(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of construction, in particular, to the concrete elements used for masonry foundations and walls of buildings, including a clutch. With the purpose of increase of efficiency of application blocks in the outer walls of heated buildings and more monolithic block contains the United septa side walls forming a space for concreting and fixing ridges, protrusions and grooves. The walls have horizontal and frontal projections. Horizontal protrusions have a height of 0.02-0.15 of the height of the walls and are sloped 10-60 to the center of the block. The height of end protrusions equal to the height of the walls, and the width equal to the width of the horizontal edges and is of 0.075 to 0.4 of the width of the block. Partitions have a height of 0.5-1.0 the height of the walls and are located at a distance from the ends of 0.02 to 0.25 of the length of the block. End lugs provided with ridges projecting above the walls and having a height of 0.02-0.1 of the height of the walls, and the ridges may have different location on the end tabs, configuration and size, and horizontal tabs have slots corresponding to the location, configuration and size of the ridges. Thor the Dean of them hung. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il. The invention relates to the field of construction, in particular, to the concrete elements used for masonry foundations and walls of buildings, including a clutch. Known building block for masonry walls containing two parallel walls connected by partitions. The bottom partition is on the same level with the bottom of the walls, and top walls up to the middle height of the walls, allowing collected inside of the block walls are formed interconnected wells, in which you pour the concrete mixture for monolithic blocks 
The disadvantage of this unit is unreliable fixing the mutual position of the blocks in the wall structure due to the absence in blocks of locking elements, and this in turn makes it possible to use blocks for a masonry buildings.The closest in technical essence and the achieved result of the claimed block and selected for the prototype is a building block containing two parallel side walls connected by walls, the walls have vertical tabs with the locking part extending beyond the plane of the upper surfaces of the side steepest application blocks in the outer walls of heated buildings due to the creation of solid partitions of the blocks in the outer wall of a continuous vertical ribs, that act as bridges for the elimination of the negative impact which is required to increase the thickness of the walls.2. Increased consumption of concrete for walls, the height of which with the tabs along the entire length of the walls is greater than the height of the walls.3. Low degree of monolithic structures arising from the fact that the locking tabs are located on the walls throughout their length, and the height of the partitions with locking protrusions greater than the height of the walls, so collected inside of the block structures are formed vertical wells that are not interconnected, which makes it difficult to fill in the design americapayday mixtures.The aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the use of blocks in the outer walls of heated buildings by reducing the thickness and, accordingly, reduce the cost of external walls constructed from the blocks, as well as the increase of the degree of monolithic blocks by improving the filling mixture voids in the blocks.To address this goal in the claimed unit along with similar to the prototype of the characteristics is the presence of the locking protrusions, the side walls are connected by partitions, santaldih protrusions with a height of 0.02-0.15 of the height of the walls with a gradient of 10-60oto the center of the block, and the end walls of the protrusions, the height of which is equal to the height of the walls, and the width equal to the width of the horizontal edges and is of 0.075 to 0.4 of the width of the block. Partitions have a height of 0.5-1.0 the height of the walls and are located at a distance from the ends not less than 0.02 and not more than 0.25 of the length of the block. On the end tabs are locking ridges jutting out over the walls and having a height of 0.02-0.1 of the height of the walls, and the ridges may have different location on the end tabs, configuration, and dimensions, and the horizontal protrusions have locking grooves corresponding to the location, configuration and size of the ridges. End protrusions on one side of the block have the entire height of the block grooves, on the other ridges or grooves.In Fig.1 shows a view of an ordinary building block of Fig.2-Fig.5 schematically shows the top options blocks, differing in location, configuration, size of the locking ridges on the end tabs and the locking grooves on the horizontal ledges.Building block contains two parallel side walls 1 (see Fig. 1-5) with end protrusions 2 on the ends. Wall 1 is connected by partitions 3, forming prostranstvennye angle of 10-60oC to the center of the block, and the horizontal protrusions 4 are locking grooves 5, and the height of the horizontal protrusions 4, determined experimentally, is 0.02-0.15 of the height of the walls 1. End projections 2 have a height equal to the height of the walls 1 and width equal to the width of the horizontal protrusions 4, and a width of 0.075 to 0.4 of the width of the block. Walls 3 have a height of 0.5-1.0 the height of the walls 1 and are located at a distance of not less than 0.02 and not more than 0.25 of the length of the block. End tabs 2 equipped with locking ridges 6, protruding over the top of the walls 1 and end protrusions 2. Combs 6 have a height of 0.02-0.1 of the height of the walls, and combs 6 can have a different location on the end tabs 2, a different configuration and sizes. Horizontal ledges 4 are locking grooves 5 corresponding to the location, configuration and size of the ridges 6. Throughout the height of end tabs 2, on one side of the block, there may be grooves 7, on the other combs 8 or grooves 7 (see Fig.4, Fig.5).Specific example blocks corresponding to the formula of the invention and used in the construction of walls or foundations, shown in Fig.1.The unit consists of walls 1, 3 partitions, D.. Horizontal projections 4 have a maximum height of 0.15 from the height of the walls 1 and are arranged with a pitch of 30oto the center of the block. End projections 2 have a height equal to the height of the walls 1, and the width of the end protrusions 2 is equal to the width of the horizontal ledges and 0,24 of the width of the block. Partition 3 is variable-height: 0,83 0,69 to the height of the walls 1 and are located at a distance from the ends of the block by 0.04 from the length of the block. The locking ridges 6 protrude above the walls 1 and end projections 3 0.09 from the height of the walls 1, and combs 6 in horizontal cross-section have the shape of a rectangle perpendicular to the wall 1 on the inner sides of the ends of the projections 2. Combs 6 have a small bias (1-2 mm) of the two vertical faces, which facilitates fixation of the ridges in the locking grooves 5 are arranged in a horizontal ledges 4 and corresponding to the location, configuration and size of the ridges 6.Construction of the walls or foundations are made of blocks as follows. Stack several blocks end to end. If the blocks are at the ends on one side of the grooves, on the other crests, the blocks are placed so that the crests of one of the blocks went into the grooves of the other blocks. Each subsequent row of blocks is laid peravai combs 6 blocks of the lower row are in the locking grooves 5 blocks of the top row. After laying the blocks in the wall structure "dry" (without mortar, using only the locking element blocks) of the inner cavity structure necessarily fill the porous insulating concrete mixture, which upon subsequent solidification americium design. In connection with the design features of the blocks, collected inside of the block walls are formed of vertical wells interconnected by horizontal channels, which increases the degree of monolithic walls.The blocks can be laid in a combined way, when the accuracy of the units is achieved by fixation of the ridges in the grooves, and the tightness of the joints is achieved by using a thin layer of mortar, curing the paste, glue, etc. In this case the units are installed in wall construction crests 6 down, and the height of the ridges should exceed the thickness of the horizontal seam.The execution of the partitions 3 block height to 0.5 of the height of the walls 1, their location at a distance from the ends of 0.02 to 0.25 of the length of the block, and the location, configuration and size of the ridges and grooves provide collected from blocks of construction not only vertical, but also horizontal voids soo and allows to reduce the thickness of the walls of heated buildings without compromising their thermal insulation properties due to the fact, in the construction of the wall all walls surrounded on all sides by insulation (i.e., not formed a solid height of the wall cold bridges) with the dissipation of heat flow and increase thermal resistance of the walls.The presence on the end ledges throughout their height, with one side of the block grooves on the other of the ridges can improve the adhesion of the blocks to each other and to increase the tightness of the vertical joints of structures collected "dry" of the blocks.If the blocks are on both sides of the grooves double groove at the junction of two blocks from the inner side wall can americalatina or perform the role of an air layer and double groove on the outer side of the wall may be filled with mortar and other materials formed after hardening rigid, leakproof connection between the blocks, which is used in the combined method of masonry walls.The application of the proposed building block for walls and foundations can: reduce the volume of concrete block and concrete price on 4-7% to reduce the thickness of the exterior walls of heated buildings in 11-18% and accordingly reduce the cost without compromising thermal insulation properties of the walls; step to improve the United septa side walls, forming a space for concreting, as well as the locking tabs, wherein the locking projections made in the form of horizontal ledges of the walls and the height of 0.02 to 0.15 height of the walls with a slope of 10 60oto the center of the block, and end protrusions of the walls, the height of which is equal to the height of the walls, and the width equal to the width of the horizontal edges and is of 0.075 to 0.4 of the width of the block, and the walls have a height of 0.5 to 1.0 height of the walls and spaced from the ends not less than 0.02 and not more than 0.25 length of the block, the end lugs provided with locking ridges that extend over walls and having a height of 0.02 to 0.1 height of the walls, and the horizontal protrusions have locking grooves corresponding to the location, configuration and size of the ridges.2. The block under item 1, characterized in that the end projections of the walls throughout their height on one side of the block have the grooves, and on the other ridges or grooves.
SUBSTANCE: decorative lattice comprises two layers of identical rings or sheet metal with identical diameters of holes. The specified layers are laid onto each other with any arbitrary placement of centres of rings or holes and any arbitrary angular displacement.
EFFECT: increased bending strength.
SUBSTANCE: structural block comprises the first and second element, identical to the above first element, at the same time each of the above elements has, in general, a parallelogram shape with a central hole and a cut in one angle and inner walls formed at least in the above central hole, at the same time the above element rotates relative to the other element approximately at the angle of 180°, and each element has a truncated inner surface, partially formed by the above inner hole; each element is connected with the other element by means of stretching via the central hole of the other element and substantially closing this central hole, and each element has a face surface directed towards the appropriate face surface of the other element; above cuts are arranged along a diagonal axis stretching via the above elements and via the above windows; the above elements may turn along the above diagonal axis between the closed position, in which face surfaces contact with each other, and the open position, in which the above face surfaces are separated, and truncated inner surfaces of elements rest against each other and act as stops to limit movement of the above elements. Also a wall, a window for a building and an architectural structure using the above block are described.
EFFECT: reduced cost for construction of structures.
20 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building module comprises a base element, formed from silicate bricks, extruded gypsum-based bricks, foam concrete or aerated concrete blocks or ceramic extruded bricks, and having parallel bed surfaces, with at least two pairs of coaxial holes and fixing elements of straight and reverse cones placed in them. Axes of conical parts of fixing elements of straight cones and adjacent surfaces of collars, which determine the gap between layers of masonry, are made at the angle to the axes of seating surfaces of the same elements mounted in holes of the base element. Also the version of the module is described, as well as the versions of the method to erect building walls using the specified building modules.
EFFECT: increased labour efficiency in construction, lower prime cost of modules, higher quality of building module installation.
13 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of construction includes erection of frame in the form of reinforced concrete monolithic structures, formation of external walls from multi-layer light heat insulation panels with application of glue. The foundation, monolithic reinforced concrete slabs with coaxial holes in them and vertical columns are linked to a standard series of multi-layer universal light heat-moisture-noise-insulating heat-resistant blocks in all planes, and the frame of the facility is formed with account of the loads from physical masses of external walls, internal partitions and other necessary elements. Ends of monolithic slabs along the entire perimetre are closed with rectangular chutes with an insulant, they are rigidly fixed on the monolithic slab, afterwards they start erecting the external walls and internal partitions, at the same time in the beginning they install an angular multi-layer universal light block, the places of adjacency are previously coated with glue, it is fixed to the vertical column with the bracket, the second block is put against it, which has been previously coated with glue in places of adjacency, and into a vertical lock formed as two blocks are joined, a figured rack is inserted so that it enters the coaxial hole in the monolithic slab and so on, and the blocks of the second and subsequent rows are inserted with a ledge on the lower surface, into the slot on the upper surface of the blocks, etc. Blocks are laid row by row, simultaneously window, door and arc openings are formed, at the same time the surfaces of universal light blocks inside the object of construction at both sides may be closed by standard strengthened noise and moisture protective fireproof sheets with high adhesive capacity, which simultaneously cover several blocks. Also a multi-layer universal light block is described.
EFFECT: faster rates of building construction, lower labour inputs.
1 tbl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to erection of engineering structures with a bearing frame in the form of prefabricated composite structures with a shell, slab or shell and slab bulky structure. A composite bearing block of a prefabricated building structure represents a factory-built assembly element in the form of a spatial polyhedron or its fragments with faces of constant, piecewise-constant and alternate thickness, possibly, with through holes in faces for letting through personnel or communications, including concrete, reinforcement, embedded parts in the form of hollow tubular elements forming also through holes in faces, serving to connect bearing blocks to each other or to other structures of the facility with application of closing elements inserted in process of installation into coaxially arranged embedded hollow elements of touching faces. The block is made with closed or with opened cavities limited by diaphragms or protruding ribs, with opened, fully or partially closed one- and multi-link transverse cross sections or in the form of fragments, at least from one thick-walled shell or slab, and surfaces of external faces, internal cavities, ribs and diaphragms are given geometric shapes from a combination of flat, curvilinear or spherical surfaces, and also it has such geometric dimensions of connecting holes and such coordinates of location of such holes in joined blocks, which as a result of assembly provide for formation of a prefabricated building structure with required dimensions and specified spatial bulky structure of bearing faces, cavities and channels, and embedded tubular elements of faces are rigidly connected to additional reinforcement embedded parts, attached to them at the external side and embedded into concrete in process of factory manufacturing of a bearing block in a curb. Also the field connection of such blocks is described.
EFFECT: increased rates for erection of cost-effective materials of building structures in a bulky, including cellular one, facility with application of rigid and manufacturable field connections of blocks, provision of bearing capacity, durability and, if required, tightness of created structures, and also improvement of technology of assembly of prefabricated reinforced concrete building structures.
11 cl, 22 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building structure consisting of blocks relates to construction industry and can be used for erection of buildings and structures. A building structure is made of rectangular blocks with projections and corresponding grooves on working surfaces; with that, the building structure includes two types of blocks that are different as to manufacturing material, one of which is made from corrosion resistant metal, and the other one from heavy expanded-clay concrete. The building structure is made of blocks laid in rows as per a "projection-groove" principle; with that, the base is made of blocks from corrosion resistant metal and fixed on a foundation; then, rows of blocks are laid, which are made from expanded-clay concrete. Erection of the structure ends with a row of blocks from corrosion resistant metal. Besides, its erection method is described.
EFFECT: improving stability, strength and seismic resistant of a structure.
3 cl, 33 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction materials industry, particularly to making concrete wall panels or blocks. Wall panel comprises interconnected bearing layer on the basis of light concrete and heat-insulating layer of porous material. Connection of layers is made in the form of a plastic plate dowels with cutouts at their ends provided with transverse armature rods of composite material. Each rod is arranged approximately in the middle part of dowel section. Head of each dowel is located on the outer side of heat-insulating layer. Transverse armature rod extends beyond dowel body on both sides at approximately 4÷5 of its diameter perpendicular to dowel axis and is located inside the bearing layer at the distance of 1/4÷2/3 of its thickness from upper surface of heat-insulating layer. Crude mixture for making the base layer of wall panel contains following components, wt%: hemihydrate gypsum 62-72, portland cement 18-25, pulp and paper industry waste (scope) (in terms of dry substance) 0.5-12, technical lignosulfonates (in terms of dry substance) 0.15-1.5, soda ash 0.05-0.2, quartz sand - the rest up to 100 %, with water - cement ratio of 2.7-3.5. Method of wall panel making includes laying and attachment of heat-insulating and bearing layers. First, on the horizontal surface of the shape heat-insulating material is placed stitched with plastic dowels with cutouts at their ends. Dowels are installed in the direction to the upper side with end of dowel output by value equal to approximately 3/4 of thickness of bearing layer, in an amount of no less than 5 PCs per 1.0 m2 of horizontal area of heat-insulating layer. Then approximately in the middle of each dowel section armature rod of composite material is inserted perpendicular to its axis, and raw material mixture is poured upon heat-insulating material.
EFFECT: technical result consists in speeding of process of wall panel production, increasing reliability of its heat-insulating and bearing layers and reducing power consumption during production.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wall panel consists of two elements: a panel-frame consisting of a crossbar and racks, made of heavy concrete, including reinforcing articles and parts, and an element for filling the space in the panel-frame plane. Wherein the element for filling the space in the panel-frame plane is represented by a liner made of light or cellular concrete with retainers on the surfaces connected to the panel-frame. A method for manufacturing the wall panel is also described.
EFFECT: reductiing the weight and material intensity of load-bearing and self-supporting wall panels, reducing the labour intensity of the wall panel manufacturing, increasing the industriality of construction and increasing the strength of the contact seams between the composite elements of the wall panel.
7 cl, 9 dwg