A method of manufacturing a preform of carbon fibers for composite materials

 

(57) Abstract:

A method of manufacturing a preformed billet of carbon fiber, for example, the workpiece, which is used for the manufacture of a friction disc, which is amenable to compression of the body of carbon fiber or source material carbon fiber pressed into the press until you get the desired thickness, and then treated with special drugs, for example, by means includes a serrated needles and piercing needles, or just sewing threads, which extend essentially the entire thickness of the body, allowing the compressed and processed, thus, the workpiece can be easily removed from the press in a free-standing and compressed state. 22 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a preformed billet of carbon fiber, for example, blanks, which are used for further production of carbon composite materials, and in particular, for the manufacture of parts, such as brake discs made of carbon composite material.

In the manufacture of carbon brake disks by the method of chemical osai the low carbon fibers in the respective clamping device with a subsequent load of waste, thus, the foot carbon fibers in a furnace for chemical vapor deposition. For proper installation of the mounting bracket in the furnace takes some time, but this device is useful area of the furnace, which is undesirable. One of the purposes of the present invention is to provide an improved method of manufacturing a free-standing preformed carbon fiber preform, which does not provide for the use of the above clamping device.

One aspect of the invention a method of manufacturing a preformed carbon fiber preform includes the step of forming the compressible body parts from carbon fiber or from the source material carbon fiber, the step of creating needle means for pressing the body to the desired thickness, the phase of the pressing body and the post-processing step compacted body needle tool, which ensures penetration of the needles essentially the entire thickness of the laminated body, due to which it becomes possible to remove from the pressing means of the workpiece in free-standing and pressed her condition.

If fourmeau is going to be subjected to carbonization, so it was easier to manufacture preformed carbon fiber blank.

It is recommended to use a body consisting of a foot at least 10, preferably 20 layers of carbon fiber or source material carbon fiber. The fibers in each layer can be in the form of fabric or may be in the form of woven fabric. On the other hand, the fiber body can be and not layers, but in some other way. For example, the fiber body can be in the form of three-dimensional arbitrary number or any specified orientation.

As carbon fiber or source material carbon fiber, you can use non-woven oxidized polyacrylonitrile (PAN), for example, in the form of staple fibres and/or continuous filaments. The thickness of the compressible body may be chosen depending on the desired thickness of the final product.

Needle tool may contain jagged needles, which will be forced to penetrate the whole thickness of the laminated body in the process of execution of each of the many igloproshivochnym operations, to allow compressed and preformed workpiece easily and simply leave the press in a free-owls desired thickness of the workpiece can reach at least 50 mm Although the method of flashing with needles of individual layers of material or partially aggregated stop layers of materials already disclosed (see, for example, U.S. patent N 2012671), the authors present invention offers a method of manufacturing a full-scale (in terms of thickness) preformed workpiece, according to which elements, for example, fibers or bundles of fibers that penetrate the entire thickness of the workpiece with the purpose of strong binding with each other all layers or fibers of the three-dimensional not set the number of layers, which gives the opportunity to form a free-standing, i.e. a self-sustaining structure, which during subsequent processing, carbonization and densification phase chemical deposition in the vapour phase does not require the use of any clamping device for retaining its shape and dimensional characteristics.

The process of needle flashing can be done without any lateral movement of the body about the needles in the interval between operations of punching, and therefore, it is guaranteed that during each operation of the punching needle will penetrate in the same areas of the fabric. The end result of this will be obraze.

Processing needles may contain two series of connecting (perforating) operations, and the body can move relative to the needle between the two series broaching operations, through which are formed two rows of thick bundles of fibers, each of which passes essentially through the entire thickness of the preformed workpiece. In the interval between the two connecting operations of the body can change its position on the reverse to the operation of the flashing needles body was carried out from opposite sides of the body. Transverse relative movement can be achieved by the liberation of the body from the compression pressure, so that the body can move relative to the press. On the other hand, there is the possibility to use the element, provided with two series of holes for the needles, which makes it possible to achieve a relative transverse movement between the body and the needle as a result of executing one of a series of broaching operations with needles passing through one series of holes for the needles, with the subsequent movement of the needle relative to this element, to perform the second series of broaching operations, during which the needles pass through the second series overstories are arranged in two rows so to one row of these needles was a part of the body with one hand, and the other row of needles on the opposite side of the same body. Two rows of needles can be positioned so that the operation of the firmware of the body with needles occurred simultaneously. Preferably, the needles of the two series moved essentially in the same direction.

As an alternative to flashing a penetration of the body by jagged needles, the processing stage compacted body needle tool, needle which penetrates essentially the entire thickness of the body may include the operation, the implementation of which some element of carbon or carbon precursor (e.g., with the possibility of subsequent carbonization) or some other material forcibly penetrates essentially the entire thickness of the body. This step processing compressed body with needle tools, needles which penetrate essentially through the entire thickness of the body can be called cross-linking operation, in which the said element is forced successively passes in alternating directions through the entire thickness of the laminated body, usually with a needle or other device, for example, by means of a pneumatic device is breznau form or it may consist of blocking or running stitches.

As mentioned element can be used, for example, continuous filament or staple yarn, but in any case, the element is formed of carbon or capable of carbonizing the fiber, or from another type of fiber, for example, silicon dioxide or silicon carbide. The above item can also be made from ceramic material.

It is preferable that the above item was manufactured from a material that would have a high resistance to any significant deterioration in its core properties in the case of exposure to temperatures above 700oC and better temperature above 1000oC.

The inventors believe that the best element, in particular for use in the operations of a crosslinking type yarn, made from a bundle of carbon fibers, i.e., harness, which is under strong tension of the first breaks with the formation of a thin carbon tape, and then subjected to spinning with the final formation of the yarn. Such bundles of staple yarn are the most acceptable for subsequent operation of the stapling compared with the harness out of the ordinary continuous fibers, because they have a higher ichibyou end yarn disassembles high tensile strength and tear (usually it is 90 to 95% of the strength of the original harness).

Typically, you will use many of the above elements and even more likely that many of these elements will be forced to pass essentially through the entire thickness of the body.

The present invention also provides a method of manufacturing a full-scale (thickness) preformed blanks for carbon brake discs for aircraft, in which one or more elements penetrate through the entire thickness of the workpiece to firmly connect together layers or fibers of the three-dimensional number (which is not formed distinct layers) with the final fabrication of free-standing (i.e. self-sustaining) design, for which, during subsequent processing, carbonization and hardening using, for example, chemical vapor deposition, or using a mixture of resin/charcoal, does not require additional use of a clamping device for holding its shape and dimensional characteristics.

If the body contains various layers of fibers, then at least some of these layers may contain a single sheet, and some layers may contain many parts of the original carbon or carbon fiber material is of which at least one and the optional all layers contain many parts, such as parts in the form of a sector.

Below alternative methods of the present invention will be described only as examples, and the description will be accompanied by references to the drawings, in which:

Fig.1 a vertical section, and acupuncture is capable of piercing the press, which is used by one of the methods of the present invention;

in Fig.2 perspective view of the preformed billet before it is processed by another method according to the present invention.

The press includes a base plate 10, which by means of a lifting mechanism 11 can perform vertical movement between a lower position (indicated in the drawing by dotted lines) and on which is mounted a stack 12 of sheets 14 of the fabric of the source material, and the upper position (indicated on the drawing, solid lines), in which the pressing of the stack 12 opposite the perforated removable plate 16. Over a perforated removable plate 16 is installed with the possibility of vertical movement of the needle plate 18, provided with a large number aligned in the vertical plane jagged needle 19 which pass freely across the movement of the needle plate 18 is used usual power unit (not shown), which makes the needle 19 to pass essentially through the entire thickness of the foot 12. If the base plate 10 is made of steel or other similar material, then you need to set the limit of the vertical movement of the needles, so they stop at a small distance from the surface of the base plate. In addition, the surface of the base plate may be made of a pliable material to allow the needle completely through the stack and enter into a malleable material.

As a specific example, we refer to the variant, when for the manufacture of preformed blanks for carbon brake disc used non-woven material obtained by flashing with needles harness oxidized polyacrylonitrile (PAN) to the base of the oxidized polyacrylonitrile staple fiber. In this case, the layer 34 is cut out in the form of rings with an external diameter of 431 mm and an inner diameter of 133 mm, which are then stacked foot height from 180 to 203 mm and with the possibility of subsequent pressing of this multilayer foot. Then stop extruded between the base plate and a removable plate to press formation, the thickness of the foot 43 mm, using barbed needles, who lowered the base plate of the press, turned foot, re-extruded and did another 150 stamping operations, but from the opposite side. Such operation is repeated for each of the four sides (at least) times with 100 stamping operations until a complete block design. In total it was made 700 stamping operations. Now a free-standing procurement had a thickness of approximately 43 mm and in her condition, it was possible to perform the operation of carbonization. The percentage of fiber volume in this harvest was approximately 30%

In accordance with the above-described method for performing the same operation was the movement of fibers from the upper to the lower surface of the multilayer feet using located on the needles chipping. During execution, each stamping operation, the needle penetrated into the fabric in the same place, and this, in turn, ensured that a large number of fibers will move through the layers of the foot exactly in the penetration of the needles. The movement of the entire foot was excluded due to the fact that the foot is firmly held between the base and the removable plates of the press.

By processing the removal of the needle from the opposite sides is achieved by pulling fibers from both the and the entire workpiece, and re-forming operation in the same location, ensure education and the presence of thick bundles of fibers throughout the thickness of the foot.

According to the second variant of the present invention (see Fig.2) multilayer carbon preformed billet for manufacturing a carbon brake disk 20 contains layers 21 of the non woven material, obtained by sewing with needles harness oxidized PAN to the base of the oxidized POLYACRYLONITRILE staple fiber. In this case, the layer 34 21 cut in the form of rings with an external diameter of 431 mm and an inner diameter of 133 mm, which were placed foot height from about 180 to 203 mm and with the ultimate formation of multilayer compression of the foot rings. Obtained, thus, stop extruded between the guide plates statichnoj machine to a thickness of 43 mm was Then sew the pressed foot, whereby during the operation of stitching the annular stop revolved around its main axis 22 with the final formation of multiple extending around the periphery of the stitch lines, each of which custom made filament yarn completely through the foot of the 34 layers. After slivochnoi operations preformed billet could free the yarn had a weight of 800 denier and belonged to the type of yarn, which industry produces under the name of the XAS Gravitex Geltru (produced by "Courtjudges fibres, Ltd.); these strands of yarn are formed from carbon fiber, which when a certain tension is broken with the formation of a thin carbon tape then spun into yarn.

Resulting from all operations free-standing preformed workpiece has a thickness of approximately 43 mm, which is then subjected to a carbonization process in this form. The percentage of the presence of fibers in the procurement volume is approximately 30%

Received via any of the methods described above stapling or processing needles preformed workpiece can be subjected to the carbonization process, during which there is shrinkage of the fibers and even more strengthening the structure of the workpiece. This billet for manufacturing a brake disc can be processed without the use of any clamping devices, for example, to compress the workpiece to a specific volume of fibers. The required volume of the fibers is achieved by pressing with the press during processing of the workpiece needles or with guide plates stabilimenti to use clamping device makes it possible to process the workpiece in free-standing position by means of infiltration of carbon into the progress of chemical deposition in the vapor phase, that enables a more efficient use of space of the furnace in the manufacture of carbon brake disks.

Due to the presence of thick bundles of fibers, axially extending through the brake disc, is easily achieved by more effective conductivity in the axial direction and a higher shear strength between layers.

The advantage of the present invention lies not only in that it eliminates the need for holding the body of carbon fibers or of the preceding material carbon fibers in a sort of clamping device for further processing of this body, for example, in a furnace chemical vapor deposition, in which space saving furnace is an important factor. The advantage of the invention is that for consisting of the foot of the layers of the body one or more layers of the foot of this body can be easily aggregated from many parts of the sheet material, instead of single elements, as is done according to the known methods. For example, when forming a layer of annular shape for brake disk layer can be formed from multiple segments, which is associated with significantly less waste pervonachalnym in the form of rings.

1. A method of manufacturing a preform of carbon fibers for composite materials, characterized by forming body blanks from at least one layer of carbon fibers or of its source material by overlaying layers to each other, the processing of the needle means by passing a needle through the entire thickness of the body perpendicular to the layers and pressing the body elements of the press, characterized in that the processing of the formed body of the workpiece needle tool, which penetrates through the entire thickness of the body is carried out after pressing the body to the desired thickness while flashing layers of cross-linking elements.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the pressed billet is removed from the elements of the press in a free-standing condition.

3. The method according to PP. 1 and 2, characterized in that the body of the workpiece contains layers of non-woven carbon fiber or his source material from staple fibers and/or continuous filaments, with some layers made in the form of non-woven fabrics and other layers contain component parts, for example, sector.

4. The method according to PP. 1 to 3, characterized in that the body of the workpiece contains at least ten, preferably, is that the processing of the body of the workpiece needle means, which penetrates through the entire thickness of the body is carried out after pressing the body to the required thickness.

6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the body of the workpiece contains a three-dimensional fibrous material, preferably oriented fibrous material.

7. The method according to PP.1 to 6, characterized in that the needle tool contains jagged needles, while passing the needle through the entire thickness of the body perform many times.

8. The method according to p. 7, wherein the repeated transmission of needles carried out in the same point with the formation of thick bundles of fibers extending through the entire thickness of the workpiece.

9. The method according to p. 8, wherein the repeated transmission of needles carried out at the transverse movement of the body blanks in the interval between the processing of needles to form two rows of thick bundles of fibers extending through the entire thickness of the workpiece.

10. The method according to p. 9, wherein when the transverse movement of the body of the workpiece elements of the press away from the last.

11. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that one of the elements of the press has two rows of holes for the passage of needle needle means when displaced transverse is pressed between the base and the peripheral removable plate, through holes which are serrated needles for processing layers.

13. The method according to PP. 7 to 12, characterized in that after treatment with needles posture of the workpiece is changed to the opposite and handling needles repeat on the reverse side.

14. The method according to p. 13, characterized in that the processing needles on each side of the body position of the workpiece on the reverse change many times.

15. The method according to PP.7 to 12, characterized in that the processing of the needle body of the workpiece is carried out from two sides without changing its position.

16. The method according to p. 15, wherein the processing of the needle body blanks carried out simultaneously from both sides.

17. The method according to PP.13 to 16, characterized in that each processing needles last pass in one direction relative to the body of the workpiece.

18. The method according to PP.1 to 6, characterized in that by passing the needle through the body of the workpiece at least one cross-linking element penetrates through the whole thickness of the body.

19. The method according to p. 18, characterized in that at least one of the linking elements contains carbon or capable of carbonization of the material.

20. The method according to p. 18 or 19, characterized in that at IU is audica fact, that cross-linking element has a high resistance without reducing the quality of temperatures exceeding 700oWith, preferably greater than 1000oC.

22. The method according to PP.1 to 21, characterized in that the quality carbon fiber using oxidized polyacrylonitrile fiber.

23. The method according to PP.1 to 22, characterized in that the pressed body has a ring shape.

Priority points:

25.07.89 on PP.1 3, 6 16, 21;

12.12.89 on PP.17 20, 22;

24.01.92 on PP.4 5, 23.

 

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