Building block

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of construction, in particular, to the concrete elements used for masonry foundations and walls of buildings, including a clutch. With the purpose of increase of efficiency of application blocks in the outer walls of heated buildings and more monolithic block contains the United septa side walls forming a space for concreting and fixing ridges, protrusions and grooves. The walls have horizontal and frontal projections. Horizontal protrusions have a height of 0.02-0.15 of the height of the walls and are sloped 10-60 to the center of the block. The height of end protrusions equal to the height of the walls, and the width equal to the width of the horizontal edges and is of 0.075 to 0.4 of the width of the block. Partitions have a height of 0.5-1.0 the height of the walls and are located at a distance from the ends of 0.02 to 0.25 of the length of the block. End lugs provided with ridges projecting above the walls and having a height of 0.02-0.1 of the height of the walls, and the ridges may have different location on the end tabs, configuration and size, and horizontal tabs have slots corresponding to the location, configuration and size of the ridges. Thor the Dean of them hung. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to the field of construction, in particular, to the concrete elements used for masonry foundations and walls of buildings, including a clutch. Known building block for masonry walls containing two parallel walls connected by partitions. The bottom partition is on the same level with the bottom of the walls, and top walls up to the middle height of the walls, allowing collected inside of the block walls are formed interconnected wells, in which you pour the concrete mixture for monolithic blocks [1]

The disadvantage of this unit is unreliable fixing the mutual position of the blocks in the wall structure due to the absence in blocks of locking elements, and this in turn makes it possible to use blocks for a masonry buildings.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result of the claimed block and selected for the prototype is a building block containing two parallel side walls connected by walls, the walls have vertical tabs with the locking part extending beyond the plane of the upper surfaces of the side steepest application blocks in the outer walls of heated buildings due to the creation of solid partitions of the blocks in the outer wall of a continuous vertical ribs, that act as bridges for the elimination of the negative impact which is required to increase the thickness of the walls.

2. Increased consumption of concrete for walls, the height of which with the tabs along the entire length of the walls is greater than the height of the walls.

3. Low degree of monolithic structures arising from the fact that the locking tabs are located on the walls throughout their length, and the height of the partitions with locking protrusions greater than the height of the walls, so collected inside of the block structures are formed vertical wells that are not interconnected, which makes it difficult to fill in the design americapayday mixtures.

The aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the use of blocks in the outer walls of heated buildings by reducing the thickness and, accordingly, reduce the cost of external walls constructed from the blocks, as well as the increase of the degree of monolithic blocks by improving the filling mixture voids in the blocks.

To address this goal in the claimed unit along with similar to the prototype of the characteristics is the presence of the locking protrusions, the side walls are connected by partitions, santaldih protrusions with a height of 0.02-0.15 of the height of the walls with a gradient of 10-60oto the center of the block, and the end walls of the protrusions, the height of which is equal to the height of the walls, and the width equal to the width of the horizontal edges and is of 0.075 to 0.4 of the width of the block. Partitions have a height of 0.5-1.0 the height of the walls and are located at a distance from the ends not less than 0.02 and not more than 0.25 of the length of the block. On the end tabs are locking ridges jutting out over the walls and having a height of 0.02-0.1 of the height of the walls, and the ridges may have different location on the end tabs, configuration, and dimensions, and the horizontal protrusions have locking grooves corresponding to the location, configuration and size of the ridges. End protrusions on one side of the block have the entire height of the block grooves, on the other ridges or grooves.

In Fig.1 shows a view of an ordinary building block of Fig.2-Fig.5 schematically shows the top options blocks, differing in location, configuration, size of the locking ridges on the end tabs and the locking grooves on the horizontal ledges.

Building block contains two parallel side walls 1 (see Fig. 1-5) with end protrusions 2 on the ends. Wall 1 is connected by partitions 3, forming prostranstvennye angle of 10-60oC to the center of the block, and the horizontal protrusions 4 are locking grooves 5, and the height of the horizontal protrusions 4, determined experimentally, is 0.02-0.15 of the height of the walls 1. End projections 2 have a height equal to the height of the walls 1 and width equal to the width of the horizontal protrusions 4, and a width of 0.075 to 0.4 of the width of the block. Walls 3 have a height of 0.5-1.0 the height of the walls 1 and are located at a distance of not less than 0.02 and not more than 0.25 of the length of the block. End tabs 2 equipped with locking ridges 6, protruding over the top of the walls 1 and end protrusions 2. Combs 6 have a height of 0.02-0.1 of the height of the walls, and combs 6 can have a different location on the end tabs 2, a different configuration and sizes. Horizontal ledges 4 are locking grooves 5 corresponding to the location, configuration and size of the ridges 6. Throughout the height of end tabs 2, on one side of the block, there may be grooves 7, on the other combs 8 or grooves 7 (see Fig.4, Fig.5).

Specific example blocks corresponding to the formula of the invention and used in the construction of walls or foundations, shown in Fig.1.

The unit consists of walls 1, 3 partitions, D.. Horizontal projections 4 have a maximum height of 0.15 from the height of the walls 1 and are arranged with a pitch of 30oto the center of the block. End projections 2 have a height equal to the height of the walls 1, and the width of the end protrusions 2 is equal to the width of the horizontal ledges and 0,24 of the width of the block. Partition 3 is variable-height: 0,83 0,69 to the height of the walls 1 and are located at a distance from the ends of the block by 0.04 from the length of the block. The locking ridges 6 protrude above the walls 1 and end projections 3 0.09 from the height of the walls 1, and combs 6 in horizontal cross-section have the shape of a rectangle perpendicular to the wall 1 on the inner sides of the ends of the projections 2. Combs 6 have a small bias (1-2 mm) of the two vertical faces, which facilitates fixation of the ridges in the locking grooves 5 are arranged in a horizontal ledges 4 and corresponding to the location, configuration and size of the ridges 6.

Construction of the walls or foundations are made of blocks as follows. Stack several blocks end to end. If the blocks are at the ends on one side of the grooves, on the other crests, the blocks are placed so that the crests of one of the blocks went into the grooves of the other blocks. Each subsequent row of blocks is laid peravai combs 6 blocks of the lower row are in the locking grooves 5 blocks of the top row. After laying the blocks in the wall structure "dry" (without mortar, using only the locking element blocks) of the inner cavity structure necessarily fill the porous insulating concrete mixture, which upon subsequent solidification americium design. In connection with the design features of the blocks, collected inside of the block walls are formed of vertical wells interconnected by horizontal channels, which increases the degree of monolithic walls.

The blocks can be laid in a combined way, when the accuracy of the units is achieved by fixation of the ridges in the grooves, and the tightness of the joints is achieved by using a thin layer of mortar, curing the paste, glue, etc. In this case the units are installed in wall construction crests 6 down, and the height of the ridges should exceed the thickness of the horizontal seam.

The execution of the partitions 3 block height to 0.5 of the height of the walls 1, their location at a distance from the ends of 0.02 to 0.25 of the length of the block, and the location, configuration and size of the ridges and grooves provide collected from blocks of construction not only vertical, but also horizontal voids soo and allows to reduce the thickness of the walls of heated buildings without compromising their thermal insulation properties due to the fact, in the construction of the wall all walls surrounded on all sides by insulation (i.e., not formed a solid height of the wall cold bridges) with the dissipation of heat flow and increase thermal resistance of the walls.

The presence on the end ledges throughout their height, with one side of the block grooves on the other of the ridges can improve the adhesion of the blocks to each other and to increase the tightness of the vertical joints of structures collected "dry" of the blocks.

If the blocks are on both sides of the grooves double groove at the junction of two blocks from the inner side wall can americalatina or perform the role of an air layer and double groove on the outer side of the wall may be filled with mortar and other materials formed after hardening rigid, leakproof connection between the blocks, which is used in the combined method of masonry walls.

The application of the proposed building block for walls and foundations can: reduce the volume of concrete block and concrete price on 4-7% to reduce the thickness of the exterior walls of heated buildings in 11-18% and accordingly reduce the cost without compromising thermal insulation properties of the walls; step to improve the United septa side walls, forming a space for concreting, as well as the locking tabs, wherein the locking projections made in the form of horizontal ledges of the walls and the height of 0.02 to 0.15 height of the walls with a slope of 10 60oto the center of the block, and end protrusions of the walls, the height of which is equal to the height of the walls, and the width equal to the width of the horizontal edges and is of 0.075 to 0.4 of the width of the block, and the walls have a height of 0.5 to 1.0 height of the walls and spaced from the ends not less than 0.02 and not more than 0.25 length of the block, the end lugs provided with locking ridges that extend over walls and having a height of 0.02 to 0.1 height of the walls, and the horizontal protrusions have locking grooves corresponding to the location, configuration and size of the ridges.

2. The block under item 1, characterized in that the end projections of the walls throughout their height on one side of the block have the grooves, and on the other ridges or grooves.

 

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