that during the course of excavation can mount the walls of the openings in the ground struts, includes metal mounting rack, at least one of which is used as the electrode and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that during the course of excavation can jog groundwater and/or artificial dewatering using vertical metal well point, and after drainage and/or dewatering at least one ipfilter leave in the ground and used as an electrode and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that dewatering can be accomplished with the use of electroosmosis using WellPoint systems, metal rods and a constant current generator, and the well point is included in the branch circuit to the negative pole of the cathode, and the metal rods in the branch of the electric circuit with the positive terminal of the anode, the cathodes are placed in the vicinity of excavation and/or trenching, and metal rods are placed in the soil in rows parallel to the cathodes with premiumquality element WellPoint systems leave in the ground and used as an electrode and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that in the course of excavation silnomagnitnyh soils can produce artificial grouting freezing, for which the perimeter framing into the ground dipped ternoway increments of 1-3 m, which serves the refrigerant, and after completion of the work on artificial pinning at least one ternoway leave in the ground and used as one of the electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that in the course of excavation of sand and silentresident rocky soil can make artificial grouting bituminaria or silicatization using metal tubular injectors, at least one of which, after the completion of the consolidation of the soil used as electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that the auxiliary electrode may be placed between the anode earthing and the reference electrode;

also the fact that the reference electrode can be run from mediasurface material;

also the fact that the reference electrode and auxiliary electrode may thing in common is driver protection potential and the measuring circuit may be carrying from each other by a distance excluding the impact of the load current at a controlled potential;

also the fact that the said electrical circuit, at least power, can run cables;

also the fact that between the transforming substation, protection, anode earthing electrodes in the soil can run trough or pipe, inside of which lay the cables and measuring circuit;

also the fact that the power unit can supply electrical leads for connection of the mains, load measuring devices and communication with the actuator control system;

also because of the electrical terminals can be performed in the form of plug sockets;

also the fact that a separate circuit and/or the elements of the power unit can perform with leads for connection to the circuit ground;

also the fact that the shaper protective capacity could supply unit power supply control system;

also the fact that the unit of the power management system can perform with a few conclusions from the respective power sources, each having its output voltage level;

also the fact that after completion of the dewatering DC generator can the print materials;

also the fact that as the specified power source DC power shaper protective potentials can use a rectifier controlled valves, which converts the mains voltage rectified in the difference of protective potentials;

also the fact that the casing of the transforming substation can be performed in a Cabinet, in which form at least one opening for mounting and/or dismantling of its elements, wiring and components, and the opening will be equipped with rotary and/or a removable locking element;

also the fact that the protective casing transforming substation can be performed in a hermetically locked hollow body, which is attributed, at least in part the shape of the body of rotation or a complex shape from a combination of elements of polyhedra and elements of the rotation bodies;

also the fact that the protective cover can be done in the form of a Cabinet with at least one internal dividing wall, on which are mounted, at least part of the blocks and details of the transforming substation;

also the fact that the protective cover can be performed with a degree of integrity, providing the opportunity to work under water to depths of 300 m or in the soil layer lock-on type tooth-groove" with damping tight gasket;

also the fact that the blocks of the device can be skommutirovany flexible wires, collected into bundles fixed to the separation wall and other internal surfaces of the casing;

also the fact that in the repair of load-bearing structures of buildings, structures can carry out routine repairs, overhauls and drainage structures during operation;

also the fact that maintenance can perform the jointing finishing, sealing cracks and the elimination of shells and indentation depth, as per the concrete load-bearing structures;

also the fact that when major repairs can strengthen weakened bearing members, relaying separate lining rings and its elements, and replacement of elements of the complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection;

also the fact that the drainage structures in the process of operation can produce by dewatering using ipfilterx and/or arifovic installations, and/or water-absorbing wells, and at least one ipfilter after working for dewatering leave in the ground and use as electrodes or anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

When solving this task OI materialsfrom as for the construction of the arms, and repair and/or reconstruction and/or rehabilitation of facilities, as well as during their operation to prolong service life and ensure trouble-free operation due to increase reliability, corrosion protection of metal and/or metal-containing structures these structures due to the possibility to change both at the construction stage and at the stage of operation modes of corrosion protection depending on the execution of the protected object, the design and arrangement of anode ground, the soil type, relative location in the soil elements, structural embodiment of the device components for corrosion, cathodic protection, the use of the facilities.

This permits the practical choice of the most rational mode and operational mode changes in any particular circumstances, either prior to commencement of operation or during operation, it is possible transition from one mode to another with the change of seasons, changing weather conditions, which extends the range of use. Also, it is possible implementation of emergency protection mode manually with the failure of automation, e.g. the data sequence of operations for creating a protected object of the appropriate protective potential.

For carrying out the invention uses a device for cathodic protection.

In Fig. 1 shows a functional diagram of the device of Fig. 2 is a circuit diagram of the power unit of Fig. 3 the scheme of connecting block power supply system control blocks of this system, Fig. 4 the electrical circuit connections of the elements of the input control unit with each other and with some of the other blocks of Fig. 5 is a block circuit diagram of the selection of the controlled potential; Fig. 6 is a block circuit diagram of the comparison and the inverter of Fig. 7 diagram of the phase-shifting unit, and Fig. 8 is a block circuit generating control pulses of Fig. 9 diagram of the shaper signal current protection; Fig. 10 diagram of the driver control signals of the counter operating time; Fig. 11 Cabinet, front view; Fig. 12 the same, side view; Fig. 13 is the same, ventral view; Fig. 14 the same type of Cabinet in plan; Fig. 15 underground structure with cathode protection device.

Device for cathodic protection of metallic and/or metallic underground structures CCD 1 from corrosion anode contains earthing A3 2, located near the protected underground structures of the CCD 1, the reference electrode CS 3, formirovanie 5 on managed valves SITST with smoothing reactor LS 6, power transformer TC 7 and automatic input switch ABB 8 and is connected through the output of the power circuit WCC first power output anode SW 9 anodic earthing AZ 2, and the second power output cathode SW 10 to protect the underground construction of the CCD 1.

Control system SU includes an input unit for wetland management 11 with controller assignments required values are protective of potential RSSP 12, block allocation controlled potential BVCP 13 cumulative capacitor NC 14 connected through a measuring circuit IC 15 to protect underground construction of the CCD 1 and the reference electrode ES 3, the phase-shifting unit FSB 16 and block the generation of control pulses BFU 17, is connected by its input to the output of the phase-shifting unit FSB 16, and output to the control circuitry controllable valves of the above rectifier 5, moreover, the output unit selection controlled potential BVCP 13 is connected to the first input of the comparison, BS 18, the second input is connected to the output of the controller, the desired value of the protective potential RSSP 12, and the output of the Comparer SAT 18 is connected to the input of the phase-shifting unit FSB.

The device is equipped with the auxiliary electrode EV 19, Taiz 15 to block the selection of the controlled potential ABCP 13, which is equipped with a switching element KE 20, a control circuit which is connected to the output unit generating control pulses BFU 17 and which is included between the accumulation capacitor NC 14 and the measuring circuit IC 15 connected to the auxiliary electrode EV 19 and protected underground construction of the CCD 1, a measuring circuit connected to the reference electrode ES 3, is connected directly to the plate of storage capacitor NC 14 not connected to the switching element KE 20, and a measuring circuit connected to the protected underground construction of the CCD 1, also connected to the first input entered into the input control unit wetlands 11 mode switch protection AG 21, which forms a second input and one of the outputs of the above-mentioned communication unit selection controlled potential BVCP 13 with the first input unit of comparison, BS 18, the above-mentioned communication unit output compare BS 18 with the phase-shifting unit FSB 16 made through the third input of the switch mode protection AG 21 and introduced into the control system SU inverter IN 22, whose input is connected to the second output of the switch mode protection AG 21, and the output directly to the first input of the phase-shifting unit FSB 16, the fourth input of the regulator operating voltage PPP 23, the phase-shifting unit FSB 16 to its second input connected to the output of the first voltage reference 1Uop24, and the control system SU is equipped with a control unit and protection BKZ 25 and is made on the basis of two boards, one of which is placed a block of control and protection BKZ 25 and at least block the generation of control pulses BFU 17, and on the other Board other blocks.

The reference electrode ES 3 and the auxiliary electrode EV 19 may be located between the protected underground construction of the CCD 1 and the anode earthing AZ 2.

Auxiliary electrode EV 19 may be located between the anode earthing AZ 2 and the reference electrode ES 3.

The reference electrode ES 3 can be made of mediasurface material.

The reference electrode ES 3 and the auxiliary electrode EV 19 constructively can be combined into a single unit, for example, through a dielectric strip.

The point of connection of the protected underground structures CCD 1 s power circuit from the power unit shaper protective potential of the zrf and the measuring circuit spaced from each other by a distance which includes the effect of the load current at a controlled potential.

the Oia thereto the output of the power circuit of the WCC from the anode 9 and cathode 10 driver protection potential zrf.

Protected underground structure of the CCD 1, the reference electrode ES 3 and the auxiliary electrode EV 19 can be provided with terminals for connection to him these measuring circuits of the IC 15.

In the power block SB 4 as controllable valves of the rectifier 5 is used thyristors 26, each of which is connected with the anode at the output of the secondary winding of the power transformer TC 7, and their cathodes are connected to each other and with the first power output SW 9 power block SB 4, connected to anode earthing AZ 2.

In the power block SB 4 the secondary winding of the power transformer TC 7 can be performed with multiple sections, provided with terminals for connection with a smoothing reactor LS 6.

In the power block SB 4 smoothing reactor WED 6 may be made double, equipped with jumpers and connected with the terminals of the sections of the secondary winding of the power transformer TC 7.

Conclusions sections of the power transformer TC 7 through a smoothing reactor LS 6 is connected with the second power output SW 10 power block SB 4, connected to a protected underground construction of the CCD 1.

Power block SB 4 may be provided with a means of control and protection VHC.

With the and between the anode and cathode of one of the thyristors 26.

Controls and protection VHC includes work ammeter 28, connected in parallel with the shunt 29 included in the power circuit between the cathodes of the thyristors and the first power output SW 9 power block SB 4.

Controls and protection VHC include at least one filter to reduce interference.

One of the filters 30 may be connected between the first and second power outputs SW 9 and SW 10 power block SB 4.

One of the filters 31 may be included in the primary winding of the power transformer TC 7.

The filters 30, 31 can be made on the basis of the capacitors. At least one of the filters may be made in the form of an LC circuit.

In the specified LC-circuit reactor 32 may be included between the input pins of the power transformer TC 7 and the capacitor plate 31.

Controls and protection VHC may include at least one protection element circuits shaper protective potential VP from lightning surges.

As elements of the surge protection device can be used varistor 33.

Each of the elements surge protection 33 may be in order to be equipped with an led 34, connected through a diode and resistor in parallel conclusions automatic input switch ABB 8 from the side of the power transformer TC-7. Power block SB-4 can be equipped with a current transformer TT-35 in the circuit of the primary winding of the power transformer TS-7.

Power block SB 4 can be provided with electrical leads for connection of the mains, load measuring devices and communication with the actuator control system SU.

Part of the electrical terminals may be in the form of plug sockets.

Individual circuits and/or elements of the power unit SAT 4 may be provided with leads for connection of the grounding circuit.

Output for connection of the grounding circuit can be performed at the midpoint of the circuit formed by the combination of two elements surge protection 33.

Driver protection potential zrf may be provided with a unit power supply system management BPS 36.

Unit power supply system management BPS 36 can be performed with several conclusions from the respective power sources, each of which has its output voltage level.

At least frequent and supply all units of the control system of the SU can be connected to the outputs of the unit power supply system management BPS 36.

The input unit power supply system management BPS 36 may be connected to the input of the power supply circuit of the power block SB 4.

One of the sources of power supply power source BPS 36 is a source of reference voltage 1Uop24.

A large part of the power supply unit power source BPS 36 may be in the form of a bridge rectifier, the input of which is connected to the secondary winding of the transformer.

To the output of the bridge rectifier can be connected circuit consisting of at least one Zener diode.

Unit power supply system management BPS 36 contains a single transformer power supply control system TPU 37, to the secondary windings of which are connected to corresponding inputs of a bridge rectifier and the primary winding is connected to the input of the power supply circuit of the power block SB 4.

The positive terminals of the power supply block power supply system management BPS 36 is connected to GND Total 38 with each other with one of the supply inputs of each block, the control and reference electrode ES 3.

The exercises control of the desired value of the protective potential RP is magadelene resistors connected to the leads of one of the stabilized power supply unit power source BPS 36, and the output from the rolling element is connected to one input of the block comparison BS 18.

The regulator operating voltage PPP 23 is made in the form of a variable resistor, extreme conclusions which are connected to the leads of one of the stabilized power supply unit power supply, BNS 36, and the output from the moving element connected to one of the stationary contacts of the switch protection AG 21. To the second of the stationary contacts of the switch protection AG 21 is connected to the output of the Comparer BS 18, to the third measuring circuit IC 15 associated with the protected underground construction of the CCD 1, the fourth output unit selection controlled potential BVCP 13, and the first output from the movable contact of the mode switch protection AG 21 that communicates with the first and second stationary contacts connected to the input of the inverter IN 22, and the output from the second movable contact is connected to another input of the comparison BS 18.

The switching element 20 unit selection controlled potential BVCP 13 performed on the transistors to the emitter, the first of which 39 T1 is connected measuring circuit IC 15, connected with the protected underground construction of the CCD 1, the emitter werahera also connected to the emitter of the third transistor T3 41 and the common wire, and to the emitter of the fourth transistor T4 42 connected to the measuring circuit 15 connected to the auxiliary electrode EV 19, the third transistor 41 together with the two circuits 43 and 44 is connected with a storage capacitor NC 14, and base all four transistors connected to the output unit generating control pulses BFU 17.

Connection of all elements of the block allocation of the controlled potential BVCP 13 is switchable auxiliary electrode EV 19 with circuit connected to the protected underground construction of the CCD 1, the lining storage capacitor NC 14 not connected to the measuring circuit connected to the reference electrode ES 3.

The Comparer BS 18 and the inverter IN 22 executed on the respective circuits 45, 46, resistors, capacitors, Zener diodes, and the diodes connected between themselves and with the regulator's job required values are protective of potential RSSP 12 switch mode protection AG 21 and the phase-shifting unit FSB 16, and the output circuits of the inverter 46 is connected to one of inputs of the phase-shifting unit FSB 16 through a variable resistor 47.

Connection of all elements of the unit of comparison, BS 18, inverter IN 22 between themselves and with regulationsto receiving the output control signal, independent manual adjustment of output voltage from the position of the moving element of the regulator operating voltage PPP 23, and in the modes of stabilization of a differential protective capacity and stabilization of the polarized potential from the set of the set value in the controller is the desired value of the protective potential RSSP 12 and the position of the movable contact of the mode switch protection AG 21 and thus from the actual values of the potentials on the protected underground construction of the CCD 1 and the reference electrode ES 3.

The Comparer BS 18 is equipped with a variable trimmer resistor 48, connected at pins to the chip 45, and the average for the same chip and to one of the power supply block power supply system management BPS 36 and are designed to achieve a minimum difference value between the specified and the actual potentials in auto stabilization mode differential protection potential.

The phase-shifting unit FSB 16 includes a sawtooth generator STG 49, the comparison circuit SS 50 and the pulse amplifier Yiwu 51, and the input of the sawtooth generator STG 49 is connected through a resistor to iStock 50, connected with the output of the inverter IN 22, and the output of the comparison circuit CC 50 is connected to the input of pulse amplifier Yiwu 51, the output of which is connected to the input unit generating control pulses BFU 17, the power supply circuit of the sawtooth generator STG 49 connected to the output of one of the sources of a stable voltage Uarticleunit power supply system management BPS 36.

The sawtooth generator STG 49 made in the form of key employee of the transistor, the base of which is connected through a resistor to the output of the source bias voltage Ucmand between the emitter and collector switched capacitor, connected through a corresponding resistor with a stable voltage source Uarticleand intended for the formation of the sawtooth voltage, the connection node of the capacitor to the collector of the transistor through the corresponding resistor is connected to reinvestiruet the input circuit, on the basis of which the comparison circuit CC 50, to the same input circuit connected to the output of the inverter IN 22, and the output of the chip is connected to the base of another transistor of the block, on the basis of which is made from the pulse amplifier Yiwu 51, the collector of which is connected to>the tabthe bias voltage Ucmand voltage synchronization USinghincluded in the unit power supply system management BPS 36.

Unit generating control pulses BFU 17 may be made in the form of a blocking oscillator amplifier with positive feedback.

Unit generating control pulses BFU 17 may include a switching transistor of it 52 with multiple secondary windings, transistor 53, the charge-discharge capacitor 54, resistors and diodes.

The capacitor 54 and a plate connected to the base of transistor 53 and through a resistor associated with one of the conclusions of the underlying winding of the pulse transistor it 52, and the other plate is connected to the output of the phase-shifting unit FSB 16, the second terminal of the base winding through the diode connected to the emitter of transistor 53, the collector of which is connected one of the conclusions starting winding of pulse transformer it 52, a second output is connected with a source of unit power supply system management BPS 36 and through a resistor to the emitter of transistor 53, the starting winding device is activated by the second diode, and one of the conclusions of each of the secondary windings of the pulse of transistor 52 it vkluchennim output and connected to the control circuits of the thyristors 26 of the rectifier 5, and the other is connected to control inputs of the transistors of the block allocation of the controlled potential BVCP 13.

Unit control and protection BKZ 25 includes shaper signal current protection PSST 55 that is connected by one input to the current transformer TI 35 power block SB 4, included in the primary circuit of the power transformer TC 7, a second input to the output of the first voltage reference 1Uop24 unit power supply system management BPS 36, and the output to the input of the phase-shifting unit FSB 16.

Unit control and protection BKZ 25 includes a counter operating time of VSS 56, connected to the output driver control signals of the counter FSUS 57, two inputs of which are connected via a measuring circuit 15 with an underground protected by the construction of the CCD 1 and the reference electrode ES 3, and the third input with the output of the second voltage reference 58.

Shaper signal current protection PSST 55 unit control and protection BKZ 25 includes a first comparison element current ECT-1.

Driver control signals of the counter FSUS 57 unit control and protection BKZ 25 includes a second element of the comparison current ECT-2.

Shaper signal traffic jam connected to the output of the previously specified current transformer TT 35, and the output of the sensor 59 is connected to the input circuit 60, performs the functions of the elements of comparison, effort and threshold element, and the output of this chip 60 is connected to the input of the phase-shifting unit FSB 16 with the provision limiting or disabling the output current of the supply protected underground weapons CCD 1.

The IC output driver signal current protection PSST 55 is also connected to control automatic input switch ABB 8.

To the output of the current sensor 59 shaper signal current protection PSST 55 is connected a variable resistor for regulating the output voltage of the sensor to change the setting value current protection.

The driver control signal counter FSUS 57 is made of two circuits 61, 62 and transistor key 63 active filter and a threshold element.

The second source of reference voltage 2Uop58 is made with the magnitude of the output voltage setting, equal to 0.8 Century

In the driver control signal counter FSUS 57 first chip 61 is connected at the input to the protected underground construction IALA, and the second chip 62, connected at the input to the output of the first chip 61 and the second reference voltage 2Uop58 performs the function of a threshold element and performs a comparison of the actual potential with a given reference voltage and its output connected to the base of the transistor.

The control winding of the meter operating time of VSS 56 is connected to an appropriate power source unit power supply system management BPS 36 through the emitter-collector junction of transistor driver control signal counter FSUS 57.

Unit control and protection BKZ 25 is equipped with driver protection signal according to the resource operation FSSR 64, connected the input to the meter operating time CHP 56.

The shaper's output protection signal according to the resource operation FSSR 64 is connected to one input of the phase-shifting unit FSB 16.

The shaper's output protection signal according to the resource operation FSSR 64 is connected to the control automatic output switch ABB 8.

Driver protection signal according to the resource operation FSSR 64 provided with a job element time work with setpoint 4000 hours, the output of which is connected to the first input circuit is Ki VSS 56.

Power block SB 4, the input control unit AVBU 11 and the block power supply system management BPS 36 is supplied with electricity meters, voltmeters and ammeters, and the meter is connected to the input of the power block SB 4, and voltmeters and ammeters in various parts of the electrical circuits.

Shaper protective capacity is mounted in a protective cover 64 with at least one opening for mounting and/or dismantling of its elements, wiring and components, and the opening is equipped with a rotary and/or a removable locking element.

The protective cover may be made in the form of a polyhedral shaped Cabinet with aspect ratio a:b:c 1:(0,67-0,84):(1,65-1,97), where a width of the Cabinet; b Cabinet depth c height of the Cabinet, and the locking element is designed as installed on at least one face of the Cabinet rotary shutter or a combination of shutters.

The Cabinet can be equipped with at least one internal dividing wall, on which is mounted, at least part of the blocks and parts.

The Cabinet can be made with at least one additional opening located on a face opposite to a face with the main opening, and will complement the deposits and/or sealing system.

The Cabinet, at least in part, may be made of metal and/or metal and/or plastic material with high wear-resistant, weatherproof and antikorrozionnojj properties.

The protective cover may be made in the form of a tightly locked hollow body having at least partially the shape of the body of rotation or a complex shape from a combination of elements of polyhedra and elements of bodies of revolution.

The protective cover can be made with a degree of integrity, providing the opportunity to work under water to a depth of 300 m, or in the layer of soil in underground and/or underwater conditions, for which the contour of the opening are single-circuit or two-circuit lock-type tooth-groove" with damping hermetic seal and the casing attached to the configuration of the convex hull in the form of a body of rotation or fragment or combination of fragments of bodies of rotation, and/or fragments of asymmetric membranes, and/or flat items.

Blocks device skommutirovany flexible wires, collected into bundles fixed to the separation wall and other internal surfaces of the enclosure.

In the power block SB 4 auto input switch ABB 8, filtres connection of measuring devices are located on the input panel at the bottom of the Cabinet.

In the power block SB 4 thyristors 9, the shunt 28 and the current transformer 35 are located on the power panel at the bottom of the Cabinet.

In the power block SB 4 power transformer, ARTICLE 7 and the smoothing reactor LS 6 are located in the upper part of the Cabinet.

The elements of the input control unit wetlands 11 can be placed in the middle part of the Cabinet in the casing.

Counter hours VSS 56 is placed in the casing in the upper part of the Cabinet together with the elements of the input control unit wetlands 11.

The device may be provided with a clamp for connecting the grounding circuit, which is located in the lower part of the Cabinet. In the upper part of the Cabinet can be made at least two supporting holes in the shape of a circle or part circle, configuration or segment of an elliptical configuration, or oval configuration, or ovoid, or combinations thereof.

In the lower part of the Cabinet can be made of the mounting holes for the installation screws for fastening to a flat base.

The Cabinet can be equipped with an auxiliary frame for mounting to a vertical wall or concrete pole, and in the bottom of the Cabinet is made of at least one window for entry of cables and/or wiring harness breakout wires are in the front.

The door from the inside can be mounted electricity meter.

The device operates as follows.

The rectifier 5 power unit 4 (Fig. 1 and 2), fed through the power transformer 7 and the automatic input switch 8 from the mains alternating current generates at the output the difference of the protective potentials. The positive potential thus fed to the anode earthing switch 2, and the negative on the protected underground structure 1.

Protected underground facility 1, the reference electrode 3 and the auxiliary electrode 19 is measured in the process, the values of the potentials and generate signals corresponding to these values. These signals are fed into the block allocation of the controlled potential 13. Using contains this block switching element 20 (Fig. 1 and 5), the auxiliary electrode 19 is periodically connected to the protected underground facility 1 and equalize their potentials, then the specified switching element signal with the auxiliary electrode 19 on one of the plates of a storage capacitor 14 unit selection controlled potentials 13, and the signal from the protected underground structures 1 on the stop block 13. Detect the ora 14.

Thus, in the block allocation controlled potentials 13 at the storage capacitor 14 integrate differential controlled signal electrodes 3 and 19.

From the output of block 13 the resulting signal serves on one of their inputs-protect switch 21 (Fig. 4) included in the input control unit 11. From the first output of the switch 21, the signal serves at the first input of the block comparison 18 (Fig. 1, 4, 6), to the second input of which a signal proportional to the desired protection potential, which is obtained from the controller 12 of a job of this magnitude, which is included in the unit power supply control system 36 (Fig. 3). To the second input of the switch 21 serves continuously measured signal with underground facilities 1.

The switch 21 allows three protection modes: automatic mode to maintain a polarized protective capacity; automatic mode to maintain a differential protective capacity; manual adjustment mode.

When one of the two automatic modes on the unit 18 comparison with unit 13 and the switch 21 serves either directly to the signal corresponding to the potential on the protected underground structure 1 or the signal according to the x-polarized modes of protection or differential potential support with accuracy 1% of setting +20 mV.

The manual adjustment mode is back. It is used when a failure of the device in the automatic control mode. In this mode of regulating the output parameters is provided by the protective potential of underground construction 1 manually.

To do this with a hand controller operating voltage 23 of the input control unit 11 serves to manually control signal to the third input of the switch 21 (Fig. 1, 3, 4).

The switch 21 fourth its input connected to the output of the Comparer 18, and the output inverter 22 (Fig. 1, 4, 6).

The combination unit 18 comparison with inverter 22 through the switch 21 and the other connected to the switch 21 blocks provides obtaining at the output of the inverter control signal based automatic stabilization modes protective potential from a given set of potential values in the controller 12 and the position of the movable contact of the switch 21, i.e., thus from the actual values of the potentials on the structure 1 and the electrode versus 3, and manual adjustment from the position of the moving element controller 23 (Fig. 1, 3, 4).

Using the trimmer resistor 48 in the block comparison 18 (Fig. 6) ensure the immediate vicinity of the stabilization mode differential protection potential.

The output signal from the inverter 22 serves at the first input of the phase-shifting unit 16 (Fig. 1, 6, 7), to the second input of which serves a reference signal with the first reference-voltage source 24 unit power supply control system 36 (Fig. 1, 3, 7).

The output of block 16 is connected to the input of the block driver control pulses 17.

Generator output voltage 49, part of block 16, by using a capacitor that is charged from a source of stabilized voltage 44 and performs the functions of the key transistor is formed sawtooth voltage.

The comparison of this voltage with an input voltage control is performed by the comparison circuit 50, which is made on the chip, by filing both the compared signals through resistors to the non-inverting input of the chip. The signal from the output of the circuit 50 serves to the input of pulse amplifier 51, the output of which the signal fed to the input unit 17.

While the control voltage is greater in absolute value of the sawtooth voltage at the output of the circuit 50 is a voltage of negative polarity, which closes the transistor pulse amplifier 51. At that moment, when the sawtooth voltage in absolute value is e opens the transistor pulse amplifier 51.

The signal from one output unit generating control pulses 17 (Fig. 8) forms and the control pulses of the transistors of the switching element 20 (Fig. 5) and thyristor rectifier 5 (Fig. 2). On unit control and protection 25 first entry of his shaper signal current protection 55 signal from the current transformer 35 (Fig. 1, 2), on its second input serves the reference signal from source 24.

The signal output from the imaging unit 55 serves either to the third input of the phase-shifting unit 16 or the control input auto input switch 8, or both.

These thyristors have a dual function: firstly, they rectify the voltage, which is obtained with the secondary winding of the power transformer 7; second, they regulate the magnitude of the rectified current depending on the control signal supplied in the form of pulses to the control circuit these thyristors output unit 17.

Unit 17 changes the time of formation of the pulse applied to these thyristors, depending on the signal characterizing quantities of controlled potentials with protected structures 1 and with both of the electrodes 3 and 19.

This rectified and modified by the value depending on the values CEM the form at the output of the power unit 4 the difference of protective potentials, a positive potential which is served on the anode earthing 2, and negative on the protected underground structure 1. Power block 4 this allows you to change the output values of these potentials by switching the findings of the power transformer 7.

On unit control and protection 25 first entry of his shaper signal current protection 55, which is the input of the current sensor 59 (Fig. 9), the signal from the current transformer 35 (Fig. 1 and 2), on its second input serves the reference signal from source 24, which together with the output signal from the current sensor 59 fed to the input circuit 60, in which they compare and strengthening. After that, the resultant signal is served either on the third input of the phase-shifting unit 16 or the control input auto input switch 8, or both. Thus, if a voltage proportional to an output current of generator differential protection potentials (i.e., the output of the power unit 4), exceeds the value of the reference signal, depending on the task or the specific circuit implementation are carried out either increasing signal applied to the input of the phase-shifting unit 16 (Fig. 1 and 7) and thereby delay time pulse shaping control is provided), or with sharp jumps of the output current is switched off auto input switch 8 (Fig. 1, 2 and 9).

Using the current sensor 59 (Fig.9) of the variable resistor control output voltage of the current sensor 59 and thereby change the setting value current protection.

On unit control and protection 25 also serves signals proportional to measured in the process, the potentials on the structure 1 and the reference electrode 3. These signals serve two input driver control signal by the counter 57 (Fig. 1 and 10). On the third input signal proportional to a reference voltage, the second voltage reference 58.

In the chip 61 of the imaging unit 57 (Fig. 10) smooth ripple valid differential protection potential, and then fed to the input circuit 62, to the second input of which receives the aforementioned signal with the second reference voltage 58.

In this chip, shall compare the actual potential with a given reference and the resultant signal is fed to the input transistor 63 active filter. Output driver control signals by the counter 57 (transistor 63) on testwuide source unit 36 (Fig. 3).

This counter 56 counts the time during which the protected structure 1 has the capacity to protect it from corrosion. If the potential of the structure 1 relative to the reference electrode 3 exceeds 0.8 V, the transistor switch 63 of the imaging unit 57 includes a counter 56 (Fig. 10). If this potential is below the meter is not working. In this mode allowed continuous operation of the entire device without scheduled maintenance for 4000 hours.

The control for the specified resource may be carried out visually on the counter. However, Pets such execution unit control and protection 25 the application of the counter 56, wherein when the specified resource may be automatic or reducing the magnitude of the output current of the power unit 4, or reject, either sound or light alarm. In one of these variants, the outputs of the counter 56 may be connected to the input of the shaper protection signal according to the resource operation 64.

The device also provides for the implementation of the additional functions of control and protection, in particular protection from atmospheric influences, lightning surges, reducing interference samiclaus filters in the form of LC and RC circuits varistors, led, leads for connection circuits grounding and enable fuses, measuring instruments and other (Ref. 27-34 Fig. 2).

The method of construction is embedded in the ground or underground and/or underwater buildings, structures and utilities construction is as follows.

Prepare and plan the site, carry out the delivery and storage of products and designs. Perform excavation work on the formation of openings in the ground open and/or closed method, erect bearing structures located in the soil lining of structures and/or portions of the walls, floor, floors of buildings, structures, joint separate the structural elements, their protective hydro - and/or thermal insulation and complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection, at least part of the above objects in areas with high corrosion resistance of the soil and/or groundwater, or in the presence of stray currents, and then perform backfill structures erected educated in an open way excavation in the ground, and/or injection of hardening materials for lining built by closed structures.

For the construction of specified complex is up in the soil near, at least part of the metal and/or metal-containing objects of protection sections of lining structures and/or bottom, walls, floors of buildings, constructions and other objects, butt joints of structural elements.

Set in locations that meet the conditions from the point of view of climatic, geographical and geophysical factors, one transforming substation protected from the weather and sun shroud. Between the transforming substation and securable pave electric power and a measuring circuit. In specified transforming substation enter the trailing edges of these chains, shields and fees, which are fixed blocks and elements converts electrical substations that form shaper protective potentials, including the power block on the basis of the power constant current source supplying between the protected object and the anode earthing difference of protective potentials of the control system with the functional blocks, including the block allocation controlled potentials and unit control and protection, and the input control unit with switch at least three security modes, connect Kona with a securable object, anode grounding, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode. Connection blocks and shaper of protective potentials of conduct among themselves and with chains with the formation depending on the actual potential on the protected object and both electrodes of the respective protective potential on the protected object, and the control unit and protection and at least another one of the blocks of the control system is placed on one common Board, and all other blocks and items shaper protective potentials of transforming substation on another Board. The reference electrode and the auxiliary electrode is fitted between the protected object and the anode earthing.

In the preparation and layout of the site to produce a breakdown of the marking locations anode grounding, reference electrodes and auxiliary electrodes, as well as transforming substations complexes corrosion cathodic protection. When performing excavations open method produces excavation of pits and/or trenches mechanized way, and in areas perform complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection immersion in the soil anode ground, electrode against the ku soil pits and trenches perform excavating, equipped bucket "backhoe", and the trench tear without disrupting the structure of the soil at the base with the shortage, not exceeding 10 cm, for excavators with bucket capacity of 0.25-0.4 m3, 15 cm for excavators with bucket capacity of 0.5-0.65 m3and 20 cm for excavators with bucket capacity of 0.8-1.25 m3.

The excavation for the passage of pits and trenches can perform an excavator equipped with a bucket "dragline", and the trench tear without disrupting the structure of the soil at the base with the shortage, not exceeding 15 cm, for excavators with bucket capacity of 0.25-0.4 m320 cm for excavators with bucket capacity of 0.5-0.65 m3and 25 cm for excavators with bucket capacity of 0.8-1.25 m3.

With the passage of trenches to a depth exceeding the design, make the filling sand or homogeneous with the developed soil layers not thicker than 0.1 m and layer-by-layer seal it to the natural volumetric weight of the soil skeleton.

During the course of excavation in rock and frozen ground, at least part of the excavation can be carried out using external and/or internal charges of explosives placed in the formed in the areas of production blasting p is on one side.

During the course of excavation in rock and frozen ground, including marshy frozen soils, at least in some areas with aircraft dropping garland explosive substances and carry out simultaneous or sequential explosion with the formation at the site of the trench under the erected structure.

While working in the locations of existing structures, excavation work carried out by the closed method and jacking load-bearing structures, at least in areas under existing structures.

While working at the intersection of the existing communications carry out the positioning of these communications relative to the location of the erected structure and elements of the complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection by fragments of pits on less than every 25 m along the ground with their fencing and lighting, and after positioning of the existing communications exercise their opening hand with measures that exclude the bumps and shocks of the soil, after which the parts of the opening erect temporary structures, which attach to existing communication and after okonchaniyu.

During the development of pits and trenches shall mount them to the walls of the spacer structures, including metal mounting rack, at least one of which is used as the above electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

During the development of pits and trenches shall drain groundwater and/or artificial dewatering using vertical metal well point, and after drainage and/or dewatering at least one ipfilter leave in the ground and used as electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

Dewatering is performed with the use of electroosmosis using WellPoint systems, metal rods and a constant current generator, and the well point is included in the branch circuit to the negative pole - cathode, and the metal rods in the branch of the electric circuit with the positive terminal of the anode, the cathodes are placed in the vicinity of pits and/or trenches, and the metal rods are placed in the soil in rows parallel to the cathode with a gap between the rows of 0.8-1.0 m and between terminals 1,0-1,2 Cai leave in the ground and used as electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

At negative temperatures outside atsurround existing conduits, water lines, gas lines, at least parts of the opening warm.

When the location atsurround existing objects above the groundwater level, carry out insulation foam concrete or other similar insulating material and/or a combination of heat-insulating or heat materials with different parameters porosity.

When the location atsurround existing objects in the area of the groundwater insulation is realized by the concrete, and additionally perform an enhanced waterproofing or use waterproof closed-cell insulation insulation materials.

When performing excavations in silnomagnitnyh soils produce artificial grouting freezing, for which the perimeter framing into the ground dipped ternoway increments of 1-3 m, which serves the refrigerant, and after completion of the work on artificial pinning at least one ternoway leave in the ground and used as one of the electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex corrosion cathodic Salyut artificial grouting bituminaria or silicatization using metal tubular injectors, at least one of which after consolidation of the soil used as electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

When earthwork in the winter before excavation of frozen soil are cutting it cracks, and after cutting the slits excavation produced either directly after cutting, or prepared for excavation area warm ash or sawdust, or peat, or loose snow to prevent freezing of the soil.

While working in winter in urban conditions, the intersections with existing utilities, as well as at sites of minor earthworks perform the thawing of frozen ground fire method using solid, liquid or gaseous fuel and/or steam and/or water and/or electrically using metal needles or electrodes, at least one of which, after the completion of the defrosting leave in the ground and used as electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

When Ogneva the mm, 0.5-0.6 m and a length of 2 m with the formation of the channel length of 10-12 m, at one end of the channel form a chimney height of 2 m, and on the other the furnace, outside covered boxes teploizolirujushchim material with a layer thickness of 0.1-0.2 m, and after completion of the thawing of the soil boxes, at least partially transferred to a new area and/or cut and used as elements of the complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

When using a solid fuel furnace operate continuously for 6-8 hours, after which withstand the boxes for 16-18 hours, and then the boxes were removed and carry out the excavation of the upper ottange layer of soil, then install again, and pipe and furnace swap and the defrosting process is repeated until the thawing of the soil at the desired depth.

When using liquid fuel, it is served by gravity, and then sprayed a jet of air, and the furnace operate continuously for 15-16 hours, after which withstand the box the rest of the day, and then the defrosting process is repeated until the thawing of the soil at the desired depth.

An electrical method defrosting produced in two stages, the first of which assests the l I repeat.

When thawing richly saturated soil moisture both stage and break among them carry out not less than 40 hours, and the cycle was repeated three times.

When performing excavations in tranches bearing structures formed by the method of "wall" of the teams and/or solid, and/or precast monolithic concrete structures, and in areas supporting structures perform with the outer metal waterproofing and anode earthing, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection plunge into the ground in the vicinity of load-bearing structures with outer metal waterproofing.

When performing load-bearing structures using "wall in the ground" after the walls are excavation in the space bounded by walls, and the soil develop ledges, beginning at a depth of 5 m excavator equipped with bucket "backhoe", loaded into dump trucks, and then at a depth of 10 m excavator equipped with bucket "dragline", leaving the slopes at the walls, fixing production executions that attach to the walls, and the subsequent excavation of slopes with a bulldozer.

At the bottom of the OBR is s and/or underwater structures erected by lowering on the subgrade finished sections of load-bearing structures with the following weights to prevent the ascent.

The subgrade under the version section is performed by deepening 0.5-0.6 m below the sole of the construction of the bottom framing and aligning the bottom by running training thickness of 0.5-0.6 m of sand, gravel or crushed stone, or lean concrete.

The subgrade in wet clay soils perform a three-layer, consisting of the lower sand layer, the intermediate gravel layer and the top sand layer.

The intermediate layer are made of gravel with factions 3-15 mm and used as the reservoir drainage to lower the groundwater level.

While construction of buildings in wet soils perform associated drainage as drainage wells, drainage pipes and two-layer filter, the inner layer which are made of gravel with factions 3-15 mm, and the outer

of coarse-grained sand.

Drainage tubes have a perforated from asbestos cement and placed in the production holes down.

Laying drainage pipes make up the incline on leveled gravel or sand layer.

Drainage manholes perform with a diameter of not lower than 100 cm, and set on the straight parts at least every 50 m and all tworoom composition of 1:5.

Immersion of the sections is carried out by ballasting with water and/or sand and/or gravel and/or stone and/or concrete mixture, forming at least the lower sections of part of the supporting structure.

Use the bottom section of the structure from the released reinforcement bars, and all of the overlying vertical channels, and the immersion of the overlying sections of the reinforcing rods are passed through the channels, and after installing all sections carry out compression joints by tension rebar and fill channels hardening expanding, hardening material.

After compression joints and hardening of the material in the channels is performed by injectiona hardening material under the bottom of the structure through prescribed therein channels that before injection destructible cover caps.

When performing work in a volatile water-bearing soils and under hydrostatic pressure developing in the soil are under compressed air to release water into the array of the soil and lowering the caisson and/or caisson with a fixed ceiling.

At least one production in the soil is used as a shaft, and all other structures perform closed the third and equipment for manufacturing operations.

The auxiliary electrode is complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection can be placed between the anode grounding and reference electrode.

Between the transforming substation, protection, anode earthing electrodes in the soil perform the gutter or pipe, inside of which lay the cables and the measuring circuit.

After completion of the dewatering DC generator can be used as the specified constant current source power unit shaper protective potentials.

Forcing the lining is erected by the closed method of constructions carried out by stages, the first of which for the pump lining cement-sand mortar 1:3 in non-irrigated soils and 1:2 in flooded, and the re-injection of produced cement milk until the termination of its absorption at a pressure of not more than 0.4 MPa.

When the primary forcing for the lining in the solution is injected additives to improve the processing properties of the solution. The solution is injected additive that reduces the separation or slowing down or accelerating the terms of embracing, or increasing the permeability of the solution into the pores and cracks of the ground.

Primary no holes in the walls, starting from the lower part of the walls, and after discharge from the walls of the injection for the free part of the lining structures simultaneously and symmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis of the structure, and the discharge is produced before the advent of "failure" or the appearance of a solution in overlying wells.

The method of operation and/or repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration is embedded in the ground and/or underground and/or underwater buildings, structures and utilities construction is as follows.

Produce identification corrosive metal and/or metal-containing sections embedded in soil and/or underground and/or underwater structures and/or drainage structures, and/or observation wells, butt joints of structural elements. Make excavation work on the exposure of the subject to repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration, removal and/or repair of existing protective hydro - and/or thermal insulation and defective areas of load-bearing structures, repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration and execute, at least in the areas of buildings, structures, complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection in areas with plaganyi sites.

For the construction of specified complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection anode earthing, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode are immersed in the soil near at least part of the metal and/or metal-containing objects of protection sections of lining structures and/or bottom, racks, floors of buildings, constructions and other objects, butt joints of structural elements, set in places that meet the conditions from the point of view of climatic, geographical and geophysical factors, at least one transforming substation protected from the weather and sun shroud. Between the transforming substation and securable pave electric power and the measuring circuit specified in transforming substation enter the trailing edges of these chains, shields and fees, which are fixed blocks and elements converts electrical substations that form shaper protective potentials, including the power block on the basis of the power constant current source supplying between the protected object and the anode earthing difference of protective potentials of the control system with the functional blocks, including the breaker at least three security modes connect the ends of these chains with the findings of the shaper of protective potentials of transforming substation, and their other ends with a securable object, the anode grounding, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode. Connection blocks and shaper of protective potentials of conduct among themselves and with chains with the formation depending on the actual potential on the protected object and both electrodes of the respective protective potential on the protected object, and the control unit and protection and at least another one of the blocks of the control system is placed on one common Board, all other blocks and items shaper protective potentials of transforming substation to another Board.

The reference electrode and auxiliary electrode may be positioned between the protected object and the anode earthing.

Identification of the corroding metal and/or metal-containing plots produced using Pathfinder whereby carry out the detection of the electromagnetic field created around the subject site flowing through it current, and determining the defective areas of force structure elements proizvoditel structures manufactured using the receiving fixture locators, the definition of defective areas of the remaining structural elements are produced by connecting the generator to the structures, the excitation electromagnetic oscillations and determine the strength of the magnetic field at a fixed volume in the receiving fixture locators, after completion of the detection of corroding metal and/or metal-containing sites generator is used as the specified power source DC power shaper protective potentials of complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

Excavation work on the exposure of the subject to repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration is done by hand with the exception of a breakthrough in the face of gases, water, or the contents of cesspools.

When earthwork on the exposure of the subject to repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration sites take measures to avoid the bumps and shocks of the soil, after which the parts of the opening erect temporary structures, to which is attached subjected to repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration of parts of the structures as they outcrops, and after repairs and/or reconstruction for the LASS="ptx2">

When earthwork can mount wall framing in the soil struts, includes metal mounting rack, at least one of which is used as the electrode and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

When earthwork carry out the removal of groundwater and/or artificial dewatering using vertical metal well point, and after drainage and/or dewatering at least one ipfilter leave in the ground and used as an electrode and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

Dewatering can be accomplished with the use of the pump with the help of WellPoint systems, metal rods and a constant current generator, and the well point is included in the branch circuit to the negative pole - cathode, and the metal rods in the branch electrical circuit with a positive plus anode, the cathodes are placed in the vicinity of the pit or trench, and the metal rods are placed in the soil in rows parallel to the cathode with a gap between the rows of 0.8-3.1 m and between terminals of the system are left in the ground and used as an electrode and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

When earthwork in silnomagnitnyh soils can produce artificial grouting freezing, for which the perimeter framing into the ground dipped ternoway increments of 1-3 m, which serves the refrigerant, and after completion of the work on artificial pinning at least one ternoway leave in the ground and used as one of the electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

During the course of excavation of sand and silentresident rocky soil can make artificial grouting bituminaria or silicatization using metal tubular injectors, at least one of which, after the completion of the consolidation of the soil used as an electrode and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

Between the transforming substation, protection, anode earthing electrodes in the soil perform the gutter or pipe, inside of which lay the cables and the measuring circuit.

In the repair of load-bearing structures of buildings, structures carry out routine repairs, overhauls and p is in the lining, sealing cracks and the elimination of shells and indentation depth, as per the concrete load-bearing structures.

When major repairs carry out the effort weakened bearing members, relaying separate lining rings and its elements, and replacement of elements of the complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

Drainage structures during operation produced by dewatering using ipfilterx and/or arifovic installations, and/or water-absorbing wells, and at least one ipfilter after working for dewatering leave in the ground and use as electrodes or anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

1. The method of construction is embedded in the ground and/or underground and/or underwater buildings, structures and engineering construction, including the preparation and layout of the site, the delivery and storage of products and designs, execution of earthwork in formation of openings in the ground open and/or closed method, the construction of load-bearing structures located in the soil lining of structures and/or portions of the walls, floor, floors of buildings, structures, joints of the individual structural elements, their samih objects in areas with high corrosivity of the soil and/or groundwater or in the presence of stray currents perform backfilling structures erected educated in an open way excavation in the ground, and/or injection of hardening materials for lining built by closed structures, characterized in that the construction of the complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection using anodic earthing, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode, which is immersed in the soil near at least part of the metal and/or metal-containing objects anodic corrosion protection, install at locations corresponding to the operating conditions taking into account the climatic, geographical and geophysical factors, at least one transforming substation with a weather resistant and sunlight casing, between the transforming substation and securable pave electric power and a measuring circuit, transforming substation enter the trailing edges of these chains, shields and fees, which are fixed blocks and elements converts electrical substations that form shaper protective potentials, including the power block on the basis of the power constant current source supplying between the protected object and the anode is ω allocation of controlled potentials and unit control and protection, and the input control unit with switch at least three security modes, connect one ends of the chains with the findings of the shaper of protective potentials of transforming substation, and their other ends with a securable object, the anode grounding, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode, and connection blocks and shaper of protective potentials of conduct among themselves and with chains with the formation depending on the actual potential on the protected object and both electrodes of the respective protective potential on the protected object, and the control unit and protection and at least one of the blocks of the control system is placed on one common Board, all other blocks and items shaper protective potentials of transforming substation to another Board.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the reference electrode and the auxiliary electrode is fitted between the protected object and the anode earthing.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the preparation and layout of the site to produce a breakdown of the marking locations anode grounding, reference electrodes and auxiliary electrodes, as well as transforming podstanciya workings open method produces excavation of pits and/or trenches mechanized way, moreover, plots of the cathodic corrosion protection immersion in the soil anode ground, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode is carried out in the process of earthworks.

5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the excavation of pits and trenches are filled with an excavator equipped with a bucket "backhoe", and the trench tear without disrupting the structure of the soil at the base with the shortage, not exceeding 10 cm for excavators with bucket capacity of 0,25 0,4 m315 cm for excavators with bucket capacity 0.5 to 0.65 m3and 20 cm for excavators with bucket capacity 0.8 to 1.25 m3.

6. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the excavation of pits and trenches are filled with an excavator equipped with a bucket "dragline", and the trench tear without disrupting the structure of the soil at the base with the shortage, not exceeding 15 cm for excavators with bucket capacity of 0,25 0,4 m320 cm excavators with bucket capacity 0.5 to 0.65 m3and 25 cm for excavators with bucket capacity 0.8 to 1.25 m3.

7. The method according to PP.4 to 6, characterized in that during the passage of the trenches to a depth exceeding the design, make the filling sand or similar to develop the NTA.

8. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that during the course of excavation in rock and frozen ground at least part of the excavation is performed with the use of external and/or internal charges of explosives placed in the formed in the areas of production blasting discretely spaced boreholes or wells and carry out the blasting charges for loosening and/or release on one side.

9. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that during the course of excavation in rock and frozen ground, including marshy frozen soils, at least in some areas with aircraft dropping garland explosive substances and carry out simultaneous or sequential explosion of the charges with the formation at the site of the trench under the erected structure.

10. The method according to PP. 1 to 3, characterized in that in the production of works in the locations of existing structures, excavation work carried out by the closed method from jacking load-bearing structures at least in areas under existing structures.

11. The method according to PP. 1 to 4, characterized in that in the production of works at the intersection of existing communication the functions and elements of the complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection by excerpts holes at least every 25 m along the ground with their fencing and lighting, and after the location of the existing communications exercise their opening hand with measures that exclude the bumps and shocks of the soil, after which the parts of the opening erect temporary structures, which attach to existing communications, and after completion of works on the construction of built structures before backfilling temporary supporting structures to be dismantled.

12. The method according to PP.1 to 4, characterized in that during the development of pits and trenches shall mount them to the walls of the spacer structures, including metal mounting rack, at least one of which is used as the above electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

13. The method according to PP.1, 4 and 12, characterized in that during the development of pits and trenches shall drain groundwater and/or artificial dewatering using vertical well points, and after drainage and/or dewatering at least one ipfilter leave in the ground and used as electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

14. The method according to p. 1 the setting, metal rods and a constant current generator, and the well point is included in the branch circuit to the negative pole of the cathode, and the metal rods in the branch of the electric circuit with the positive terminal of the anode, the cathodes are placed in the vicinity of excavation and/or trenching, and metal rods are placed in the soil in rows parallel to the cathode with a gap between the rows of 0.8 to 1.0 m and between terminals 1.0 to 1.2 m, while after completion of dewatering at least one metallic element WellPoint systems leave in the ground and used as electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

15. The method according to p. 11, characterized in that at negative ambient temperature atsurround existing communication at least parts of the opening warm.

16. The method according to PP.11 and 15, characterized in that when raspolojenii atsurround existing objects above the groundwater level, carry out insulation foam concrete or insulating material and/or a combination of heat-insulating or heat materials with different parameters porosity.

17. The method according to PP.11 and 15, characterized in that CTT foam concrete, and additionally perform enhanced waterproofing or use waterproof closed-cell insulation insulation materials.

18. The method according to PP.1 to 4, characterized in that when performing excavations in silnomagnitnyh soils produce artificial grouting freezing, for which the perimeter framing into the ground dipped ternoway increments of 1 3 m, which serves the refrigerant, and after completion of the work on artificial pinning at least one ternoway leave in the ground and used as one of the electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

19. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that during the course of excavation of sand and silentresident rocky soils provide artificial grouting bituminaria or silicatization using metal tubular injectors, at least one of which, after the completion of the consolidation of the soil used as electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

20. The method according to PP.1 to 4, characterized in that during the course of excavation in winter PE is the produce either directly after cutting, or prepared for excavation area insulated slag, or sawdust, or peat, or loose snow to prevent freezing of the soil.

21. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that in the production of works in the winter, the conditions of urban development at the intersection with existing utilities, as well as in areas of excavation work carried out thawing of frozen ground fire method using solid, liquid or gaseous fuel and/or steam and/or water and/or electrical methods using metal needles or electrodes, at least one of which, after the completion of the defrosting leave in the ground and used as electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

22. The method according to p. 21, characterized in that when the firing thawing of the soil over the site thawing install lapped boxes from steel sheet of thickness 1.5 to 2.5 mm, a height of 0.5 to 0.6 m and a length of 2 m with the formation of a channel length of 10 to 12 m, at one end of the channel to form a flue height of 2 m, and on the other the furnace, the outside cover of the box with insulating material with a layer thickness of 0.1 to 0.2 m, and after OceanPortal as elements of the complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

23. The method according to p. 21, characterized in that when using a solid fuel furnace operate continuously for 6 to 8 h, and then incubated boxes for 16 to 18 h, and then the boxes were removed and carry out the excavation of the upper ottange layer of soil, then install again, and pipe and furnace swap and the defrosting process is repeated until the thawing of the soil at the desired depth.

24. The method according to p. 22, characterized in that when using a liquid fuel, it is served by gravity, and then sprayed a jet of air, and the furnace operate continuously for 15 for 16 h, after which withstand the box the rest of the day, and then the defrosting process is repeated until the thawing of the soil at the desired depth.

25. The method according to p. 21, characterized in that an electrical method defrosting produced in two stages, the first of which carry at least 16 h, and the second not less than 8 hours, with a break between stages is not less than 8 h, after which the cycle is repeated.

26. The method according to p. 21, characterized in that the thawing of water-saturated soil stages of thawing and break among them carry out not less than 40 h, and the cycle was repeated three times.

27. The method according to PP.1 to 4, characterized by the data and/or solid, and/or precast monolithic concrete structures, and at least part of sites supporting structures perform with the outer metal waterproofing and anode earthing, reference electrode and auxiliary electrode complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection plunge into the ground in the vicinity of load-bearing structures with outer metal waterproofing.

28. The method according to PP.1 to 4 and 27, characterized in that when the bearing structures using "wall in the ground" after the walls are excavation in the space bounded by walls, and the soil develop ledges, beginning at a depth of 5 m excavator equipped with bucket "backhoe" loaded into dump trucks, and then at a depth of 10 m excavator equipped with bucket "dragline", leaving the slopes at the walls, fixing production executions that attach to the walls, and the subsequent excavation of slopes with a bulldozer.

29. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that at the bottom formed in the ground by the open method workings perform the subgrade, and at least part of the underground and/or underwater structures erected by lowering on gruntov">

30. The method according to p. 29, characterized in that the subgrade under the discharge section is performed by deepening 0.5 0.6 m below the sole of the construction of the bottom framing and aligning the bottom by running training thickness of 0.5 to 0.6 m from the sand, or gravel, or crushed stone, or concrete with low binder content.

31. The method according to p. 29, characterized in that the subgrade in wet clay soils perform a three-layer, consisting of the lower sand layer, the intermediate gravel layer and the top sand layer.

32. The method according to p. 31, characterized in that an intermediate layer made of gravel with fractions 3 to 15 mm and used as the reservoir drainage to lower the groundwater level.

33. The method according to PP.1 to 30, characterized in that during the construction of structures in water-saturated soils perform associated drainage as drainage wells, drainage pipes and a two layer filter, the inner layer which are made of gravel with fractions 3 to 15 mm, and the outer of coarse-grained sand.

34. The method according to p. 33, characterized in that the drain tubes have a perforated from asbestos cement and placed in the production holes down.

35. The method according to PP.33 and 34, of the s layer.

36. The method according to p. 33, characterized in that the drainage manholes perform with a minimum diameter of 100 cm and mounted on the straight parts at least every 50 m and at all corners of the structures.

37. The method according to PP.33 and 36, characterized in that the Assembly of drainage wells carried out with the lubrication of joints with cement mortar binder at a ratio of 1 to 5.

38. The method according to PP.29 and 30, characterized in that the immersion of the sections is carried out by ballasting with water and/or sand and/or gravel and/or stone and/or concrete mixture, forming at least the lower section of part of the supporting structure.

39. The method according to PP.29 to 32, characterized in that use the bottom section of the structure from the released reinforcement bars, and all of the overlying vertical channels, and the immersion of the overlying sections of the reinforcing rods are passed through the channels, and after installing all sections carry out compression joints by tension rebar and fill channels hardening expanding, hardening material.

40. The method according to p. 39, characterized in that after compression of the joints and hardening materials in the channels carry injecting hardening material under the bottom. what tx2">

41. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that when performing work in a volatile water-bearing soils and under hydrostatic pressure developing in the soil are under compressed air to release water into the array of the soil discharge caisson and/or caisson with a fixed ceiling.

42. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that at least one production in the soil is used as a shaft, and all other structures perform closed method using the shaft to remove soil and feed components supporting structures and equipment for manufacturing operations.

43. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the auxiliary electrode is fitted between the anode grounding and reference electrode.

44. The method according to PP. 1, 2 and 43, characterized in that the reference electrode is made of a copper-sulfate material.

45. The method according to PP.1, 2 and 43, characterized in that the reference electrode and auxiliary electrode are combined into a single unit.

46. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the connection points of the protected object circuit from the power unit shaper protective capacity measuring circuit pass each other on lichudis fact, the electrical circuit, at least the power, perform the cables.

48. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that between the transforming substation, protection, anode earthing electrodes in the soil perform the gutter or pipe, inside of which lay the cables and the measuring circuit.

49. The method according to PP. 1 and 46, characterized in that the power supply unit electrical leads for connection of mains supply load measuring devices and communication with the actuator control system.

50. The method according to p. 49, characterized in that some of these conclusions are in the form of plug sockets.

51. The method according to PP. 1 and 46, characterized in that a separate circuit and/or the elements of the power unit perform with leads for connection of the grounding circuit.

52. The method according to p. 1, wherein the shaper is protective of potential supply unit power supply control system.

53. The method according to PP.1 and 52, characterized in that the power source supply control system performs with several conclusions from the respective power sources, each having its output voltage level.

54. The method according to PP.1, 13 and 14, characterized in that the IR DC power shaper protective potentials.

55. The method according to p. 54, characterized in that as a power source DC power shaper protective potentials using a rectifier controlled valves, which converts the mains voltage rectified in the difference of protective potentials.

56. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the casing transforming substation are in the form of a Cabinet in which form at least one opening for mounting and/or dismantling of its elements, wiring and components, and the opening will be equipped with rotary and/or a removable locking element.

57. The method according to PP.1 and 56, characterized in that the protective casing transforming substations is carried out in a sealed lockable hollow body, which is attributed at least partially to the shape of the body of rotation or a complex shape from a combination of elements of polyhedra and elements of bodies of revolution.

58. The method according to PP.1, 56, and 57, characterized in that the protective casing is carried out in a Cabinet with at least one internal dividing wall, on which is mounted at least part of the blocks and details of the transforming substation.

59. The method according to PP.1, 56 to 58, characterized in that the protective cover do with the degree of germ in the underground and/or underwater conditions, why the contour of the openings perform one-or two-circuit lock-type tooth groove with damping sealed gasket.

60. The method according to PP.1, 46 to 55, characterized in that the blocks of the device cathodic protection commute flexible wires, collected into bundles that are attached to the separation wall and other internal surfaces of the enclosure.

61. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the discharge for the lining is erected by the closed method of constructions carried out by stages, the first of which for the pump lining cement-sand mortar 1:3 in non-irrigated soils 1 and 2 in flooded, and the re-injection of produced cement milk until the termination of its absorption at a pressure of not more than 0.4 MPa.

62. The method according to PP.1 3 and 61, characterized in that when the primary forcing for the lining in the solution is injected additives to improve the processing properties of the solution.

63. The method according to p. 62, characterized in that the solution is injected additive that reduces the separation, or slowing down or accelerating the hardening period, or increasing the permeability of the solution into the pores and cracks of the ground.

64. The method according to PP.61 and 63, characterized in that the primary forcing for the lining Ave is participation in the walls, starting from the lower part of the walls, and after discharge from the walls of the injection for the free part of the lining structures simultaneously and symmetrically to the longitudinal axis of the structure, and the discharge is produced before the "failure" or the appearance of a solution in overlying wells.

65. The method of operation and/or repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration is embedded in the ground and/or underground and/or underwater buildings, structures and engineering construction, including the identification of the corroding metal and/or metal-containing sections embedded in soil and/or underground and/or underwater structures and/or drainage structures, and/or observation wells, butt joints of structural elements, excavation work on the exposure of the subject to repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration, remove and/or repair of existing protective, hydraulic and/or thermal insulation and defective areas of load-bearing structures, repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration and the execution of at least part of the areas of buildings, structures, complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection in areas with high corrosivity of soils and/or groundwater, or when NCSA anti-corrosion cathodic protection using anodic earthing, the reference electrode and auxiliary electrode, which is immersed in the soil near at least part of the metal and/or metal-containing objects anodic corrosion protection, ustanavlivat in places that meet the conditions taking into account the climatic, geographical and geophysical factors, at least one transforming substation with a weather resistant and sunlight casing, and between the transforming substation and securable pave electric power and a measuring circuit, transforming substation enter the trailing edges of these chains, shields and fees, which are fixed blocks and elements converts electrical substations that form shaper protective potentials, includes power unit based on the power constant current source supplying between the protected object and the anode earthing difference of protective potentials of the control system with the functional blocks, including the block allocation controlled potentials and unit control and protection, and the input control unit with switch at least three security modes, connect one ends of the chains with the conclusions of the shaper saada comparison and the auxiliary electrode, and the connections of the blocks and elements of formiates protective potentials carried out between themselves and with the chains with the formation depending on the actual potential on the protected object and both electrodes of the respective protective potential on the protected object, and the control unit and protection and at least another one of the blocks of the control system is placed on one common Board, and all other blocks and items shaper protective potentials of transforming substation to another Board.

66. The method according to p. 65, characterized in that the reference electrode and the auxiliary electrode is fitted between the protected object and the anode earthing.

67. The method according to PP.65 and 66, characterized in that the identification of the corroding metal and/or metal-containing plots produced using Pathfinder whereby carry out the detection of the electromagnetic field created around the subject site flowing through it current, and determining the defective areas of force structure elements manufactured using the receiving fixture locators, and the definition of defective areas other structural elements by Conn what about the field by fixing the volume of the receiving fixture locators, after completion of the identification of the corroding metal and/or metal-containing sites generator is used as the specified power source DC power shaper protective potentials of complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

68. The method according to p. 65, characterized in that the excavation work on the exposure of the subject to repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration is done by hand with the exception of a breakthrough in the face of gases, water, or the contents of cesspools.

69. The method according to p. 65, characterized in that during the course of excavation for the exposure of the subject to repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration sites take measures to avoid the bumps and shocks of the soil, after which the parts of the opening erect temporary structures, to which attach beyond repair and/or reconstruction and/or restoration of parts of the structures as they outcrops, and after repairs and/or reconstruction and/or restoration of temporary supporting structures will be dismantled and provide backfill.

70. The method according to PP.65 69, characterized in that during the course of excavation Oswestry, at least one of which is used as the electrode and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

71. The method according to PP.65 70, characterized in that during the course of excavation shall drain groundwater and/or artificial dewatering using vertical metal well point, and after drainage and/or dewatering at least one ipfilter leave in the ground and used as an electrode and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

72. The method according to p. 71, characterized in that the dewatering is performed with the use of electroosmosis using WellPoint systems, metal rods and a constant current generator, and the well point is included in the branch circuit to the negative pole of the cathode, and the metal rods in the branch of the electric circuit with the positive terminal of the anode, the cathodes are placed in the vicinity of excavation and/or trenching, and metal rods in the ground rows parallel to the cathode with a gap between the rows of 0.8 3.1 m and between terminals to 1.0 3.5 m, while after completion of dewatering at least one metal element glofil anticorrosion cathodic protection.

73. The method according to PP.65 70, characterized in that during the course of excavation of saturated soils produce artificial grouting freezing, for which the perimeter framing into the ground dipped ternoway increments of 1 3 m, which serves the refrigerant, and after completion of the work on artificial pinning at least one ternoway leave in the ground and used as one of the electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

74. The method according to PP.65 70, characterized in that during the course of excavation of sand and silentresident rocky soils provide artificial grouting bituminaria or silicatization using metal tubular injectors, at least one of which, after the completion of the consolidation of the soil used as electrodes and/or the anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

75. The method according to p. 65, wherein the auxiliary electrode is fitted between the anode grounding and reference electrode.

76. The method according to PP.65, 66 and 75, characterized in that the reference electrode is made of a copper-sulphate beginat together.

78. The method according to p. 65, characterized in that the connection points of the protected object with the power circuit from the power unit of the shaper protection potential and the measuring circuit pass each other at a distance, eliminating the influence of the load current at a controlled potential.

79. The method according to PP.65 and 78, characterized in that the said electrical circuit, at least the power, perform the cables.

80. The method according to p. 65, characterized in that between the transforming substation, protection, anode earthing electrodes in the soil perform the gutter or pipe, inside of which lay the cables and the measuring circuit.

81. The method according to PP.65 and 78, characterized in that the power supply unit electrical leads for connection of the mains, load measuring devices and communication with the actuator control system.

82. The method according to p. 81, characterized in that the part above the electrical outlets are in the form of plug sockets.

83. The method according to PP.65 and 78, characterized in that the part of the circuits and/or elements of the power unit perform with leads for connection of the grounding circuit.

84. The method according to p. 65, wherein the shaper sasanawdaya fact, the power sources power management system perform with a few conclusions from the respective power sources, each having its output voltage level.

86. The method according to PP.65, 71 and 72, characterized in that after completion of the dewatering DC generator is used as a constant current source power unit shaper protective potentials.

87. The method according to p. 86, characterized in that as a power source DC power shaper protective potentials using a rectifier controlled valves, which converts the mains voltage rectified in the difference of protective potentials.

88. The method according to p. 65, characterized in that the casing transforming substation are in the form of a Cabinet in which form at least one opening for mounting and/or dismantling of its elements, wiring and components, and the opening will be equipped with rotary and/or a removable locking element.

89. The method according to PP.65 and 88, characterized in that the protective casing transforming substations is carried out in a sealed lockable hollow body, which is attributed, at least partly, the shape of the body of rotation or slice fact, the protective casing is carried out in a closet no less than one internal dividing wall, on which are mounted at least a portion of the block and parts of the transforming substation.

91. The method according to PP.65, 88 90, characterized in that the protective cover do with the degree of tightness, providing the opportunity to work under water to a depth of 300 m, or in the layer of soil in underground and/or underwater conditions, for which the contour of the openings perform one - or two-circuit lock-type tooth groove with damping sealed gasket.

92. The method according to PP.65, 78, 84 and 85, characterized in that the blocks of the device commute flexible wires, collected into bundles, attached to the dividing wall and the inner surface of the shell.

93. The method according to p. 65, wherein in the repair of load-bearing structures of buildings, structures carry out routine repairs, overhauls and drainage structures during operation.

94. The method according to p. 93, characterized in that during maintenance perform the grouting lining, sealing cracks and the elimination of shells and indentation depth, as per the concrete load-bearing structures.

95. The method according to p. 93, characterized in that when ka is the possessor of the lining and its elements, as well as the replacement of elements of the complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

96. The method according to p. 93, characterized in that the drainage structures in the process of operation produced by dewatering using ipfilter, and/or arifovic installations, and/or water-absorbing wells, and at least one ipfilter after working for dewatering leave in the ground and use as electrodes or anode earthing complex anti-corrosion cathodic protection.

 

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The invention relates to the construction and for the construction of buried underground constructions

FIELD: building, particularly erection of all-purpose underground structures having deep foundation pit of irregular shape.

SUBSTANCE: method involves building enclosing walls, two-stage foundation pit excavation, wherein the first stage includes anchoring of enclosing walls with cross-pieces; and assembling frame. Additionally installed within contour defined by enclosing walls is sheet-pile enclosure. Cross-pieces are arranged between enclosing walls and sheet-pile enclosure. The first stage of foundation pit excavation is performed in thrust support between enclosing walls and sheet-pile enclosure and then contour frame members are mounted in developed pit area. The second stage of foundation pit excavation includes developing inner pit part after which frame erection is completed.

EFFECT: improved structure stability, reduced labor inputs, material consumption and increased reliability.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to erect building structures in permafrost areas and thick snow cover.

SUBSTANCE: tunnel comprises trench in which load-bearing enclosing structure partly submersed in ground below natural ground surface is arranged. The enclosing structure defines space for transport passage structure location. Nonfrost-susceptible ground layer is arranged under the passage structure. Total height of the nonfrost-susceptible ground layer between passage structure bottom and lower trench surface is to be not less than season thawing depth. Ground prism is created above natural ground surface having axis coinciding with tunnel axis. Width B of ground prism determined along trench top, ground prism width Bp, ground prism height he at edges thereof and ground prism height ha along structure axis are determined from given correlations.

EFFECT: reduced costs of motor road and rail road erection in permafrost ground and increased ability of ground retaining in permafrost condition.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to erect building structures in permafrost areas and thick snow cover.

SUBSTANCE: tunnel comprises trench in which load-bearing enclosing structure partly submersed in ground below natural ground surface is arranged. The enclosing structure defines space for transport passage structure location. Tunnel built in permafrost ground comprises longitudinal embankment having axis coinciding with longitudinal tunnel axis and defining combination of trapeze and triangle located above trapeze in cross-section. Triangle base coincides with upper trapeze base. Above load-bearing enclosing structure is arranged within the bounds of longitudinal embankment and back-filling ground below natural ground surface and may partly project over the embankment and back-filling ground. Nonfrost-susceptible ground layer is arranged under the passage structure. Total height of the nonfrost-susceptible ground layer between passage structure bottom and lower trench surface is to be not less than season thawing depth. Width B thereof is determined along trench top. Trapeze height ht, maximal ground embankment height he along passage structure axis, upper trapeze base width Bu, total ground embankment width Be are determined from given correlations.

EFFECT: reduced costs of motor road and rail road erection in permafrost ground and increased ability of ground retaining in permafrost condition.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: road construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to underground excavations and can be used for big-section transport tunneling under railway embankments as well as for conduit pipes' construction under railway embankments. Method of tunnel piercing under railway embankment includes boring of a number of wells along the outline of tunnel being constructed with subsequent concreting and soil removal from outline resulted from boring process. Wells are bored step by step in horizontal plane, with portal frames with conductor guides preinstalled on two sides of embankment slopes along their external outline. Leading small well is bored by means of determining boring direction by hole provided in conductor. After the leading well is bored, end of small boring tool is hinged to end of big boring tool arranged in casing pipe. Big boring tool moves in leading well behind small boring tool together with casing pipe, which is installed in well after boring is completed, and boring tools are removed. After required number of casing pipes is installed along outline of portal frames, soil is removed from their cavity and they are filled with concrete mix. Soil is removed from outline formed by continuous rows of casing pipes along the whole section and throughout the length of tunnel.

EFFECT: reduction of risk of integrity damage, protection of railway embankment from deformations and breakage without road traffic stop when piercing a tunnel.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction, road engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to construction of tunnels and may be used in creation of earthquake-proof tunnel design. Earthquake-proof tunnel consists of rigidly fixed metal and elastic, for instance, rubber, elements installed one after another, at that elastic elements are made of two types: autonomous longitudinal rectangular in shape, equal in length to metal element and in width also equal to width of metal element with symmetrically arranged holes in number equal to number of fixtures in metal elements of tunnel and round in external diametre equal to external diametre of tunnel and by thickness that makes 1.618 of metal element end height and holes with identical pitch, which are located in transverse plane and along axis of elastic element symmetry and in number equal to number of fixtures installed in metal elements of tunnel. At the middle of every half-wave of average length of earthquakes wave observed in this area, under their maximums compensators are installed, which consist of elastic material with length of 1.618 Lm, where Lm is longitudinal size of metal element arranged in the form of ring with symmetrically installed holes in its ends with identical pitch at ring end surface, and two springs are installed inside these holes: one compression spring of the largest diametre, and inside of it - tension spring with two horizontal threaded ends fixed by nuts on opposite ends of tunnel metal elements with a close fit. Similar springs are installed also in holes of autonomous longitudinal rectangular elastic elements.

EFFECT: increased strength and reliability of tunnel during earthquakes.

4 dwg

FIELD: road construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to underground construction and can be used for building large tunnels under traffic arteries for organising traffic intersections at cross-roads, as well as at railway crossings. Method of constructing tunnel for organising traffic intersections at cross-roads, which are formed with traffic arteries located at one and the same level, involves horizontal drilling performed in series and in steps by pre-installing a portal frame with conductor guides along external outline of tunnel for drilling leading wells of small diametre. The method is implemented so that after drilling of leading wells is completed, the end of the boring tool of small diametre is connected to the end of boring tool of large diametre, which is placed in casing pipe. Boring tool of large diametre is moved in the leading well after the boring tool of small diametre together with casing pipe, which is left in the well after drilling is completed, and boring tools are removed. After the required number of casing pipes is fixed along the outline of portal frames, soil is removed from cavity and it is filled with concrete mixture. In secondary traffic artery, by using slurry wall method, there reinforced are installation places of portal frames and ramps are made, which provide the access to organisation of works on construction of tunnel under the main traffic artery. Then upper tunnel covering is installed, after that, side tunnel walls are made by means of the above described method, then wall in the soil which covers tunnel portal is demolished, and soil is removed from the whole internal space of tunnel.

EFFECT: reducing the time required for traffic interruption during construction and labour input during work execution when constructing tunnel.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry, and namely to formwork for developing reinforcing covering of the construction made from corrugated steel plates. That formwork installed on one surface of corrugated steel plate and forming the reinforcing covering after inner space of formwork is filled with concrete and hardening of the filled concrete, which contains a lot of individual formworking panels, each of which includes rectangular front part of the panel and two side parts of the panel, which are made as an integral part of front panel part and located along opposite edges of the above front part throughout its length; at that, a lot of individual formworking panels are attached in series to corrugated steel plate by means of many anchor bolts and nuts along external surface of corrugated steel plate in its longitudinal direction.

EFFECT: increasing labour efficiency, decreasing labour input, providing repeated use of removed formwork.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for reinforcement of structure from corrugated steel sheets with application of shell located on surface of corrugated steel sheet, in which the following stages are executed: stage of anchor bolt installation, in which hole is created for insertion of anchor bolt on surface of corrugated steel sheet, and anchor bolt is installed in hole for insertion of anchor bolt so that upper end of anchor bolt protrudes over surface of corrugated steel sheet by specified height. Stage of armature rod installation, in which armature rod is fixed to anchor bolt, which protrudes over surface of corrugated steel sheet, with application of wire sections. Stage of curb assembly, in which curb is attached to anchor bolt with application of nut so that armature rod located over surface of corrugated steel sheet is closed with this curb. Stage of concrete filling, in which concrete is filled inside curb arranged on surface of corrugated steel sheet. Stage of curb dismantling, in which curb is removed after concrete filled inside this curb hardens. Besides on stage of curb assembly, the following operations are carried out: placement of seal between curb arranged on surface of corrugated steel sheet and mentioned surface of corrugated steel sheet, and reinforcement of curb arranged on surface of corrugated steel sheet, using support rod, at opposite ends of which there are areas with internal thread, onto which according fastening nuts are screwed.

EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity of structure, increased reliability and strength of structure.

2 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: lining of underground structure from reinforced metal blocks comprises internal metal insulation with stiffening ribs and concrete. Reinforced metal blocks are made in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds, which consists of metal sheet, working armature rods welded to it with length by 20 mm less than length of metal sheet and stiffening ribs in the form of two or more diagonal metal trusses, upper belt tops of which are located in the same plane, and armature lattice made of longitudinal armature rods, with number equal to doubled number of trusses and cross armature rods with pitch equal to pitch of truss diagonal, at the same time tops of upper belts of trusses serve as support elements for fixation of armature lattice on them, and arranged so that metal sheet, welded working armature rods, diagonal trusses and longitudinal rod armature of lattice fixed on tops of truss upper belts, create lower and upper diaphragms of vertical rigidity of reinforced metal block, transverse armature of grid creates upper diaphragm of horizontal rigidity, and metal sheet - its lower diaphragm. Length of longitudinal rods of lattice exceeds length of metal sheet on each side by value 1, and created extensions of longitudinal rods are bent according to radius, equal to distance between metal sheet and armature lattice h, and from one side at least half inserted into tubular cartridges with length of 10-20 diametres of armature rods, which are bent in the form of knee along the same radius as longitudinal armature rods, having holes in middle part of length for filling of fast-hardening cement-sand solution and equipped with fastening bolts. Cross rods of armature lattice, length of which on each side is equal to width of metal sheet, on one side at least half inserted into tubular straight cartridges, equipped with fastening bolts and holes in a manner similar to bent cartridges. Exceeding of length of longitudinal rods of lattice over length of metal sheet 1 is identified using given dependence.

EFFECT: improvement and unification of reinforced metal block for expansion of application field and simplification of structure lining assembly technology.

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to construct multistorey underground structures in weak water-saturated soils in districts of existing development, including arrangement of vertical walls, arrangement of floor ceilings and subsequent removal of soil from the foundation pit, differing by the fact that position of vertical walls is reliably fixed in their lower part with a concrete diaphragm laid at the bottom of the foundation pit without extraction of soil; in the upper part the vertical walls are fixed with spreader beams laid onto soil foundation at the elevation of upper ceiling of the structure along the external contour of the foundation pit, and a frame installed along the external contour of the foundation pit onto soil foundation also at the elevation of the upper ceiling; spreader beams, in their turn, are supported with a system of horizontal longitudinal and transverse beams, which are mounted at the level of the ceiling, afterwards the soil mass is removed from the foundation pit to the elevation of the ceiling of the lower floor; at the level of the lower floor the similar technological operations are carried out to arrange spreader beams and a system of longitudinal and transverse beams that support spreader beams; afterwards the soil mass is removed to the level of the ceiling of the next floor below, and all technological operations are repeated; finally the soil mass is removed from the foundation pit to the diaphragm that closes the foundation pit bottom, afterwards the diaphragm surface is levelled, and ceilings are assembled, in the "bottom-up" order.

EFFECT: invention provides for higher reliability of all elements of a structure and a facility as a whole.

2 dwg

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