Drum for selecting the energy of water flows and wind

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: to work in the hydro - and vetroenergoparka and produce energy in an environmentally friendly way. The inventive drum shaft is set vertically and secured in bearings in the base, consisting of upper and lower disk holders and fixed between them parallel to the shaft of the large outer and small inner blades and outer blades have profiles arcs drawn from the extreme far points of the radii of the holders in 1/2 or 2/3 of the other radii, biased clockwise by 90oor 60o. To prevent runoff of water flow or wind on the concave sides of the blades when they are working course, on the concave sides of the blades are mounted boom for the entire length of the blade. The boom is equal to or slightly larger than the inner blades, two medium can be less than the lengths of the chords of each segment and directed at an angle of approximately 55othe chords of each segment so that the working stroke of the blade sockets between segments and fences are directed towards the flow of water or wind, which reduces the braking force of the water flow or wind reverse of the blade. Depending on the diameter>, 30oclockwise and in the last three cases overlap and the number of external and internal, respectively, 4, 6, 8 and 12 pieces, in the last two cases, the inner blades are not installed, because their effectiveness is largely falls, covering every blade 60othe offset between 60o, 45o, 30owith mutual overlap in the latter two cases and the number of, respectively, 6, 8, 12 pieces, in the latter case, the inner blades are not installed, because their effectiveness is largely falls, such configuration and securing of the blades allow you to use the flow of water or wind in width more than the radius of the drum. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 12 ill.

The invention relates to hydro - and wind power, and is designed to produce energy in an environmentally friendly way by selection from natural processes of water flow and wind with subsequent conversion to electricity.

Modern energy to a large extent damages nature. Thermal power stations contribute to the atmosphere of chemical pollution in the form of carbon dioxide, acid rain and any impurities from combustion gas, fuel oil and coal and thermal pollution, which is a special huge tracts of land are transformed into life-threatening desert in the form of pits and territories, backfilled overburden rock with radioactive and other hazardous substances disposed of underground water sources within a radius of several tens of kilometers from the quarries. When mine mining method also deletes the underground sources of water and filled the empty and dangerous breed of large areas of land. Plus ash with dangerous impurities, which poured a lot of land. Finally, the wind spreads dangerous dust from open pits, overburden and waste rock and ash.

Nuclear power plants contribute radioactive and thermal pollution. Even with perfect plant production, transportation of nuclear materials, their processing, enrichment and preparation for work add to the environment of radioactive elements. And accidents at nuclear power plants, especially at the Chernobyl showed that they are extremely dangerous.

Environmentally friendly are the units that use geothermal energy. But geothermal energy sources a bit. When they use the atmosphere to be paid extra warmth.

Completely environmentally friendly are plants that use the Sun's energy, water flows and wind, i.e. natural processes without adding artificial. But solne suppose, and in cloudy weather such energy not delivered. The energy is most needed in areas close to the poles. Most suitable for energy in an environmentally friendly way widespread water flows, as well as being in any point of the Earth, the wind, the only drawback is the constant variability in strength and direction and sometimes complete absence.

The decision to use water flow was found over a thousand years ago. This water wheel that uses the energy of falling water. Modern turbines is essentially the same water wheels, using falling water, only the axis of rotation vertical. Because falls a little, then went towards the construction of dams. If an artificial way acceptable for mountain rivers, which were not many, for the plain this leads to the flooding of large areas and damage to nature and society is extremely large, due to the pollution of rivers reservoir become dirty strainers are unsafe for humans. Using drops of water only on small areas of the rivers. For lowland rivers, such as the Neva, Ob, etc. many lowland areas of lowland rivers, this way is generally unacceptable. And plain and lowland is about can be somehow used in the bays, it is near the shores of the bays without virtually impossible. This solution does not allow to use also a huge energy potential of the marine and ocean currents.

Wind energy was used in windmills by the construction of the towers and the installation of the huge propellers of wood and leather. This technical solution is a few hundred years. Modern wind completely repeat this schema.

Suggested alternative solutions to the use of wind energy and water flows without dams. The famous windmill comprising a vertical shaft attached to it two cylindrical sections with upper, intermediate and lower holders, between which are fixed three blades located radially and parallel to the shaft, which consist of three flat palapala with curved edges. The disadvantage of the wind turbine is that its base cannot be built windmill significant capacity due to the large resistance of the flat polopoly during their return movement. Because of the flat design palapala unit may not be used for selection of energy of water flow, because most of zwyczajna high [1]

The solution to this problem is achieved by the fact that the drum consists of a vertical shaft impaled on him cylindrical partitions of disk holders, and profiled blades mounted between the disk holders, parallel to the axis of the shaft and placed in two rows on the outer and inner concentric circles. The blades have a profile of an arc, the first extreme point which is located on the same radius of the disk holder, and the second extreme point is on a different radius, rotated relative to the first clockwise 90o.

The arc of the blades, located on the outer circumference, are constructed as follows: the first extreme point coincides with the extreme point of the radius of the circle, and the second extreme point of the arc is located at a distance equal to half the radius of the outer circle.

For the arc of the blade located on the inner circumference, the first extreme point of the arc is located on the same radius as the second extreme point of the arc of the blades, located on the outer perimeter, but closer to the axis, and the second at a distance from the axis equal to half the distance between the axis and the first point of the extreme point of the arc of the blades of the inner circle.

oor 60oor 45oor 30o.

To prevent runoff of water flow or wind on the concave surfaces of the arc at the same distance one with respect to another is made boom, with the first from the axis of the boom coincides with the second extreme point of the arc; boom set at an angle of 55oto the chord of the segment of the arc between two adjacent barrier, and their height is equal to or greater than the length of this chord. On the blades of the outer circumference made six fences, and on the blades of the inner four. The sockets formed by the fence and cut the arc disclosed towards the first extreme point.

In the second embodiment, the first drum at the point of the arc of the blade is located on the same radius, and the second on the radius, rotated relative to the first radius clockwise through an angle of 60o. For the arc of the blades of the outer circumference of the second extreme point is at a distance equal to two-thirds or half of the radius of the circle, and the arc of the inner circumference of the second end is located at a distance from the axis equal to two-thirds or half the distance between the axis and the first point of this arc. The radius of the arcs of the blades external and vnutrennego arrow on the corner, or equal to 60oor 45oor 30o. Other elements of the drum coincides with the first option.

In Fig. 1 shows a horizontal section of the drum when performing arc, whose points lie on the radii deployed at an angle of 90oand arc one row is shifted one relative to the other 90oFig. 2 the same version, but with offset arcs at an angle of 60oFig. 3 the same version, but with offset arcs at an angle of 45oFig. 4 shows a second embodiment of the drum, the displacement of the arc at an angle of 60oand offset arcs one row at an angle of 45oFig. 5 shows a vertical section of the power unit for selecting the energy of water flow, and Fig. 6 option for selection of wind energy; Fig. 7 layout of gidroenergoproektom with drums along the river banks; Fig. 8 layout of gidroenergoproektom at the bottom along the shipping Bay; Fig. 9 placement of vetroenergoparka elevated position; Fig. 10 placement of vetroenergoparka on the roofs of buildings; Fig. 11 section one of the platforms, along which are placed gidroenergoproekta with reels of three sections; Fig. 12 an example of the placement of the four platforms, each of which has 15 hydropower the disk holders 3, separating the cylindrical section. The shaft 1 is mounted in the lower bearings 4 on the basis of 5 power unit and the upper bearing 6, the structure 7. The blades 2 have a profile of an arc with a first extreme point 8 and the second extreme point 9. The blades 2 are arranged in two rows

on the outer circumference and inner circumference, each inner blade 2 is for streams of water or wind continuation of the adjacent outer blades 2. Far from the axis of rotation of the point 8 of this inner blade 2 is placed on the same radius, which is the closest point 9 of the arc adjacent the outer blades, but closer to the axis of rotation. The closest to the rotation axis point 9 this internal arc, the blade 2 is placed on the radius perpendicular clockwise radius, which is far from the axis of rotation of the point 8 of the arc of this inner blades, but at 1/2 or 2/3 of the distance from the rotation axis to the farthest point 8 of the arc of this inner blades. The radii of the arcs of the outer and inner blades is equal to 3/4 of chord lengths between the end points of the arcs of these blades.

To prevent runoff of water flow or wind on the concave sides of the blades 2 in their course work from far distant points 8 to the one closest to the axis of rotation to the point 9 and the last is 2 and the fall of the efficiency and effectiveness of the drum, on the concave sides of the blades 2 are mounted boom 10 for the entire length of the blades on the external blades in six points, starting with the one closest to the axis of rotation, and then in five inner points, resulting in the separation of the blades 2 into six equal segments; on the inner blades 2 only four points, starting with the one closest to the axis of rotation, and then at three points, resulting in the separation of the blades into four equal segments. Boom 10 is equal to or somewhat larger, and the inner blades 2 two medium can be less of chord lengths of each segment and directed at an angle of approximately 55othe chords of each segment so that the sockets 11 between segments and barriers 10 directed towards the flow of water or wind when working stroke of the blades 2. Due to this inclination of the barrier 10 when working stroke of the blades 2, water flows or wind primarily affect distant from the axis of rotation of the segments and the boom 10 and does not flow down the concave sides of the blades 2 to the middle of the drum and there is useless not break, when reverse motion of the blades 2 speed flow of water or air is equal to the speed of the water flow or wind plus the speed of movement of the blades 2 due to the rotation of the drum and do the blades 2 and the barrier and the next convex side before turning on the power stroke, and this reduces the braking force of the water flow or wind reverse blade 2. Thus, the boom 10 increase efficiency, effectiveness and capacity of the drum. They also act as stiffeners, which allows manufacturing of the blade is extremely thin sheets of metal and to reduce the weight of the drum. In General serves to stamp segments of the blades together with the corresponding barrier 10 as a single unit and assemble the outer blades 2 of the six parts, and the inside of the four relevant parts.

In the example of Fig. 4 shows the blade 2 when the angles between the radii, which are far or near to the axis of the pivot point of the respective outer and inner blades 2 not equal 90o, 60oclockwise. While others point 9 of the outer blades 2 are placed from the axis of rotation of 2/3 or 1/2 of the distance from the far point 8. Far point 8 of the inner blades are located on the same radii as the near point 9 adjacent the outer blades, but at 1/3 closer to the axis of rotation. Near to the axis of rotation 9 of the inner blades 2 are the radii at an angle of 60oclockwise from radii distant points 8 and 1/2 or 2/3 of the distance from the OS is at the extreme points 8 and 9 of these arcs or 3/4. On the concave sides of the blades 2 are mounted boom 10, six external and four internal angle of approximately 55oto the chord of each segment.

In small diameter reels, as shown in Fig. 1, the outer blades is offset from the adjacent outer blades 90oclockwise and such blades in a circle turns 4, similarly, the inner lobe is offset from the adjacent inner blades 90oclockwise and such blades is too 4. With increasing diameter of the drum is offset from the adjacent blades provided 60o45oclockwise, as in Fig. 2 and 3, and 30othe last is not shown. In the last three cases of adjacent blades overlap each other, the number of external and internal: at 60o6, at 45o8 when 30o12 pieces, in the last two cases, the inner blades provides not install, because of their efficiency significantly decreases. When the angle between the radii of extreme points of the blade is not 90oand the 60othe same offset of the blades from each other 60o(not shown), 45o(of Fig. 4) and 30o(not shown) in a clockwise direction and the number of blades, respectively, 6, 8 and 12 pieces€.

On drums with the specified configuration and placement of the blades in the holders of the flow of water or wind can come from any side, but they will rotate clockwise. To rotate counterclockwise enough to turn over the top to make the bottom, bottom-top.

In the examples of execution of the power unit for selecting the energy of water flow (Fig. 5) and wind energy (Fig. 6) drums consist of shafts 1 and three sections of the holders 3 and not shown, but implied blades 2, mounted parallel to the shaft. Next, the structure of the power unit are lower bearings 4, the base 5 of the power unit, United for sustainability grounds adjacent power units, generators 12, mechanisms 13 power transmission spins the generators 12, the upper bearings 6 design 7 connecting the power unit 6 with the adjacent power units for their sustainability, the cables 14, the discharge of electricity from the generators to the blocks in which it is converted, summed up many of the power unit, synchronized with the existing network for transmission to the network. Gidroenergoproekt is installed on the bottom 15, vetroenergoparka on the ground or the roof of the building 16. Gidroenergoproekta, Fig. 5, dobavlyautsya bearing 18, through which passes the shaft 13 of the transmission energy of rotation of the drum in the generator 12, the lower holder 19 of the capsule 17, the bearing 20 through which the holder 19 is attached to the shaft 1 of energy extraction. At sufficiently reliable attachment of the capsule 17 to the structure 7 of the lower holder 19 and the bearing 20 can be omitted. Finally, in winter, the surface water flows can be installed ice.

For ease of maintenance, repair and replacement of gidroenergoproekta placed at the bottom (Fig. 5) the generator 12 in a sealed capsule 17 is placed above the drum, and vetroenergoparka (Fig. 6) the generator is placed below the drum.

When placing gidroenergoproektom along the river banks (Fig. 7), so as not to impede navigation, take into account that the river closer to the middle is stronger, in accordance with the flow direction at the right Bank are the drums, rotating clockwise, the left counterclockwise. One feature 21 is shown connecting the adjacent gidroenergoproekta for the stability of the lower base and the upper structure. Because these units generators are located above the drum, the upper structures of the EPR is W cable 14, whereby the electric power from the generator is passed to the block 22, where it is converted, merged from different units, synchronized with the existing three-phase network 23 and then transmitted to the network 23 to the consumers. In Fig. 7 also shows the Bank 24 of the river.

In Fig. 8 schematically shows the placement of gidroenergoproektom at the bottom along the shore 24 navigable Bay, which regularly occur and tides. In the same way as in Fig. 7, one line is shown connecting to the stability of neighbouring gidroenergoproekta lower base 5 and the upper structure 7. Next, as in the previous case.

In Fig. 9 shows the placement of vetroenergoparka on the hill, the contours of which are delineated by winding line 25. One feature is shown connecting to the stability of neighbouring vetroenergoparka lower base 5 and the upper structure 7. Because these units generators are located below the drums, the cables 14 from the generators are laid on the lower grounds 5 or on the ground, the electric power supplied to the block 22, where, as in the previous cases, converted, summarized from different units, synchronized with the current network 23 and then transmitted to the network users.

For selection of a virtually unlimited amount of energy of the sea and ocean currents are created the platform on which are mounted several gidroenergoproektom. In Fig. 11 shows a section of one of the platforms 27, along which placed 5 gidroenergoproektom with drums indicated construction of three sections. Specified shafts 1 selection energy, disk holders 3 of the blade 2 with the implied, but anacanthini blades, mechanism 13 power transmission spins the generators 12. The upper part of the shaft 1 is equal to the height of the platform 27 so that under the pressure of the flow of the drums were out of the platform 27. To prevent slipping of the drums from the platform 27 down in the upper parts of the shaft 1 within the platform 27 has two burl top and bottom, which are fixed in the upper and lower bearings 4 and 6, and stable rotation of the drums. Lower bearings 4 are sealed. The upper part of the shaft 1, the bearing mechanisms of energy transfer and the generators are placed in the compartments with sealed bulkheads 28, which provide additional rigidity to the platform 27 and its buoyancy in the water breakthrough in any of the compartments. In the bulkheads 28 for the passage of repairmen are sealed for the Oia underwater vehicles with staff and pass into the platform 27 is provided hydrolys. To decrease the buoyancy of the platform 27 and facilitate its dive to the desired depth so as not to impede navigation, the platform 27 is provided with ballast tanks 29. To hold the platform at a certain depth and a certain place it is attached to the bottom 15 of the sea or the ocean with the help of cables 30 and anchors 31. For the dive platform 27 to the desired depth, in addition to pumping water in the ballast tanks 29, is pulling up to the anchors 31 four cables 30 via installed in a special compartment at the corners of the platform 27 of the four winches 32, which, if necessary, by otmuchivanie with them ropes allow 30 to ascend the platform 27 for a complete inspection and repair of the platform 27 and its equipment. In the complete displacement of water from ballast tanks 29 is provided such buoyancy of the platform 27, which allows you to pull up to her anchor 31 using winches 32 for subsequent towing of the platform 27 to the right place. The surface of the sea or ocean is marked by the numeral 33.

As an example in Fig. 12 shows the placement of four platforms 27, each of which has 15 gidroenergoproektom, electricity from generators through cables 14 is collected in one place one of the closest to the shore PL is euskotren to build factories and then towed to the installation site. The dimensions of the platform and, accordingly, the amount of received energy is limited by the strength of structural materials and the capabilities of the factory and tugs. To reduce friction on the water, protection from corrosion and marine organisms drums and platforms have a special coating.

Thus, it is proposed the drum to generate electricity in an environmentally friendly way from the natural processes of water flow and wind - and in such volumes that will cover a significant portion of the need and will to a large extent to abandon the harmful nature of nuclear, thermal, dams and power plants. The drum is simple in construction and reliable in operation. The mass production of such drums in sizes, depending on hydro power(wind)power units.

1. Drum for selecting the energy of water flows and wind, with vertical shaft impaled on him cylindrical partitions of disk holders and profiled blades mounted between holders parallel to the axis of the shaft and placed in two rows on the outer and inner concentric circles, wherein the blades have a profile of an arc, PE relative to the first radius clockwise 90owhile the first point of the arc of the blades, located on the outer perimeter coincides with the extreme point of the radius, and the second extreme point is located at a distance equal to half the radius of the first extreme point of the arc of the blades of the inner circle is located on the same radius as the second extreme point of the previous arc blade outer circumference, but closer to the axis, and the second at a distance from the axis equal to half the distance between the axis and the first point, in addition, the radius of the arcs of the blades of the outer and inner circumferences equal to three-quarters of the length of the chord of this arc, and the arc of the blades of one row are displaced one relative to another in a clockwise direction by an angle equal to or 90oor 60oor 45oor 30o, the blades are provided with fences made on the concave side of the arc equally spaced one relative to another, with the first from the axis of the boom coincides with the second extreme point of the arc, boom set at an angle of 55oto the chord of the segment of the arc between two adjacent barrier, and their height is equal to or greater than the length of the chord of the blade outer circumference has six booms and blades inner circle four booms, with sockets, obrazovan the energy of water flows and wind, with vertical shaft impaled on him cylindrical partitions of disk holders, and profiled blades mounted between holders parallel to the axis of the shaft and placed in two rows on the outer and inner concentric circles, wherein the blades have a profile of an arc, the first extreme point which is located on the same radius of the disk holder, and the second on the radius, rotated relative to the first radius clockwise through an angle of 60owhile the first point of the arc of the blades, located on the outer perimeter coincides with the extreme point of the radius, and the second extreme point at a distance equal to two third of the radius, or half the radius, the first extreme point of the arc of the blades of the inner circle is located on the same radius as the second extreme point of the previous arc blade outer circumference, but closer to the axis, and the second at a distance from the axis equal to two third or half of the distance between the axis and the first point of the arc, in addition, the radius of the arcs of the blades of the outer and inner circumferences equal to the length of the chord of this arc, and the arc of the blades of one row are displaced one relative to another in a clockwise direction by an angle equal to or 60oor 45ooto the chord of the segment of the arc between two adjacent barrier, and their height is equal to or greater than the length of the chord of the blade outer circumference has six booms and blades inner four, with the sockets formed by the fence and cut the arc disclosed towards the first extreme point of the arc.

 

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