Evaporative heat exchanger


(57) Abstract:

Usage: in the spacecraft. The inventive evaporative heat exchanger includes a housing which contains at least one active circuit cooled liquid, tube, separated from each other, United in the partition and communicating with the inlet and outlet evaporated environment from the housing, damper, installed in the annular space, and means to regulate the size of the orifice zone output evaporated environment of the body depending on the temperature of the feed in the case of the cooled fluid. The means of adjustment may be made in the form of walls with holes, overlapping the gate area evaporated environment of the body. The holes of the partitions can be fitted with covers from the bimetallic springs, which are control elements and in thermal contact with the latter, through which flows a portion of the cooled fluid. 5 C.p. f-crystals, 10 ill.

The invention relates to evaporative heat exchanger in accordance with the restrictive part of the point I claims.

The spacecraft is reeny extreme thermal loads, you surely and securely take the heat. For this purpose, among other things, used evaporative heat exchangers.

A fundamental principle of such heat exchangers is that the cooled medium active liquid circulation circuit for heat dissipation is provided in heat transfer contact with the evaporated medium, which is stored in the existing storage tank and which is then in the form of steam is diverted from the spacecraft to the environment.

To optimally use evaporated environment by making full evaporation, it is important to provide opportunities good thermal contact and thus the total heat transfer between the cooling fluid on the one hand and evaporated environment on the other side.

In a well-known class of such heat exchangers, which are described, for example, in the patent of Germany N 3718873, the coolant flows through separate channels through technological space, through which the inlet valve drops injected evaporated environment. In the second class of evaporative heat exchangers, which can Amnesty evaporated as the environment goes through this space, located generally in the form of sections of the channels. While the coolant is advanced through located in the process space of the damper force is directed in the form of a meander of the stream.

In such evaporative heat exchange apparatus, if it is as coolant water is used, there is a danger of icing. To prevent this danger, under certain circumstances it may be necessary to affect the temperature of evaporation of the volatile environment, which is often used ammonia.

The objective of the invention is the implementation of the evaporative heat exchanger in accordance with the generic concept, therefore, to provide simple and reliable from the point of view of the functioning of the ability to control the temperature of evaporation of the volatile environment.

The invention solves this task by using a heat exchanger with a distinctive signs of paragraph I of the claims. However, in accordance with the invention the pressure of the evaporated medium is affected by changing the cross-section of the outlet and thus simultaneously affect tempera is down due to the steam flow is divided into several private flows, which are respectively routed through a separate exhaust valves. Through targeted opening or closing separate these flaps can then simple way to affect the evaporation pressure. In another embodiment, the opening or closing can be carried out using the loaded temperature of inlet coolant regulating device, in the simplest case, using a bimetallic spring. (This, in particular, is possible when the steam flow is divided into a main flow valve which constantly remains open, and at least three additional steam flow. Even if in case of failure in such a system one additional damper remains closed, the evaporation temperature is only slightly increases above a given value, and Vice versa. In both cases, the system remains fully functional.

The invention is illustrated below with the drawings on which is shown:

Fig.1 is a longitudinal section of the first evaporative heat exchanger;

Fig.2 is a side view of a system in accordance with Fig.1;

Fig.3 is a view with theme,

Fig.7 is a principal sketch of the second evaporative heat exchanger;

Fig.8 a section of a heat exchanger in accordance with Fig.7;

Fig.9 section area of release is shown in Fig.7 heat exchanger and

Fig.10 the partial cut areas shown in Fig.7 system.

In the drawing, the same structural elements are denoted by the same symbols.

Is depicted in Fig.1 evaporative heat exchanger consists of a cylindrical body 1, which in the technological space 2 is a section similar tubes 3, which are parallel to the longitudinal axis of the housing and which, in particular, shows the image of the cross-section in Fig.4, evenly distributed throughout the cross section of the technological space. With the removal of individual tubes 3 from each other is selected, at least equal to the destruction, which has an imaginary edge sections of the tubes from the inner wall of the housing 1. The housing 1 has respectively at the ends of the mounting flange 4 or 5, with which the housing 1 is connected with two end bodies 6 and 7, the design of which is explained in more detail below.

Left on Phi is confident of carrying out the invention with ammonia (NH3), which narrows in the direction towards the inlet valve cone 9. The size of the radius of the open process space 2 inlet space 8 is selected in such a way that it covers the inner space of the group of tubes 3, and their number is about 50 percent of the total number of tubes 3. These tubes protrude through the plate with the holes 10, which forms the immediate constipation technological space 2 inside the inlet space 8. The remaining 50 percent of the tubes of the sections that form the outer ring of this section, also protrude through the plate with the holes 10 in the annular space 11, which surrounds the inlet space 8 and which is equipped, in General, four inlet holes for 12-15 evaporated environment, arranged offset relative to each other at the 10o.

Two of these outlets 12-15, which are hidden in the image in Fig.1 can be seen in Fig.3. In this image, rotated relative to the image in accordance with Fig.1 90oyou can see also the outlet 16 and the inlet 17, which are provided for the coolant, in this case water, and connected is the ETP of the housing 1, the inlet 17 is a partial cylindrical zone right on the drawing end of the body 7.

Through this, the last named end of the body 7, as shown in Fig.1, containing the evaporated medium tubes 3 held up precast space 18, which limits the internal cavity of the end of the body 7 and through which the internal tubes 3, which are connected with the inlet space 8, is connected with the group located outside of the tubes 3. Finally, respectively, alternately, within the technological space 2 are two different types of deflecting flaps. In the case of these deflector flaps talking, first, about the flaps 19 with holes, as they are represented in Fig.5, and when in the middle of the technological space 2 is an aperture 20. Secondly, we are talking about the annular damper 21, which releases the hole in the form of a ring gap in technological space 2. Finally, the whole system is mounted on the bearing element 22.

The principle of operation of the system described above it is necessary to clarify with the second exemplary embodiment of the invention, which is primarily represented by the simple principle sketch in Fig.7. On this principial evaporated Wednesday tubes 33 technological space. As you can see from the image of the cross section of this heat exchanger of Fig.8, in this case located inside the housing 31 in the technological space 32 of the tube 33 United as a whole in three groups: the core group 34, consisting of about 20-30 tubes located in the center of the section, an intermediate group of about 35 with the same number of tubes, as well as the regional group, consisting of about 30-40 tubes.

On both ends of the technological space 32 of these tubes are connected to each other by means of modular spaces, namely, groups 34 and 35 through Central collection space 37, and groups 35 and 36, on the intake side of evaporated environment, using the ring of modular space 38, which surrounds the inlet opening 39 for supplying evaporated environment. Finally, the evaporated medium is collected in the discharge space. The last closed using is shown in Fig.9 plate 52 in which is located a few flaps with holes 52-56. Of these valves, the valve 53 located in the centre, is immutable, while the valve 54 to 56, respectively, may be closed by a mechanism, which is depicted in Fig. 10.

This mechanism consists of the drums 59 and 60. The latter belong to the loop, through which flows a part of the coolant supplied into the process space 32.

In this evaporative heat exchange apparatus in alternating sequence provided by deflecting the flaps 49 and 51. The inlet and outlet for flowing through technological space of the coolant in this image is omitted. Direction of the fluid, in this case again of water, and evaporated environment, ammonia, respectively indicated by the arrows.

The coolant flows to the right in the drawing of the technological space with the input temperature, which in the case described here, the sample is within about 24 to 67oC. Then, the coolant flows between the tubes with evaporated environment, and for the most part she passes the contained heat of this environment before, it will not come out from the process space with a temperature of about 5-6oC. thus arranged alternately in the technological space of divergent flaps, as shown in Fig.6, contributes to the creation of a meander of the stream of coolant, which leads to p is rubocki coolant flow.

On the other side of the Central group of tubes is served evaporated environment with an input temperature of about -10oC. While passing through the tubes heated to evaporation temperature and may already begin to vaporize. At the end of the tubes it hits in total for all tubes of the core group, through which it flows, modular space, which is at the discharge end where it is rejected and sent into tubes of the intermediate group. In the result of a deviation 180oshe stirred.

Thus in all the Central tubes is dominated by the same conditions of flow. Now the ammonia flows in the same direction as the coolant, from the release of ammonia to the direction of feed of ammonia, and thus almost completely evaporated. However, since the end of the Central tubes is located on the outlet side of the water heat exchanger, evaporated medium is superheated up to a maximum temperature (6oC). It flows into the second collecting space, where new deviation 180othe newly created almost homogeneous flow conditions for the next section of flow of the ammonia.

Finally, ammonia, loaded slightly the ONU water inflow and release of ammonia heat exchanger. While it is heated to the difference between the residual temperature: about 5 to 10oWith relatively temperature of output water, which depending on the load is within 24-67oAnd then comes in limited plate 52 of the discharge space 40. By opening and closing one or more valves 54-56 now you can adjust the pressure of evaporation so that no danger of glaciation for the coolant. The change in the opening of the valves is carried out depending on the coolant temperature at the outlet, so that at any time provided the optimal working condition.

1. Evaporative heat exchanger for heat dissipation in spacecraft in zero gravity, as well as at different accelerations, comprising a housing which contains at least one active circuit cooled liquid, tube, separated from each other and United in the partition and communicating with the inlet and outlet evaporated environment from the housing, and a valve installed in the annular space, in which a cooled liquid, characterized in that the apparatus is equipped with means of regulation, PL is the case of the cooled fluid.

2. The apparatus according to p. 1, characterized in that a control device installed in the outlet area of the evaporated medium from the housing after the last section of the tube and configured to at least partially close depending on the temperature.

3. The apparatus according to p. 2, characterized in that the control device made in the form of walls with holes, overlapping the gate area evaporated environment of the body.

4. The apparatus according to p. 3, characterized in that at least part of the holes of the partitions are supplied with lids and made with the possibility of closure.

5. The apparatus according to p. 4, wherein the cover is provided with a bimetallic spring.

6. The apparatus according to p. 5, characterized in that the bimetallic spring is equipped with control elements and in thermal contact with the latter, through which flows the part supplied in the annular space of the cooled fluid.


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