Hammer stamp berkutov
(57) Abstract:Usage: metal forming, particularly in forging and stamping production. The stamp contains the upper and lower halves, each of which consists of a body and a shank. In the transition zone between the shoulder of the body punch and shank made a hollow in the form of grooves. The fillet has an undercut in the side of the shank. The side edge of the bucket from the side of the shank is placed in the zone of contact of the shaft with the mounting wedge at a distance from the shoulder h = (0,09 - 0,15) h, where h is the height of the shank. The angle of inclination of the plane of symmetry of the bucket to the plane of the shoulder, is a 12 - 68o, 2 C. p. F.-ly, 9 Il. The invention relates to the field of metal forming and can be used in the forging die production companies.Famous stamp on author. St. USSR 988.437 class. 21 J 13/02, 1983.The disadvantage of this stamp is a high stress concentration in the region of the shank fillets arising from the impact of the stamp and at the same time along the boundary of the project location, surface area of the side inclined plane of the shank with the mounting wedge. Side fillets occur compressive and rastegnite double the concentration of stresses in two nearly perpendicular directions. The combination of high values of dynamic compressive stresses, the changing cycle is close to toleva /that is characteristic of the cycle equal to 0/ s tensile stress in the region of the bevel of the wedge creates a very unfavorable mode of work die steel, which leads to the formation of cracks at low-cycle loading and to the complete destruction of the body or shank.The technical result achieved the claimed technical solution is to reduce the mechanical stresses in the contact and the contact zones of the shaft with a wedge and a shank with stampadigitale /opposite to the wedge side/.This improves durability of the stamp due to the substantial reduction of cracks in these areas of low cycle fatigue when the stamp.The technical result is achieved by the fact that Molotov die comprising upper and lower halves, each of which includes housing, shaft type "swallow's tail" consisting of a constricted lateral slanted reference plane and inclined to her side surfaces and chamfers in the form of longitudinal grooves in the areas of the pair of side faces of the shank and shoulder hull with undercut in the side>where the value of the undercut fillets in the direction of the shank,
B width of the shank of the narrowed part,
stthe yield stress of the material of the stamp,
E is the modulus of elasticity of the material of the stamp,
when the bucket is oriented so that the lateral edge of their side of the shank is located within the project area of contact of the shaft with the mounting wedge at a distance from the shoulder defined by the value of
h = h(0,09-0,15)
and the angle of inclination of the plane of symmetry of the bucket to the side of the plane of the shank adopted within 12 68o.where Dh is the distance from the shoulder to the side edge of the bucket from the side of the shank,
h shank height (distance from the reference plane of the shank to the shoulder of the body),
the angle of inclination of the plane of symmetry of the bucket to the side of the plane of the shank,
the chamfers stamp is preferably within the recessed portion of the cross-section along the curve representing the portion of the ellipse, the long axis of which is directed towards the undercut in the shank equal to 8 to 16 mm, and the reference plane of the shank is preferably constricted lateral bevels, made in cross-section in the radial curve, and the bevels are associated with a support surface of the quantum side of the plane of the shank with the mounting wedge, this rounding of the bevel of the reference plane of the shank is made on the radius determined from the relation:
< / BR>where r is the radius of the bevel on the side areas from the reference plane of the shank,
h2= h-h distance from the reference plane of the shank to the side edge of the bucket from the side of the shank,
in the width of the support plane of the shank,
= 10 angle of inclination of the side plane of the shank to the vertical.The amount of undercut fillets in the direction of the shank -
< / BR>will not have a significant measurable effect to achieve the technical result (effect), and when
< / BR>there will be a reduction of the cross section of the shank in the area of the fillets (distance between fillets size) that will have the opposite effect reduction achieved technical result.If the side edge of the fillets from the side of the shank will be located from shoulder distance h greater than h(0,09 0,15), the contact area of the lateral inclined planes of the shank of the wedge and stampadigitale on the other hand (see Fig. 2) is reduced so that will increase the probability of failure of the liner due to the increased surface pressure and voltage specified on the ICA can go beyond the edge (border) of the design surface area of the shank with the mounting wedge (see Fig. 9), which may create conditions for the formation of microcracks in the area of the fillets due to the occurrence of rupture (tensile) stresses in the zone of the bucket simultaneously with the decrease in the area of contact with the wedge. So line a1aC1shock top half of the stamp due to the deformation of the shank under the pressure of the wedge and stampadigitale will position a2a1C1. In this line A2a1C1> A1aC1. That is, the initial line of the surface of A1aC1subjected to stretching (elongation) and takes the form of A2a1C1(conditions for the occurrence of discontinuous microcracks on the site AND1a(A2a1). And the more, the closer to point a1(A2).Justification beyond a specified angle .. the Range from 12 to 68onecessary in order for the chosen size of the bucket (depending on the sizes of the stamp) is required to select the optimum sizes of penetration into the bucket in the direction of the shank and toward the shoulder (as if at the same time). Therefore, the narrowing of this range (angle b) in the direction of <68 or >12limit choices indicated the optimum dimensions of the cavities in the side is sterowanie specific sizes of stamps. Increasing the angle outside the specified limits: <12and >68ocannot constructively, since the side edge of the bucket (for example, point "a" in Fig. 8) may go so far that the point "a" on the side plane of the shank will move upward (in the drawing) and the contact area of the shank 2 with the wedge 3 is excessively reduced. This will lead to a significant increase in surface pressure of the wedge 3 shank 2, which will lead to accelerated destruction of the latter.In addition, the implementation of the chamfers on the stamp in this case ethnologica and also inefficient, because it requires high energy costs.With regard to the setting of the side edges of the chamfers far side of the shoulder, in this case (as in the first) ethnologica will be unsustainable production of fillets. Advantages same in both cases, no receive.Execution fillets in cross-section along the curve representing the portion of the ellipse, the long axis of which is directed towards the undercut in the shank and is 8 to 16 mm will provide the most rational formation of the design of the shank in the area of the fillets and will provide the greatest effect. Deviation from these parameters will reduce the amount the bucket toward the undercut in the shoulder (i.e. in the body), the technical result achieved will be reduced due to the large penetration depth of the body (as the probability of crack formation in the area of the fillets from the body will increase because how would breach the integrity of the hull due to the large penetration in him and weakening.In addition, when the undercut in the shank will be sent a short instead of the long axis and the long axis coincides with the symmetry axis of the bucket, it will be difficult to manufacture chamfers, for example, vulcanicola range, as well as a small fillet radius will not allow a sufficiently large Dh is the distance from the shoulder to the side edge of the bucket from the side of the shank and of a sufficient width of the bucket.As technologically complicate the manufacture of the stamp and reduce the technical result, if the bucket to outline in cross-section along a different curve than the ellipse.The execution of the reference plane with the bevels on the side zones, made by radial curve in the cross section of the shank will provide optimally-smooth (tangent) the transition from the reference plane to bevel, which positively with the increase in the technical result will be reflected when the stamp.Execution hostony of the reference plane of the shank will provide the greatest effect on achievement of the technical result of the introduction of the bevels.The implementation of the shank with the output bevel closer to the level of the reference plane than the level of the boundary of the project location, surface area of the side inclined plane with the mounting wedge will reduce the increase in the technical result, as the bevel height from the reference plane will be very small and due to the elastic deformation of the shank at the impact of stamp all reference plane of the shank together with the bevels very quickly in the initial period of time of the process of elastic compression of the shank and stampadigitale will come in contact.The implementation of the shank with the output bevel abroad (in the depth of the project location) surface area of the side surfaces of the shank with the mounting wedge will reduce the actual contact area and increase in the specific pressure and tension in the area of the mounting wedge. This in turn will reduce prochnostyu resistance shank and reduce the technical result of the claimed technical solution. In Fig. 1 shows a General view of a cross section of the stamp (and partly of the mount), in Fig. 2 node I, Fig. 3 the prototype of Fig. 4 7 options specific implementation fillets declared stamp (in relation to the stamp 10-ton hammer. In Fig. 8 shows a diagram of the deformation zones is comencemos the claimed technical solution Molotov stamp. Studies and tests have been carried out in relation to the size of a 10-ton punch. The scale of Fig. 4 7 increased (M 5: 1). Hatch cut stamp in the area of the fillets conventionally not shown.Position labels on the drawings: 1 case stamp; 2 shank; 3 wedge fastening; 4 stampadigitale; 5 hollow (shaped in cross-section) declared stamp; 6 the same for the famous stamp (prototype).In the drawings, the sizes of the cross sections fillets known stamp (prototype) are in mm and they are the same for hammer stamps of all sizes according to GOST 6039-82 (r 8 mm with depth in the casing 2 mm and without cavities in the side of the shank).In Fig. 2 the gap between the shoulder and stampadigitale (and wedge) is specified with a range of 2 to 4 mm According to GOST this size for a 10-ton hammer recommended 4 mm. In practice, there is a desire to reduce the size (gap) up to 3 mm and even up to 2 mm, So in Fig. 4 7 the gap over the shoulder of a stamp in specific examples of implementation adopted respectively 3 and 4 mm in accordance with GOST). In the drawings, the stamp shown with thick lines, thin mating parts of the mount and the dotted lines the position of the fixing wedge, when the shank of the stamp is compressed (the natives compression of the shank shown, when the wedge is embedded in the body of the shank to a depth of 2 mmIn Fig. 4 shows the fillet size in the cross-section of 10 mm and a gap between the shoulder of the die and the wedge (stampadigitale) 3 mmAs you can see, the shape of the bucket in cross section in this example are part of the element circle (which does not contradict the claims, as a circle is a special case of the ellipse, when the long axis is short). Angle = 40. The undercut fillets in the direction of the shank 2 mm, the undercut in the side of the chassis stamp is also taken equal to 2 mmThe level of the lateral edge of the bucket from the shoulder defined by the size of the Dh 7 mmIn Fig. 5 shows the hollow with large dimensions and elements of an ellipse in cross section. While the long axis of the ellipse is equal to 15 mm Gap between the shoulder of the die and the wedge (and stampadigitale) is assumed equal to 4 mm, which corresponds to the state standard for 10-ton hammer. Angle = 40. The undercut fillets in the shank = 3 mm, the undercut in case the same is assumed to be 3 mm, and h = 12 mmIn Fig. 6 shows a hollow cross-section, containing the element circle with a diameter of 8 mm Angle = 12. The undercut in the shank about 2 mm, the undercut in the housing is also 2 mm, and h 11 mmIn Fig. Ravno 2 mm, in the case of 4 mm, angle = 45, a h = 10 mm 10 mmIn Fig. 8 shows a diagram of the deformation zone fillets during shock loads to explain the mechanism of crack formation at a known stamp, and declared the stamp.In Fig. 9 shows a variant that is not approved by the claimed technical solution, when the bucket is oriented so that the lateral edge of their side of the shank (indicated by point "a" in cross section) is located outside the boundaries of the project surface area (boundary indicated by the dot AND1).In Fig. 8 and 9 are considered elastic deformation in the zone of fillets during shock loads to explain the mechanism of formation of cracks in the well-known and declared stamps.When the famous stamp, as proposed, under elastic compression of the shank at the moment of impact of the stamp wedge 3 is embedded in the body of the shank so that the point of the wedge "and"AE moved to the position "a"1A1E1.In the famous stamp shape of the bucket during the driving of the wedge and at the impact of stamp forgings change the position of the line "and"ABC. This line takes the shape of a1A1B1C (point C remains in place).The plot line a1B1C ABC, SL is planned (or actual area of contact with the mounting wedge above the point And the drawing is in compression. If tensile stresses in the zone ABC fillets will adversely affect the material, creating conditions for the formation of micro-and subsequently microtrain, the fact that the voltage below the point a and the above points But also witnessed is frontal junction (compression and extension, respectively) doubly exacerbates the situation, creating a very high stress concentration at the point A. If the stress analysis was also taken into account and stress in the vicinity of point And created impact loads from stampadigitale, which are directed almost along the side surfaces of the shank.Consider what happens with the deformations in the claimed stamp (Fig. 8).The shape of the bucket before deformation "and"A1C1go to the line a1A2C1. As can be seen from the drawing the line "a"1A2C1and A1C1therefore, dangerous from the point of view of the stress concentration area of the bucket and1C1is compressed in the claimed stamp (not a stretch, as in the famous stamp).As the project (and actual) the contact area of the shank 2 with the mounting wedge 3 from point "a" and above will occur only compressive stresses from the action of the wedge and only shinegene fracturing will actually act two factors: tension compression who endures the material of the stamp (rather than the tensile stresses) and odnoznachnoi voltage at point "a" and the whole line a1A2C1. At point C1will be linear stress state, because at this point will be valid only compressive stresses from stampadigitale.In Fig. 9 shows a variant (not recommended) for the case when the stamp is made so that the side edge of the bucket (a) is below a1.The point of the wedge will move from a & E to the a2and E1in the direction of the shank.For said punch line a1and1move into position AND2a1C1(dashed line). Since the length AND2a1C1will be somewhat greater than the length of the line AND1aC1. This means that near point a2the material will experience stretching from the action of the wedge on the shank, that is, you will experience tensile stresses. But these stresses are much less than for the well-known prototype of the stamp. As all the same for the proposed stamp will occur even if only small, but tensile stresses, the stamp (Fig. 9) and is not recommended.The expected increase article The manufacture of the stamp, including fillets, perhaps by cutting. But the bucket in the areas of transition from the shoulder of the stamp to the shank can be manufactured on machines using vulcanologia circle. 1. Hammer stamp mainly for three-dimensional hot stamping, containing upper and lower halves, each of which includes housing, shaft type "swallow's tail" consisting of a constricted lateral slanted reference plane and inclined to her side surfaces and chamfers in the form of longitudinal grooves in the areas of the pair of side surfaces of the shank and shoulder hull with undercut in the side of the latter, characterized in that the amount of undercut fillets in the direction of the shank is defined by a ratio
< / BR>where
the amount of undercut fillets in the direction of the shank;
B width of the shank of the narrowed part;
stthe yield stress of the material of the stamp;
E modulus of elasticity of the material of the stamp,
when the bucket is oriented so that the lateral edge of their side of the shank is located within the project area of contact of the shaft with the mounting wedge at a distance from the shoulder defined by the value h = h(0,09-0,15), and the angle of inclination of the plane C is Chica to the side edge of the bucket from the side of the shank, h the height of the shank from the shoulder, the angle of inclination of the plane of symmetry of the bucket to the side of the plane of the shank.2. Stamp on p. 1, characterized in that the cross-section of the fillets in the area of the undercut formed by the surface forming which is part of an ellipse, the long axis of which is directed towards the undercut in the shank and is 8 to 16 mm3. Stamp on p. 1, characterized in that the side bevels of the reference plane of the shank is made in the section on radial curve, and the bevels are associated with a support surface on a tangent, but the lateral inclined surfaces of shank they come out at the level of the boundaries of the project area of contact of the side plane of the shank with the mounting wedge, with rounded bevels reference plane of the shank is made on the radius determined from the relation
< / BR>where r is the radius of the bevel on the side areas from the reference plane of the shank;
h2= h-h distance from the reference plane of the shank to the side edge of the bucket from the side of the shank;
b width of the support plane of the shank;
10othe angle of the lateral plane of the shank to the vertical.
FIELD: metal working.
SUBSTANCE: hard alloy matrix has casing, bushing pressed in the case and hard alloy insertion. Bushing has multifaced hole. Hard alloy insertion is composed by several sections made in form of trapezoidal-section prisms which have cut angles at their non-working edges. Number of sections corresponds to number of faces of item to be headed. Cuts of angles are made symmetrically to faces of working edge. Slits are made in several places of multifaced hole bushing at the ponts where faces cross each other.
EFFECT: improved resistance of matrix; simplified assembly.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: forging and forming processes and equipment, namely manufacture of elongated forgings with thickened portions and lateral branches.
SUBSTANCE: die set includes deforming punch, die with vertical parting, struts in the form of truncated pyramids having wedge-shaped slopes for mounting die; units for securing struts to supporting plate. Die is placed in struts with possibility of motion relative to them. Struts have double-sided mutually opposite slopes. Elastic member is placed under die. Maximum compression value of said elastic member by means of effort corresponding to effort of clamping die halves in struts is equal to value of descending die at forging process.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and rigidity of die set.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly operations for finish working of forgings of double-end box nut wrenches.
SUBSTANCE: die set includes upper and lower plates with guiding columns, punch for punching operation mounted on upper plate, stripper, lower die for punching, half-open trimming lower die and trimming punch. Trimming lower die is mounted on upper plate; it has cutting edge and cavity arranged behind collar of cutting edge and designed for freely placing forging of nut wrench. Trimming punch is mounted on lower plate and it has embracing supporting surface for fixing forging at trimming and straightening operations.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of forging.
9 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals with use of intensive plastic deformation, production of nano-crystalline materials with improved mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: die set includes band in which cone insert having several parts is pressed; lower support; inlet and outlet ducts; ram. According to first variant of invention contours of parts of cone insert are restricted by means of two mutually normal planes and cone surface portion cut by said planes. Crossing line of said planes does not coincide with symmetry axis of cone surface. Inlet duct is formed by faces of cone insert parts arranged normally one relative to other and mutually joined; walls of said duct are in the form of portions of said planes. According to second variant of invention contours of cone insert parts are restricted by radius surface, by two mutually crossing planes and portion of cone surface cut by said planes. Crossing planes are mutually normal or they are inclined one relative to other by angle 120°. Axis of radius surface coincides with crossing line of said planes. Faces of cone insert parts are mutually joined; inlet duct is formed by their radius surfaces and outlet duct is formed by radius grooves.
EFFECT: lowered number of parts, reduced consumption of material for making cone insert.
4 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: plastic working of meals, possibly manufacture of hollow parts such as sleeves, tubes, bushes by cold pressing out.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of plastic deforming of blank at translation and rotation of deforming tool; realizing said motions of tool from separate drive units; setting speed of translation less than that of rotation and selecting relation of said speed values less than 2.5.
EFFECT: enhanced manufacturing possibilities of method.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely processes for pressing out shapes of aluminum base alloys, constructions of pressing out tools.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of making blank, heating, hot pressing out of blank through die, heat treatment of shape. At pressing out blank is subjected in upper p[art of die to additional shearing deformations due to twisting it by angle in range 40 - 50° relative to axis of die. Die includes deforming cone, working rectangular collar and outlet zone. Deforming cone has two helical protrusions in the form of trapezium. Upper base of said trapezium is equal to length of rectangle of working collar; its lower base consists 1.5 - 2 of parts of said length value. Rotation angle of upper cross section of protrusion relative to its lower cross section is in range 40 - 50° relative to axis of die. In longitudinal cross section said protrusions are in the form of parabola.
EFFECT: possibility for making rectangular aluminum alloy shapes with enhanced mechanical characteristics and low anisotropy of their properties, improved design of die.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly forging ingots and billets in hydraulic forging presses.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes two holders of upper and lower strikers having inclined surfaces. Said holders are kinematically coupled with two holders of lateral strikers having inclined surfaces corresponding to those of holders of upper and lower strikers. Four strikers are secured to respective holders by means of clamps and tightening studs. Each of upper and lower strikers has two working portions mutually divided by cutout. Each of lateral strikers has one working portion entering cutouts of upper and lower strikers. At least one adjusting plate is placed between holder of lower striker and lower striker. Lower striker is secured to its holder by means of two Г-shaped clamps. Inclined surfaces of said clamps are forced to inclined surfaces of holder of lower striker; riffled surfaces of said clamps are forced to two friction plates arranged on lateral surfaces of lower striker. Pins passing through openings of adjustment plates and entering openings of holder of lower striker are mounted in lower striker.
EFFECT: lowered cost of making tool, reduced time period for readjustment of it.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: plastic working of metal, possibly in forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering plants for making wheels of automobiles and similar articles.
SUBSTANCE: tool includes die, punch, knocking out member with shaped portion, unit for stepped regulation of bottom thickness and height of cup. Said unit is in the form of apparatuses for changing length of punch and depth of die. In upper part of punch female type yoke with through stepped opening is mounted. In upper part of die there is seat whose diameter dimension corresponds to outer diameter of yoke. Depth of die is changed by means of apparatus in the form of flat ring arranged over shaped portion of knocking out member. Apparatus for changing length of punch is in the form of flat round gasket arranged inside yoke over punch. Punch has in its upper portion large-diameter step corresponding to diameter of large step of yoke opening.
EFFECT: possibility for producing by means of one tool semi-finished products of wheels with different combinations of width and thickness values.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: metallurgy; metal plastic working.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in form forging shops of metallurgical and machine-building plant in manufacture of vehicle wheels and like articles. Proposed tool contains die and punch holder with punch and knock-out with shaped part movable relative to die. Punch is enclosed by replaceable round holder with support flat and support surface. Die is provided with socket in upper part whose diameter corresponds to outer diameter of holder, and with support flat. Holder is installed for longitudinal displacement and engagement by its support flat and support surface with support flat of die and with punch holder, respectively. Shaped part of knock-out is made replaceable to provide possibility of making wheels of different type-sizes using one tool.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: plastic metal working with use of intensive plastic deformation, namely manufacture of nano-crystalline materials with improved degree of mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: die set includes slider and plate restricting inlet duct; stationary stop closing inlet duct and restricting together with plate outlet duct; ram and member for knocking out blank. Said member is joined with motion drive unit and it is mounted with possibility of introducing into additional through duct formed in slider. According to first variant of invention at initial position of slider its through duct is arranged in front of outlet duct. Slider may be shifter before starting pressing process by value exceeding size of through duct. According to second variant of invention through duct of slider is arranged in front of outlet duct in lower limit position of slider. Said cone-shape through duct of slider is closed by means of plug pressed-in to it.
EFFECT: improved design providing possibility for extracting last blank out of outlet duct before starting pressing of next lot of blanks.
2 cl, 5 dwg