Teplogidravlicheskie kashevarova "thack"

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: agriculture farmers and cooperators, as well as in industries with waste, which can be used as fuel. The inventive burning low-grade fuel is in the combustion chamber with the compressed air supplied to the furnace by hydrocompression. In the furnace for nozzle injected water and the resulting steam gas is directed into an annular pipe is filled with water and set it by the turbine rotates the generator. From the ring pipe leaves the heating, discharging hot water for heating. 5 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il.

The invention relates to power plants using solid low-grade hydrocarbon fuels and is intended mainly for farms.

Analogues and prototype THESC" are thermal power plants thermal power plants fueled by coal.

The main disadvantages of CHP are:

the basic mode of operation;

high requirements to the quality of the hydrocarbon fuel and water;

the inability of small capacity cogeneration plants for farms;

large capital and operating costs;

bellowses removal of all above-mentioned drawback of the CHP. This task is achieved by the fact that:

burning low-carbon fuel is compressed air supplied in the combustion chamber of the compressor;

in the combustion chamber by means of pumps through a nozzle is blown water turning into vapor mixed with products of combustion of the fuel-steam gas;

the steam gas, with pressure supplied by the compressor of the compressed air, is directed through a circular slot in the annular tube filled with water, puts it in motion, and stirs her, giving her a latent heat of vaporization;

in the annular pipe installed turbine is rotated by the movement of water, which rotates the rotor of the generator;

from the ring pipe leaves the heating, discharging hot water for heating; air compressor supplying compressed air, is driven by steam gas coming from the combustion chamber.

THESC can find effective application not only on farms, but also on any forest enterprises with wood waste, as well as cooperatives and state farms with the use of any low-grade fuels, in the form of waste. Application THESC allows snipity products. In addition THESC can significantly improve the social conditions of the rural population and increase the energy supply of agricultural production.

The device THESC illustrated by drawings where: Fig. 1 given vertical section THESK (along B-B in Fig. 2), in Fig. 2 is a section along a-a in Fig. 1, in Fig. 3 a section along b-b In Fig. 2, in Fig. 4 the node I in Fig. 1, in Fig. 5 is a section along G-G in Fig. 4, in Fig. 6 a section along d-D in Fig. 4, in Fig. 7 is a vertical section of the knee, connecting pipes.

THESK has a furnace 1, a hopper 2 to the fuel tank 3 water, 4 cylinder and a capacity of 5 hydrocompression, an annular pipe 6 turbine 7, the torque generator 8, steel hermetic casing 9 of the hopper 2 and the chamber 1, the water pump 10.

The furnace 1 has an oval heat-resistant casing 11 made of firebrick or ceramic lattice grate 12, which is the burning of fuel, the size of the holes in the grate less fuel particles, and the steel casing 9. The casing 9 is separated from the casing 11 of the air gap 13 with the annular pipe 14, the perforated holes through which compressed air is supplied into the gap 13 and later in the ashpan 15 under the grate 12 through radial openings 16 in the clutch 11.

Blew 15 Ka 20 neverthelessa on the faucet 19, preventing the descent of the compressed air from the furnace 1 and the casing 9 accidental turning of the valve 19, or if it malfunctions, do not provide proper sealing of the furnace 1 and the casing 9.

The valve 19 is designed to remove ash from the blower 15 through purging after daily completion of work of the plant. The valve 19 pre-screwed instead of the stub 20 nut attached to bag for ash, similar to that used for dust collection of a vacuum cleaner.

The compressed air in the annular pipe 14 flows from the top of the neck of the vessel 5 hydrocompression through the pipe 21 through the self-opening or computer-controlled valve 22. Self-opening valve 22 is adjusted so that it opens when reaching the calculated values of the pressure of air in the tank 5. The valve 22 is simultaneously the inlet valve of the atmospheric air after all the compressed air from the tank 5 will be available in the pipe 21.

In large power plants and high pressure compressed air (more than 6 kg/cm2submitted by hydrocompression in the furnace 1, it is expedient in the tank 5 through the valve 22 to enter from the auxiliary compressor is pre-compressed air to pressure the which is driven by a motor 24. The screw 23 has a conical and a cylindrical part, while the tapered portion is located within the lower part of the cylindrical hopper 2, and a cylindrical portion in the cylindrical channel 25 connecting the hopper 2 with the furnace 1.

The hopper 2 has a funnel 26 with newintown hole for fuel loading, in which zavertyvanija cap 27, the sealing cover 9 of the hopper 2 and the chamber 1. In the hopper 2 when screwed the cap 27 is fed via a pipe 28 extending from the gap 13 and tube 14, compressed air, equalizing the air pressure in the hopper 2 with the pressure of the air and products of combustion in the furnace 1.

In the furnace 1 through the nozzles 29 is injected water supplied by the pump 10 from the tank 3 through the tubes 30. From the upper part of the furnace 1 products of burnt fuel and the evaporated water steam gas continuously flows to the pipe 31, which is rigidly connected (welded or screwed) with the knee 32 (Fig. 7) connecting the beginning and the end of the two sections of the pipe 6 with the annular gap K3. Simultaneously, the steam gas from the upper part of the furnace enters the channel of the cylindrical valve 33, which rotates alternately connects the neck of the furnace 1 with one of the chassis tubes 34 (Fig. 6) going to six cylinders 4 compressors. The rotation of the cylindrical clonemenu transmits the pressure of the gas through the cylindrical valve 33 on the thrust bearing 38. With the same purpose on the opposite side of the gear 37 mounted satellite bevel gear 39. On the cylindrical protrusion of the casing 9, which has a cylindrical valve 33 with gears 37, 38 and 39, screwed the cap 40, the sealing cover 9, with reference spherical sliding bearing 41. The space between the cap 40, the thrust bearing 38 and the gears are filled with grease.

In the cylinder 4 when the movement of the floating flexible insulated piston 42 upward exhaust steam gas through the valve 43 is fed into the tube 44. Six tubes 44 from six cylinders 4 are combined into one common pipe 44, which is connected with the first knee 32, the pipe 31 is connected to the second knee 32 during the movement of the water in the pipe 6. The annular gap K3 between the sections of pipe 6 has an area of 20-30% smaller than the cross-sectional area of the pipe 44, causing the speed of the gas emerging from the annular gap K3, 20-30% higher than the speed of the gas in the common pipe 44.

The piston 42 of the cylinder 4 reduces the heat loss of the gas due to its insulating coating, preventing the leakage of heat into the water, on the surface where it floats, eliminating the contact of the gas with the surface of the water. When changing the water level of alindra by 0.2-0.4 mm

The valve 43 has three positions. In the relative first position it opens the exit of gas from the pipe 34 into the cylinder 4 and overlaps the pipe 44 in the second position it overlaps the pipes 34 and 44 and the third position it leaves blocked the pipe 34 and opens the pipe 44. When the piston 42 upward, the valve 43 is in the third position, in which the steam gas out of the cylinder through the pipe 44 into the annular gap K3 (for a picture of this process in Fig. 7 position 44 is given in parenthesis). Moving up, the piston 42 (Fig. 1) will affect electrodata 45, elektrosignal which the valve 43 will occupy the first position, ie will block the pipe 44 and opens the pipe 34, through which the cylinder 4 will begin to enter the steam gas. When the downward movement of the piston 42 will affect electrodata 46, elektrosignal which the valve 43 will move to the second position, blocking the pipe 34, 44, moving further down, the piston 42 will affect electrodata 47, elektrosignal which the piston will occupy the first position, i.e., opens the pipe 44 in a closed tube 34. When the piston 42 down water from the cylinder 4 through the conduit 48 will flow into the tank 5, the motion of water through the conduit in the reverse direction, the piston 42 will rise, displacing the exhaust steam gas in the pipe 44.

For the 6 water velocity will be minimal. Here in the sump 49 will be deposited solid particles in water, steam gas. On MAGNETOM the bottom of the tank 49 has a valve 50, the end of which is coated with thread for screwing it plugs 51, excluding drain water from the sump 49 accidental damage to the valve 50, or if it malfunctions. The valve 50 is designed to drain sludge. Above the sump 49 installed pipe 52 through which extend gaseous products of burnt fuel and does not dissolve in water.

The pipe 52 is connected by a pipe 53 to the tank 3, resulting in the settling tank 49 is maintained at a constant pressure caused by the height difference of the upper water level in the tank 3 and in the sump 49. From the sump departs heating pipes 54. Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 cross hatching shows the surface of a steel housings, parts and pipes, having thermal and/or waterproofing coating.

The work of teplogidravlicheskie THESK.

Start THESK is made with a closed valve 55, blocking the pipe 31, with the use of the battery 56, which is recharged during operation of the turbine 7, the torque generator 8.

Before starting station in the hopper 2 is loaded through the funnel 26 (when unscrewed sea and other wood waste peat, bituminous and lignite.

When loading hopper 2 at its lower part on the screw 23 fall asleep most flammable dry fuel. The raw fuel and fuel with a low calorific value is loaded into the upper half of the tank. As fuel can be used as a shrub, processed into chips. Tank 2, an annular pipe 6 and the cylinder 4 is filled with water. Screwing the plugs 27, 20 and 51 are closed, the valves 19 and 50, close the valve 55, blocking the pipe 31. Include the battery 56 to the grid of the station, open the valve 57 and start the compressor 58 low-power normal-type, powered by a motor and supplying compressed air through the pipe 59 into the pipe 21.

After 10-15 minutes of operation of the compressor 58, when the air pressure in all tanks connected to the pipe 21, rises to 2 kg/cm2(up to 2 atmospheres) includes electrospace 18, flare nozzle 17 and the electric motor 24. From the fire of the torch nozzle 17 lights up the fuel on the grate 12, which is fed by a screw 23 is rotated by the motor 24, the temperature rises and the pressure in the furnace 1. Turns on the electric motor 35 and the water pump 10 to the nozzle 29, and begins to work hydrocompression in resultatet calculated values. The compressor stops 58, closes the valve 57 and opens the valve 55 to the pipe 31 to the knee 32.

In the gap 41 between the pipes 6 of the tribe of 32 comes with great speed and under pressure, steam gas, passing the water that fills the annular tube, the kinetic energy of its motion and potential pressure energy converted into kinetic energy of water movement. The water in the pipe 6, having the speed, the pressure on the blades of the turbine 7 leads her into rotation together with the generator, generating electricity.

After passing through the turbine 7 water enters the sump 49, having a cross section 5-7 times greater than at the entrance to the turbine 7, the water velocity decreases 25-49 times and it settled to the bottom of the solid particles and rise to the pipe 52 bubbles of gas released from the water. The acidic components of the gases dissolved in water, neutralized with lime, evenly poured from the hopper 60 into the pipe 52. From the top of the pipe 6 with the tank leaves the heating 54, in which an excess of hot water in the pipe 6, is used for space heating for residential and technological purposes. Chilled water from the opposite end 61 taloquan on the same level with the tank 3, however, in some cases, the reservoir 62 with capacity 5 can be installed above the tank 3 to increase the difference in height between the tank 5 and the cylinder 4.

In the heating included 54 turbine 63 with an electric motor 64 low power to regulate the speed of water movement.

At the initial launch of the station's water hydrocompression fill the cylinder 4 and the conduit 48, the piston 42 is in its upper position in contact with electrodata 45, the valve 43 is closed for pipes 34 and 44 and will be open for the pipe 34 when the air pressure created by the compressor 58 to reach the estimated level (e.g. 2 kg per square centimeter). Then the valve 43 is opened to pipe 34 and will remain closed for pipe 44.

The valve 22 is closed to pipe 21 and pipe intake of atmospheric air, the tank 5 is filled with air at atmospheric pressure.

In the furnace 1 will increase the pressure of the gas above calculation, the piston 42 moves downward, displacing the water from the cylinder 4 through the conduit 48 into the container 5. While the air trapped above the water in the tank 5, will begin to shrink rising water level up until its pressure reaches the rated value, which is adjusted by the dedication and 14.

When the piston 42 is down it will affect electrodata 46, elektrosignal which the control computer management system (work station) includes a motor 35 which rotates the cylindrical valve by an angle equal to 360odivided by the number of cylinders 4 in hydrocompression (for example, 60oin Fig. 6 with six cylinders 4, shown in Fig. 2). At the same time will be blocked pipe 34 by the valve 43, and then the valve 22 will open the orifice tube 21. The movement of the piston 42 downward will continue with decreasing pressure of the gas above it due to the inertia of the movement of the water in the conduit 48, and also for the reason that the surface area of water in the upper part of the vessel 5 is already substantially less than the cross-sectional area of the cylinder 4 and will continuously decrease as the water level rises in the tank 5 so that the product of the gas pressure at the area of the piston 42 will be greater than the product of the pressure of compressed air on the surface of the water in the tank 5. Replacing almost all of the water from the cylinder 4, the piston 42 will affect electrodata 47, the signal of which the valve 43 will connect the hole in the pipe 44 with the cylinder 4, and the valve 22 will block the pipe 21 and open access of atmospheric air into the container 5. At this point, the water level of the water on the piston bottom, going through water-piping pipe 48, in accordance with the height difference of the water levels in the tank 5 and the cylinder 4.

When compressed air in the tank 5, the air will be heated and thereby prevent its compression. To address this counter-top part of the tank 5 is cooled by flowing cooling water coming from the end 61 of the heating tank 62 and then into the tank 3 filled with water.

In the steady state operation of the compressor switching the gas cylinder valve 33 in the pipe 34 leading to the cylinders 4, will result in a uniform operation of the motor 35 with the speed at which one revolution of the cylindrical valve 33 will take time equal to one cycle of the cylinder 4 due to the movement of the piston 42 from the sensor 45 to the sensor 47 in the opposite direction.

The Central device of the power plant is the furnace 1 is formed by the casing 11, in the middle of which the temperature can reach more than 1000oC. the Outer surface of the casing 11, being cooled, gives off its heat to the compressed air in the gap 13 coming out of the holes of the pipe 14 and through the outgoing radial holes 16 in the ashpan 15. In this case, thermal energy, proseds the x losses the inner surface of the steel casing 10 is covered with insulation. Thus, the casing 9 is not exposed to significant heat and can withstand the pressure of compressed air with the necessary margin of safety.

High temperature in the furnace 1 does not create a danger of ignition of fuel in the hopper 2, as the cylindrical section of the screw 23 to its helical ledge is much higher than the cylindrical channel 25 connecting the hopper 2 with the furnace 1. In addition, in the upper part of the hopper 2 at its casing has a valve 65, through which the bin will be supplied water from the tank 3, if the hopper 2 electrodance 66 serves electric signal to the control system (computer) on the temperature in the tank 2 above the allowable. The valve 65 and electrodance temperature 66 have more emergency than operational value, as the hopper 2 is placed in tank 3 with water, cooling the hopper 2, and the temperature rise it above the permissible has a very small probability.

Use the upper half bin 2 moist and low-grade fuel is quite acceptable, as when operating in steady state and low-grade humidified fuel is burnt with a valid intensity, due to the fact that compressed air, the combustion rate of fuel increase is ncii, associated with its operation, has a closed character, for this reason, refilling water into the tank 3 will be required only when using hot water from the heating 54 for household needs. The power station can operate after its start in automatic mode, because all processes of its functioning are amenable to automation.

The power station can be done in 15-20 minutes and costs of fuel for this launch will be at 16 hours of work per day (0,3 h: 16 h) 100% 2% of Such a small amount of fuel and time to run the station makes feasible its daily stop at night, when the demand for electricity and heat is minimal, to load fuel, drain the sediment from the tank 49 and the removal of ash from the blower 15.

Stopping power is produced by the overlapping of the pipe 34 and valve 43, switch off from the mains, electric motors 24, 25 and 64 and the water pump 10. Start, stop and steady state operation of the plant may be an automatic control system is a specialized computer for relevant programs.

The proposed power plant may find effective application in farm Elektroenergii with capacity from 1 to 100 thousand kW.

1. Teplogidravlicheskie containing a water turbine connected to a generator, heating and steam boiler including heat-resistant casing with the furnace, which is attached with the device for feeding fuel from the hopper, the compressor duct, piping, water supply piping, electronica with a flare nozzle and a device for ash removal, characterized in that it is provided with hydrocompression gas mixture and the annular tube filled with water, and the turbine is installed in an annular pipe, and hydrocompression made in the form of a cylinder with the gas and water cavities and containers, the upper part of which is connected by a duct to the compressor, and the bottom with the water cavity of the cylinder, a hopper and a steam boiler is placed in a sealed cover with the formation between the latter and heat-resistant casing of the air gap, connected to the duct of the compressor, the device for supplying fuel made in the form of the Archimedes screw with the motor installed in the cylindrical channel, and the gas passage of the cylinder through the control valve periodically communicates with a branch pipe of the furnace, the duct of the compressor and through drobopro CNY the casing is made of steel with an inner insulating coating, heat-resistant casing of the furnace made of refractory material, in the upper part of the air gap between the housings installed ring pipe, perforated holes in the lower part of the air gap is in communication with the air chamber of the furnace radial holes formed in the refractory lining, ash-pit of the furnace is separated from the upper part of the furnace grate in the form of a lattice with holes, the smaller one of the dimensions of the particles of solid fuel, the air gap between the casing is connected by a pipe with an internal volume of the hopper, ash-pit of the furnace in the lower part of the dome-shaped bottom of the valve, the outer end of which has a screw thread with screwed on this thread plug, electrospace with a flare nozzle installed in the podduvalom furnace, and in the upper part of the furnace is installed nozzles connected by a tube to water pump, in addition, at the mouth of the upper part of the furnace has a cylindrical valve with a channel connecting the mouth with the distribution channel, the cylindrical valve has in its upper part, a tapered gear which engages with the bevel gear of the motor shaft, the mouth of the furnace below the cylindrical valve connected by pipes with kimee cylindrical body, in the lower part of which is an Archimedes screw with inclined toward the furnace axis of rotation, the upper part of the screw that is located under the cylindrical portion of the hopper, is inscribed in the surface of a truncated cone with the diameter of the upper base is larger than the diameter of the lower base, which is equal to the diameter of the cylindrical channel connecting the hopper to the combustion chamber, in which is placed the lower cylindrical part of the Archimedes screw, the upper part of the Archimedes screw is connected with the axis of rotation of the rotor of the electric motor through suitable gearing, and the upper part of the hopper has an opening in which is screwed the cap, sealing the bunker.

4. Teplogidravlicheskie under item 1, characterized in that the cylinder hydrocompression has elastic insulating the floating piston and the tank is made flask-shaped and mounted above the cylinder, the upper part of the flask-shaped containers placed in a tank with running cold water and has a double valve, which tells the container via the air duct of the compressor with the annular tube, a perforated holes, and a pipe connecting the tank with the atmospheric air.

5. Teplogidravlicheskie under item 1, characterized in that code annular gap, connected to the pipeline from the gas cavity of the cylinder, the annular pipe is provided with a settling tank, a heating pipe extending from the tank, and a vertical pipe mounted above the sump, which is connected by a pipe with the tank filled with water, and with the tank full of lime, and in the bottom stereobase deepening of tank mounted faucet with screwed on the end cap.

6. Teplogidravlicheskie under item 1, characterized in that the heating departs from the upper part of the sump ring pipe and installed a turbine with an electric motor.

 

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