A method of manufacturing the construction unit and construction of a cage adapted to be filled by the filler for obtaining a building block (options)
(57) Abstract:The invention proposes to use a checkered design of wire mesh for making of building blocks used in construction, reinforcing works, walls, etc. Crate revet geotextile material that allows the passage of water through it, but not of such a material in the form of powder, such as cement, sand mixture, which is used as a material for filling the stands. The invention describes new forms of cellular structures, and that the finished blocks can be coated with the curable synthetic resin to hide the grid and receive a decorative surface treatment. 3 C. and 24 C.p. f-crystals, 16 ill. The present invention relates to building and strengthening the structures in the form of blocks and, in particular, applies to the construction reinforcing blocks which contain metal wire cage filled with ballast material.Some of these structures known as "gabion" and contain essentially the cage of wire mesh, forming a configuration in the form of building blocks that fill rocks, stone and cobblestone, etc. mate is th in this regard, the stone is usually processed and placed in the wall so that he had the appearance of higher quality, because often the stone surface is left exposed. Gabions are widely used to strengthen the embankment, for example, near the highway, or for the establishment of marine barrier or etc.Although gabions are made of cages made of wire mesh filled with stones and other cobblestone, in fact, they become solid blocks that can be used for building, strengthening of the mountain slopes, embankments, walls or similar structures.However, the way of filling the cages of wire mesh when using stone is expensive and in addition when filling the stands require a significant investment of time and effort. Apparently according to the usual method of construction required a rock and another rock, because otherwise the material could simply passes through the cell cage of wire mesh.The closest technical solution of the invention is a method for manufacturing the building blocks, including transportation to the place of manufacture of the cage from realm (1).The closest known design stand adapted for filling a filler for obtaining a building block that contains the inner side of the lining material mesh panel connected for folding to form the stand and place on a plane (1).This method and structure inherent in all the above disadvantages are eliminated in the present invention.In the present invention proposed a method of manufacturing the building blocks embodiments of the design of the cage, adapted for filling with a filler to obtain a building block that can be used as gabion and for other purposes, in accordance with which, as the ballast material can be used more loose powder flowable material such as sand, concrete, ash and mine waste rock and fine powder filler, either individually or in combination with other material, without the drawback inherent in the known gabion structures, and also give the ability to quickly move structure formed on the working platform, possessing the requisite strength and, in accordance a block, includes transportation to the place of manufacture crates of mesh panels, the fusion cage in the form of a block and filling the cage at least partially of particulate material, characterized in that the cage is transported to the place of manufacturing folded, and the fusion cage is carried out by expanding the opposite panels from each other.In one variant embodiment design stand adapted for filling a filler for obtaining a building block that contains the inner side of the lining material mesh panel connected for folding to form the stand and place on a plane, and differs in that the panel is connected with the possibility of moving crates from stow position in the straightened when razdevanie opposite panels from each other. Flexible facing material may contain a flexible fabric, plastic film or metal foil, or a laminated material or combination of materials, but in any case it just forms a protective layer, in accordance with which the ballast is held inside mesh gabion even if the ballast material is somewhat loose and particle size matched with the m or construction rag cardboard or similar material, after installation in the crate becomes hard.The cladding material may be attached on the inner side panels for folding for folding crates from stow position in straightened. The cage may have a base, side and end wall forming in the straightened position stand of rectangular configuration, with the approval of the cage one edge pivotally connected with the lower edge of one side wall, and side and end walls hinged vzaimosoedineniy at the corners of the crate. The cage can be provided with an intermediate dividing walls extending between the side walls.The side walls of the cage may be formed of panels pivotally connected along the vertical edges with the possibility of inserting the cage accordion and melting with the formation of a number of cavities, covered inside the cladding material. The cladding material may be a geotextile felt.Thanks to this technical solution, when using the invention for gabion cages flexibility used gabion structures is significantly improved by significantly increasing the range of ballast materials, kotoroe, for example, the processed stone.In order to further improve the quality of the gabion in accordance with the present invention, when installed in its working position it can pollinate or cover curable synthetic composition, for example, the composition of the complex polyester or epoxy resin to completely cover the wire mesh to prevent corrosion from the polluted atmosphere, and this polymer composition can be provided with or not provided with a reinforcing fiber and/or dye to improve the overall result. Such polymeric material after curing can be used for energy fastening to checkered designs of wire mesh and a protective layer, in particular, when the protective layer is a prepreg, resulting in the fact gabion disappears from view and creates a accepted appearance. The application of synthetic resin can be produced by sputtering or a similar method, and the resin can be used in any desired quantity. The protective layer may be in nature absorbent so that he could penetrate at least part of resin.Cage gabion technically possible instance, but it is preferable to fill the gabions in place and then cover them when you install.The invention is also applicable to the receipt of concrete structures such as foundations, ring beams, columns, bases and, as a rule, any design or construction, including concrete or economically material, with steel rebar or without it, and when using the present invention in this respect, it is possible to exclude using commonly concrete formwork.When casting concrete structures it is necessary to make the formwork, which can be made in the form of boards or plates forming configured to fill with concrete cavity in order to form the final design. The manufacture of such formwork requires time and is costly, and in case of use for formwork timber that is most accepted, for the erection of the formwork before pouring concrete requires continuous skilled personnel from among carpenters.Concrete foundations are widely used in the construction of buildings, especially tall buildings, such as blocks of institutions, and these foundations must be installed in the ground, usually below Brooke extraction of soil for the construction of such foundations erection of formwork below ground level (ground) complicated.In any way the construction of gabion structures from a number of panels at the site of erection or of blanks that need to be folded gabion construction has the disadvantage that the connection of the panels together at the site of erection is undesirable when it requires power supply at the site of erection and secondly, when the crate fill the filling material has an external pressure on the joints and side surfaces, which, if the connection formed inappropriately, causing the destruction of the stand and the unit can be folded.In accordance with the first aspect of the invention provides a method of manufacturing a building block at the site of erection, which contains the transportation crate panels of wire mesh in place of erection, straightening of the cage to form a block and filling the cage at least partially crushed material, characterized in that the cage is transported to the place of erection of the folded and stand right by expanding the opposite panels from each other.In one variant embodiment of the invention, the method includes additional steps of stacking an elastic sheet of sheathing material on the VNITI. The provision of the cladding material on the inner walls of the cage allows the use of the ground material which has a particle size smaller than the gap between the panels of wire mesh, while the cladding material prevents the passage of the crushed material through the gaps in the panels of wire mesh. Thus, the invention can be filled with powdered material, for example, building soil and concrete.In one form of cladding material presents geo-textile felt material, or alternatively, used cladding material is a fibrous material impregnated with synthetic resin, which cures to a solid state after the sheet material placed on the inner surface of these panels stand.In order to ensure that the loss of fill material from the construction of the cage is a minimum sheathing material is placed so as to cover each inner surface of the panel of wire mesh.Preferably, one would not have used cladding material, the cladding material to the cage to attach with clamps that prematerial is placing it on the panels of the crate, when they are in or before placing them in the folded condition, and location of sheet materials regarding the design of the cage is such that straight from the crate, when it was transferred to the straightened state.In one embodiment, the embodiments use the crate with in the straightened condition of rectangular configuration with side and end walls and base, the latter being pivotally connected at one edge to the lower edge of one of the side walls, and side walls and end walls hinged mutually connected at the corners of the crate. In addition, use the crate and provide intermediate walls of the panels of wire mesh, which provide between the panels which form the side walls of the cage, thus, stands to create an array of cavities to fill, when it is in a straightened condition.In another variant embodiment, the cage includes a divider panel, the hinge vzaimodeistvie panels forming the side walls, and these panels forming the side walls of the cage, pivotally interconnected along the vertical edges for folding crate accordion and straightening to limit hexagonal p is part of the design of the cage would be pivotally connected with the opposite vertical edges of the side walls and flexible traction cable would pass through walls and connected with them, and stand upright least those that pull the rope to explode the walls and sequentially arrange the panel side walls. Providing a traction cable allows the cage to be transferred from a folded state to an upright state by the pulling action of the cable to expand and straighten all mutually connected panels.Typically, panels of wire mesh cages are made of metal rods or wires, which are secured at their intersections, and panels of wire mesh is preferably made of parallel metal rods, placing them at right angles to each other.The design of the stand of the present invention can be filled with a variety of materials, preferably a material selected from the group consisting at least of: sand, gravel, aggregate, concrete, stones, slate.In one variant embodiment, once the crate is filled with powdered material, the upper part of a wall unit filled with soil to plant him in plants.If the crate is filled with concrete to reinforce the concrete block in it embed the reinforcing rods.An additional step in the formation of the design, the AK only crate filled with powdered material, spraying synthetic resinous material.In the second aspect of the present invention provides the design of a cage adapted to be filled with the filling material in order to provide a building block, and this design stand contains panels of wire mesh having on the inner side of the sheathing material, and adapted to be folded to form a stand and spread out on a plane, wherein the panel connecting to translate the cage from the folded state to an upright state when moving opposite panels in spaced position.Cladding material is preferably attached to the inner side panels to fold when the crate is transferred from a folded condition into a straightened.In one variant embodiment, the stand has a base, end and side walls that form a rectangular configuration in the straightened condition of the stand and with it the basis of a stand pivotally connected at one edge to the lower edge of one of the side walls, the side and end walls hinged mutually connected at the corners of the cage.In the second variant embodiment crate predusted stand to be in the straightened condition, crate restricts many cavities for filling the filling material.Typically, these side walls of the cage formed by the panels, the hinge mutually connected along vertical edges for folding crate accordion and straightening to limit the number of cavities, covered inside the cladding material, and in one variant embodiment of the sheathing material is essentially a geo-textile felt.In the third aspect of the present invention the design of the cage to provide a building block adapted to be filled with the filling material, which contains panels of wire mesh, which form at least the side walls and the end wall and is connected to stack to form a stand for placing on a plane, characterized in that the panel is connected with the ability of the transfer cage from the deflated state to an upright state to limit at least one cavity for a placeholder, by pulling the opposite panels in spaced position.In one variant embodiment design stands characterized in that the cage comprises a pair of side walls and a pair of end walls which ball edge to the lower edge of one of the side or end walls.In alternative embodiments of the structures stand has a divider panel located between the side walls and pivotally connected with them.The side walls of the cage is preferably formed with panels, hinged vzaimosoedinenii along the vertical edges for folding crate accordion, and, in addition, the cage provide transverse partitions, pivotally connected to opposite vertical edges of the panels and side walls, and a divider panel are mutually connected via a flexible traction cable in order to straighten the crate. The design of the stand can be moved into a flat state in which the unit can be folded accordion and include a flexible cable, which is connected to the dividing panel and which serves as a means for the erection of a structure stands by providing the pulling force applied to the specified cable for education form, limited multiple rows of podklady.Using the preferred gabion cage structure proposed in accordance with the present invention, the sides of the gabion cage pivotally interconnected in Zavodski what I crate can be folded by relative rotation of the lateral sides, in the form of a parallelogram, and the base can be folded over the folded in the same plane as the sides.If the cage has internal partitions, they can also be pivotally connected to opposite lateral sides when the crate is made in the factory. Due to the production stand in the factory it is easier to ensure that the imposed clamp will be used effectively in order to properly perform the function of holding the lateral side of the gabion cage together.At the construction site of the crate simply assembled by folding the base and move the sides in the assembled state. The remaining lateral side of the base can be pressed against the other sides of the gabion cage structure, if necessary, but as will be clear from the nature of the filling of the crates, the connection between the edges of the base and the sides do not need to be as strong as the connection between adjacent lateral sides and panel partitions.Gabion cage may also be provided with a top panel, the same size base, but pivotally connected at manufacturing factory in usaviagra version of this cage in cage designs many pivotally interconnected side panels form the side walls, and the side wall panel connected by partitions, which are connected with them articulated, and cage design can move in Spasenie a condition in which the side panels are folded similarly concentric, and for panel partitions attached flexible cord, which serves as a means of erecting a cage structure by pulling the cord in order to cause the transformation stands in configuration, formed by many under-stands that are installed in a row.Gabion cage made in accordance with this side of the invention, in fact, do not require on-site installation of the power tool to overlay the connecting clamps as used clamps that connect the base and the sides and cover the sides, if available, may apply to the clamps (clips) of the type which impose manually.Another advantage of the crate according to this aspect of the present invention is that the cage can be manufactured in the factory with a panel partitions. The usual construct gabion cage requires that there were panel partitions, United in place.In troliruemoj conditions, for example, in the factory, so that it is flattened or compressed minimal form, and then can be translated in an assembled state in place and be filled with the receipt of strengthening or building structure or similar structures, with gabion cage structure is characterized by the fact that in the folded or compressed its side walls are folded like a concertina.Cage design can be used in combination with a flexible element, such as a rope or cable connected to respective panels of the structure in order to limit the extent to which it can be opened, so that, for example, open in the checkered design is to have a specific form.Flexible element if there is preferably attached to the panel walls in order to limit the extent to which they can move separately when tapered design moves from a folded or compressed state in a fully open position.The cellular structure is preferably associated with the lining membrane, and preferably the membrane is a lining material adjacent to the aqueous material, which is adjacent to the inner sides of the side panels and hold on the length of the structure. In this regard, the panel partitions must be paired with side panels with a tool that goes through the cushioning strip.The panel is preferably made of open wire mesh. Such fastening means may, as described above, to enable the clamp or similarBlocks provided by the present invention can be used for the purpose of strengthening the soil and the deposition of the polymeric composition will provide an attractive wall surfaces. Alternatively, the blocks can be used for the construction of barricades, temporary buildings, temporary camps for prisoners of war, shelters for protection from enemy attacks, naval fortification and any of a large number of building structures that can be created using building blocks.Flexible protective layer when it is used to separate the filler from the cage structure can be any suitable material, but we have found that the most suitable non-woven felt material geotextile character. In Fig. 1 shows a vertical section view in axonometric ity in accordance with the idea of the present invention; in Fig. 3, 4 and 5 illustrate the method of manufacture of the gabion in accordance with the invention using pre-manufactured blanks; Fig. 6 illustrates how the gabion provided by the present invention, may be covered with decorative, protective apertures; Fig. 7 illustrates a spiral clamp used to connect panels, gabion cage, shown in Fig. 2; Fig. 8 is an axonometric image stand device according to another variant of the present invention; Fig. 9 illustrates the crate shown in Fig. 8 in perspective, with partial filling with concrete; Fig. 10 shows a concrete structure manufactured using the stand depicted in Fig. 8; Fig. 11 illustrates the crate, useful in the manufacture of concrete in the beam or block form in Fig. 12 demonstrates cage design, shown in Fig. 11, in an alternate position; Fig. 13 and 14 show how the crate shown in Fig. 11, can be folded in a flattened condition; Fig. 15 is a view in plan of the gabion cage structure according to another variant of the invention, which moves from splistitem design, is depicted in Fig. 1, in the assembled state.According Fig. 1 known gabion 10 made in the form of solid blocks, limited stands 12 of metal wire mesh, which are stones 14 and the other ballast. The filling of the crates when the panels of wire mesh has such dimensions that it will not pass through the mesh of the cage. Wire cages can be coated or covered with protective plastic.The use of gabions for wall structures, fortification walls, barricades, coastal bearings are well known. The use of gabions effectively suppresses erosion and they are particularly suitable for the stabilization and strengthening of embankments. Gabion cages filled on site with the use of relatively unskilled labor, but they still require filling stones are quite large in size. Gabions have the advantage that they do not have really no flexibility to allow some movement and change of shape should lead to local slow subsidence. Their strength and integrity of the saved. Gabion in addition are porous, and therefore, usually there is no need for the inclusion of drainage systems.
FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.
SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.
EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.
3 cl, 3 dwg