The method of purification of gases

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: cleaning the exhaust gases of the engines during ground tests. The inventive exhaust gases with admixtures of NOxand SOxcooksley electron beam irradiation. Then the gases are cooled to the crystallization temperature or condensation of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in the regenerator using coolant. The cooled gases are passed through an additional regenerator for cooling to temperatures of condensation or crystallization of NOxand SOxand release into the atmosphere. 1 Il.

The invention relates to a method of purification of smoke, soot or exhaust gases from sulfur and nitrogen oxides (SO2and NOx), and is intended primarily for cleaning exhaust gases of engines running at the ground tests.

The known method of gas purification from nitrogen oxides [1] the Method includes sputtering gas mixture and cooling to the temperature of condensation of nitrogen oxides. And cooling are passing the mixture through a coolant in the form of a layer of liquid with a specific gravity of 1.6-2.0 g/cm3at a temperature of 21 - minus 42oC.

The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of implementing and malefemale high flow rate and low time of its interaction with the cooler (high speed).

Closest to the invention is a method of gas purification from nitrogen oxides and sulfur, including cooling gases to obtain oxides in the condensed state and the release of treated gases into the atmosphere [2]

The disadvantages of the method:

the need for periodic stopping of the equipment and engine cleaning of coolant from the solid condensate;

low efficiency when cleaning the high flow rate of exhaust gas of the engine;

large unproductive loss of energy due to the release of the cooled clean gas into the atmosphere.

The purpose of the invention not only effective but also cost-effective method of cleaning the exhaust gases of the engine and other gases from nitrogen oxides and sulphur.

The technical result that can be obtained by using the invention, will be expressed in the software:

bystrodeistvie elements method agreed between themselves and with the necessary time interaction exhaust gases with them;

cleaning equipment from condensation without interrupting the testing process gas cleaning);

the use of purified gas as a coolant;

The invention of sallychatterton crystallization or condensation of oxides passing through the coolant in the form of the regenerator and the production of purified gas, according to the invention gases cooksley electron beam irradiation, the cleaned gases before release into the atmosphere is passed through an additional regenerator when additional cooling of the regenerator to the temperature required for crystallization or condensation of oxides, through it pass the crude gases and purified before it is released is passed through the primary regenerator.

The drawing shows the installation diagram of the implementation of the method.

Exhaust element of the test engine 1 is connected to the tank 2, is equipped with an electronic accelerator (not shown) to generate an electron beam. The piping system 3, containing the switch 4 in the direction of the current of gas, the tank 2 is connected with the main 5 and an additional 6 and 7 regenerators. Each regenerator 5, 6, 7 consists of a metal case filled with aluminum tape (head), connected with turboalternator 8 through the header 9 cold air and is equipped with an outlet valve 10. The regenerators 5, 6, 7 are additionally interconnected by a pipe 11 for the cleaned gases having locking elements 12.

The method is implemented as follows.

Exhaust gases from the COI is authorized by the beam. The main part of the impurities in the exhaust gases contained in form NO. The electron beam irradiation stimulates the processes providing the oxidation of NO to NO2. The speed of these processes is sufficient for created currently relatively small size electronic accelerator 5 mW was provided by the oxidation of the total number), passed through the site of exposure. The same thing happens with the sulfur oxides. Then the gases through the pipe 3 serves in the main regenerator 5, the switch current 4 lock additional regenerators 6 and 7 from the receipt of raw gases.

Pre-regenerator 5 must be cooled to the temperature optimum crystallization or condensation NO2and SO2. Approaching the condenser end of the regenerator, the main stream of gas is cooled so that is the deposition of impurities in the form of crystals or condensation on the nozzle main regenerator 5. Design of regenerators 5, 6, 7 provides a braking gases to such speeds that the crystals and the condensation is carried away from the nozzle. The cleaned gas, together with the additional flow of turbodelta 8 enters additional regenerant nozzle, and he himself is heated at the output end to the ambient temperature. The efficiency of recovery of cold in the secondary regenerator 6 and 7 is achieved 99% therefore, the capacity of the compressor of turbodelta required moderate, equal to 1 mW.

After some time the direction of movement of the exhaust gases by means of the switch 4 is changed. The crude slots directed through the pipe 3 in additional regenerator 6, and purified in an additional regenerator 7. The main regenerator 5 at this time clear of crystals or condensate NO2and SO2. Interrupt the supply of treated gases in the regenerator locking elements 12.

The time of installation before switching regenerators can be chosen according to the need to ensure: cooling regenerator through which will go after the switching of the crude gases; the optimal amount of precipitated crystals or condensate, i.e. that, on the one hand, the accumulated sediment do not impede the passage of gases, and the time required for cleaning, was not equal to or greater than the time of sediment accumulation to obstruct regenerator operating in the cleaning mode gases, but, on the other hand, the sediment should not be so small that preparation to clear the seal gas and turboalternator 8 main regenerator 5. The number of switches depending on the time of engine tests.

Additional regenerator device for implementing the method may be one, but in this case, several large will the cost of cooling because the time required for purification of the main regenerator, purified gases without selection of cold will be released into the atmosphere.

Regenerators in the installation may be four. Designing their permanent work in pairs, it is possible to simplify the system switching gas flow.

As can be seen from the example of the method, it is proposed set of operations, as well as conditions and resources for their implementation provides the comparator with enhanced environmental safety and efficient purification of exhaust gases. This is because we use ecologically dangerous tools, temporary components of the cleaning mode agreed that allows you to clean the gases in their natural movement without accumulation, increasing the lifetime of the crude gases and creates the risk of diversion. I.e., additional RAM is finally oxidized with electron beam, not previously used, is well correlated in time with regenerative regenerators, since this eliminates the need for the accumulation of untreated gases during the cleaning of the regenerator or in a significant increase of dimensions of the regenerator or in the interruption of the testing process.

The method of purification of gases from nitrogen oxides, comprising a cooling gas to obtain oxides of nitrogen in the condensed state and the production of purified gases, wherein the gases before cooling of the irradiated electron beam, before it is released into the atmosphere gases are passed through an additional cooling regenerator when additional cooling of the regenerator to the temperature required for crystallization or condensation of nitrogen oxides, through it pass the crude gases and treated before release passed through another secondary or primary regenerators.

 

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Gas centrifuge // 2243825

FIELD: designs of the gas centrifugal machines.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a gas centrifuge and is dealt with designs of the gas centrifugal machines used for separation of isotopic and gas mixtures, mainly for separation of uranium isotopes. The centrifugal machine contains a rotor with butt covers, a fixed gas-distributing collector installed inside the rotor along its axis of rotation and including a channel for delivery of a stream of feeding into the rotor and an inlet device coupled with it through a flexible pipe used for feeding the rotor. The flexible coupling allows to move the inlet device of feeding in the collector without disassembly of the rotor, that is realized with the help of the demountable hard rods inserted inside the rotor along the collector and fixed on the inlet device of feeding. The offered device allows to perform an accelerated, more reliable and at lower cost optimization of technical characteristics of the centrifugal machine and also exploration of its internal hydraulics.

EFFECT: the invention allows to perform an accelerated, more reliable and with a lower cost optimization of technical characteristics of the centrifugal machine, and exploration of its internal hydraulics.

1 dwg

FIELD: enrichment of uranium isotopes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a sublimation apparatus and is dealt with the field of enrichment of uranium isotopes. The apparatus contains a cylindrical body (1) encased in a heat-insulating casing (2). In the center of the apparatus there is an insert (24) filled in with a neutron absorber, for example, with boron carbide. The ring-type sublimation chamber (3) and the chamber for heat-transfer agents (4) are mounted coaxially to the insert (24). The apparatus works in modes of desublimation and a sublimation. At operation in the mode of desublimation through a connecting pipe (9) into the ring-type collector (8)they feed a refrigerant distributed through heat exchange tubes (10) of the chamber for heat-transfer agents (4). Waste refrigerant is removed from the chamber (4) through a manifold (11), removing pipes (12), the ring-type collector (13) and a connecting pipe (14). The walls (5 and 6) of The sublimation chamber (3) are heated by a heater (7). A mix of vapors of uranium hexafluoride and noble gases is fed through a connecting pipe (19), distribute it along a ring-type space of the upper part of the chamber (3)and fed into ring-type cells (21). Desublimation of uranium hexafluoride is carried out on the surface of the heat exchange pipes (10) and on cross-connectors 22. Aerosols are sublimated at contact with heated walls (5 and 6). With the help of a flanging (16) on partitions (15) duration of contact of the aerosols with the walls (5 and 6) is increased. Due to that a degree of desublimation of uranium hexafluoride is increased. The surface of desublimation is enlarged due to the connectors (22). At operation in the sublimation mode the feeding of a refrigerant and a mix of vapors of uranium hexafluoride with a noble gas is stopped. Using the heater (7) the temperature in the apparatus is raised up to the temperature of uranium hexafluoride sublimation. Products of sublimation are removed through a connecting pipe (23). The apparatus is reliable, cost-saving, allows to increase a degree of trapping of uranium hexafluoride.

EFFECT: the apparatus is reliable, cost-saving, allows to increase a degree of trapping of uranium hexafluoride.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: gas treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to adsorption separation of gases and provides carbon dioxide absorbent, which is prepared by impregnating porous alumina with potassium carbonate, alumina having been preliminarily treated with alkali solution, in particular solution of alkali metal hydroxides and/or carbonates. Alkali treatment is carried out at temperature above 40оС. Method of removing carbon dioxide from gas mixture, including adsorption separation of carbon dioxide from atmospheric air in cyclic processes under thermal regeneration or short-cycle heating-free adsorption conditions, is characterized by that process is conducted at 20 to 200оС with above indicated absorber.

EFFECT: increased dynamic capacity of absorber and increased carbon dioxide absorption velocity.

5 cl, 2 dwg, 9 ex

FIELD: gas treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to adsorption separation of gases and provides carbon dioxide absorbent, which is prepared by impregnating porous alumina with potassium carbonate, alumina having been preliminarily treated with alkali solution, in particular solution of alkali metal hydroxides and/or carbonates. Alkali treatment is carried out at temperature above 40оС. Method of removing carbon dioxide from gas mixture, including adsorption separation of carbon dioxide from atmospheric air in cyclic processes under thermal regeneration or short-cycle heating-free adsorption conditions, is characterized by that process is conducted at 20 to 200оС with above indicated absorber.

EFFECT: increased dynamic capacity of absorber and increased carbon dioxide absorption velocity.

5 cl, 2 dwg, 9 ex

FIELD: gas treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for fine purification of gases with removal of carbon dioxide at elevated pressures, in particular in hydrogen or ammonia production processes. Absorbent is an aqueous solution containing N-methyldiethanolamine, piperazine, potassium carbonate, and morpholine. Invention achieves reduced equilibrium pressure and increased carbon dioxide absorption at low degrees of carbonization (as low as 0.1 mole CO2 per mole tertiary amine) without appreciable N-methyldiethanolamine degradation rate.

EFFECT: enhanced carbon dioxide absorption efficiency.

2 dwg, 6 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: gas treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for fine purification of gases with removal of carbon dioxide at elevated pressures, in particular in hydrogen or ammonia production processes. Absorbent is an aqueous solution containing N-methyldiethanolamine, piperazine, potassium carbonate, and morpholine. Invention achieves reduced equilibrium pressure and increased carbon dioxide absorption at low degrees of carbonization (as low as 0.1 mole CO2 per mole tertiary amine) without appreciable N-methyldiethanolamine degradation rate.

EFFECT: enhanced carbon dioxide absorption efficiency.

2 dwg, 6 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: sorbents.

SUBSTANCE: gas and liquid drier containing moisture-absorbing substance contained in pores of a matrix with open pore system and connected to the surface of matrix is prepared by impregnating matrix with moisture-absorbing substance solution, to which alkali solution is added to pH as high as 10. Alkali solution can be selected from solutions of alkali and alkali-earth metal hydroxides and ammonia. Moisture-absorbing substance is a high-hygroscopic salt such as alkali-earth metal halides, sulfates, and nitrates. Open-pore system-containing matrix is selected from inorganic oxides, porous coals, naturally occurring sorbents, porous metals, and their mixtures.

EFFECT: increased dynamic water-adsorption capacity and avoided leakage of hygroscopic salt solution from matrix pores.

4 cl, 7 ex

FIELD: radiochemistry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes mixing of highly dispersed donor and acceptor powders. Mixture obtained in the process is irradiated and radioisotopes produced as result of irradiation are chemically extracted from acceptor powder. Prior to chemical extraction acceptor is separated from donor by superimposing magnetic field onto mixture. Magnetic material is used as acceptor in the process.

EFFECT: enhanced yield and specific activity of radioisotopes noted for high isotope purity.

5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: waste water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: process comprises following stages: (i) treating waste water by way of evaporation in multi-unit evaporation apparatus to produce vaporous top fraction and liquid bottom fraction containing nonvolatile impurities and (ii) condensing at least part of vaporous top fraction into liquid stream, which is subjected to treatment consisting in distilling off volatile fractions to convert them into top cut containing volatile overflow organic material, and cleaned water in the form of bottom liquid stream.

EFFECT: created cleaned water stream, which can be reused in the process or be subjected to subsequent biological treatment to produce water pure enough to meet all environmental standards for surface water.

9 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

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