Device for growing plants in a greenhouse

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: agriculture, field crop production in buildings protected ground. The inventive device includes vegetation blocks, made of triangular frames with 3 trays for 4 plants 5, 6, exposure of the two groups of sources 7,8 light and the air supply duct 9. The radiation sources of the first group is made with respective shares of the distribution of the flow of energy in the spectral ranges of 400-500 nm, 500-600 nm, respectively, in the range of 15-25%., 35-45% and 35-45%. The sources of the second group is made with the distribution of the respective shares of the energy flow in these spectral ranges, respectively, of 5-10%. , 15-25%. and 60-70%. The surface of each duct 9 with a smaller radius of curvature is covered with a reflective layer. This helps to ensure optimal spectral composition of the radiation of plants 5, 6, and saving energy costs in their cultivation. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to a device for irradiation of plants in their growth process and can be used in agriculture.

A device for growing plants in th is th solution and installed on the basis of the greenhouse and triangular frames, the irradiation system, which includes two groups of sources of optical radiation sources, the first of which is located above the trays for the nutrient solution between adjacent vegetation units, and the sources of the second group is placed in the cavity between the base of the greenhouse and triangular frames each vegetation unit, and the air supply system comprising an air duct, at least part of which is located within the vegetation blocks formed by two interconnected curved surfaces with the same orientation of the normals to these surfaces, facing its convex part in the direction of the optical sources of the second group. (U.S. patent N 4292762, CL 01 And G 9/24, publ. 1981).

The disadvantage of this device is not optimal spectral distribution of the irradiation plant at the optimum spectrum of radiation light sources, such as plants located in various parts of the device, because of the filter upstream of the cenosis and irradiated with light of a different and, consequently, suboptimal spectral composition than emitted by the light sources, which does not allow to increase the productivity of cultivated plants. In addition, in the known device use the e items that requires greater energy consumption.

In addition, in the known device has the disadvantages of a constructive nature, namely the placement of the duct in the upper part under the roof leads to an increase in overall device size and increased consumption of construction materials.

Object of the invention is a device that provides optimum spectral distribution of the irradiation plants in their growth process, saving energy costs.

The solution of this problem is achieved in that a device for growing plants in a greenhouse containing vegetation units, including trays for the nutrient solution, communicated with the source of this solution and installed on the basis of the greenhouse and triangular legs, the irradiation system includes two groups of springs optimal radiation sources, the first of which is located above the trays for the nutrient solution between adjacent vegetation units, and the sources of the second group is placed in the cavity between the base of the greenhouse and triangular frames each vegetation unit, and the air supply system comprising an air duct, at least part of which the location is the same tension vectors normal to these surfaces, facing its concave part in the direction of the optical sources of the second group, according to the invention as sources of optical radiation of the first group used radiation sources with respective shares of the distribution of the flow of energy in the spectral ranges of 400-500 nm, 500-600 nm, 600-700 nm, respectively, in the range of 15-25% 35-45% 35-45% and as sources of optical radiation of the second group applied sources with respective shares of the distribution of energy flow in these spectral ranges, respectively, within 5-10% 15-25% and 60-70% at the same time, at least having a smaller radius of curvature of the surface of each duct is covered with a reflective layer.

In the embodiment of the device, the light sources of the second group each vegetation unit are the focal axis of the curved surface of the corresponding duct having a smaller radius of curvature.

A device for growing plants in a greenhouse preferably the duct system supply air is made of elastic material.

The presence of two groups of radiation sources, of which as sources of optical radiation of the first group used the and 600-700 nm, respectively, in the range of 15-25% 25-45% and 35-45% and the radiation sources of the second group applied sources with respective shares of the distribution of energy flow in these spectral ranges, respectively, within 5-10% 15-25% and 60-70% allows you to create the optimal spectral composition of the radiation of plants, located in various parts of the device, selecting it for each type.

Location of sources of optical radiation of the second group each vegetation unit on the focal axis of the curved surface of the corresponding duct having a smaller radius of curvature allows you to create flow directed parallel light rays to ensure the intensities of illumination of plants (e.g., weakened), placed at the base of the vegetation unit.

The reflective coating layer surface of each duct having a smaller radius surface allows the use of the duct at the same time as a reflector, which simplifies the design of the device and provides a rational distribution of the light flux due to its orientation due to the shape of the duct (reflector), which gives the opportunity to save energy. In addition, the use of the duct as a reflector increases the life of the reflective coating, as is periodic cooling ducts for the supply of atmospheric air, which prevents cracking of the reflective material having low thermal conductivity and nagrevaiushchem make adjustment (adjustment) as a reflector of the light flux with respect to design features of the vegetation units, and in the process of operation.

In addition, this material has anti-corrosive properties, which is a positive factor in the specific conditions of the climate in the greenhouse with high humidity.

Comparable analysis with the prototype shows that the proposed device differs from the prototype in that it as a source of optical radiation of the first group used radiation sources with the distribution of the corresponding salts of the flow of energy in the range of 400-500 nm, 500-600 nm and 600-700 nm in the range of 15-25% 35-45% 35-45% and as sources of optical radiation of the second group applied the sources with the distribution of the energy flow within 5-10% 15-25% and 60-70% while at least having a smaller radius of curvature of the surface of each duct is covered with a reflective layer. Thus, the proposed technical solution meets the patentability criteria of "novelty."

In the prior art for the specialist is not obvious impact of these distinctive signs on the achievement of the technical result is to ensure optimal spectral composition of irradiation plants in their growth process. Economy is patentosposobnaya invention of "inventive step".

The inventive solution can be used in agriculture, it can provide optimal spectral composition of the radiation of plants, and to improve the quality and productivity of cultivated products. Thus, the proposed solution meets the criteria of the invention "industrial applicability".

In Fig.1 shows a cross section of a device for growing plants in the greenhouse.

Device for growing plants in the greenhouse, including the roof 1 with air vents 2, contains vegetation blocks, made of triangular frames 3 installed on the base of the greenhouse and the trays 4 to the nutrient solution, installed on brackets rigidly mounted on the triangles 3 frames (not shown) on the base of the greenhouse. The trays 4 with soil placed plants 5 and 6. The device includes an irradiation system comprising two groups of sources of optical radiation. Sources 7 of the first group are located above the tray 4 to the nutrient solution between adjacent vegetation units, and the radiation sources 8 of the second group is placed in the cavity between the base of the greenhouse and triangular frames 3 each vegetation unit.

The air supply system wkly curved surfaces 10 and 11 with the same orientation varieties standards of these surfaces, facing its concave part in the direction of the optical sources 8 of the second group. The radiation sources 8 of the second group each vegetation unit is located on the focal axis of the curved surface of the duct 9 having a smaller radius of curvature.

Above the light sources 7 installed reflectors 12 with a cylindrical surface. Beams 13 emitted from the light sources 7, have a certain orientation (cross vegetation unit between its top and base), and limited light planes, passable through the edges of the reflectors 12.

As light sources can be used lamp type DMZ-3000, DMZ-4000 and others. The surface 11 of the duct 9, facing the light sources 8, is made with a reflective coating, for example, aluminized polyethylene terephthalate film. The duct 9 can be made of reinforced metal, rubber or other elastic material.

In Fig. 2 shows an example of the directions of rays from the two groups of light sources.

In Fig.3 shows a three-dimensional image of the location of the major components for growing plants in the greenhouse.

The duct 9, partial reproduction with carbon dioxide, with the necessary temperature and humidity parameters.

In Fig.4 presents examples of cross sections of the ducts according to the invention (on the right) and the cross-section of traditional duct round shape for comparison (left).

Device for growing plants in a greenhouse works as follows.

The trays 4 are located on the tiers of vegetation units and trays that are installed in their grounds are planted plants 5 and 6, for example, cucumbers. Periodically, after a specified period of time include the sources 7 and 8 of the two groups of light. Sources 7 of the first group, which are installed between the adjacent vegetation blocks made with the distribution of the emission spectrum in the range of 400-500 nm, 500-600 and 600-700 nm. Accordingly, in the range of 15-25% 35-45% 35-45% of the light sources 8, installed in the cavity between the base of the greenhouse and triangular frames, made with the distribution of the emission spectrum in the range of 400-500 nm, 500-600 nm, 600-700 nm, respectively, within 5-10% 15-25% and 60-70% of the light Rays emitted by the source 7 and 8 of the two groups of light cross the cenosis in different tiers at different angles. Moreover, the further from the light source are the plants, the greater will be the width of the cenosis. Set that to create the radiation with a bandwidth of 600-700 nm, that is accomplished by placing inside a triangular frame of the springs 8 of the second group and this percentage bands of radiation from the light sources 7 and 8. This placement of the springs 7 and 8 of the two groups allows light to provide uniform illumination of both external and internal parts of the cenosis, as illumination cenosis at each point, for example, at point ECEsummarized from the light sources 7 and 8 (E1+F2) (see Fig. 2). The reflectors 12 and the concave portion 11 of the duct 9, mounted above and below the springs 7 and 8 of the two groups of light, respectively, direct the luminous flux generated by these sources at plants 5 and 6, preventing the fragmentation of light fluxes, which contributes to a more rational use of them and uniform irradiation of plants. Through the perforated holes 14 of the duct 9, is partially placed within the vegetation unit, directly in the location of plants periodically moves the air to the required temperature and humidity parameters and concentration of carbon dioxide. Simultaneously, the outer part 11 of the duct 9, the reflection sources 8 of the second group of light serves as a reflector of light. This circumstance buslaw rmam these surfaces, while the radii of curvature are different and can vary depending on the destination. However, the amount of air supplied must match the calculated value, so the sectional area of the duct 9 should be the same regardless of its form (Fig.4).

If necessary, for example, to the intense light of the weakened plants, sources 8 of the second group of light placed on the focal axis of the curved surface of the duct having a smaller radius of curvature. Then, according to the law of physics, the reflected rays of light from these sources fall in parallel, without scattering, and allow you to create a luminous flux of the required power.

When mounting the ducts 9 and as needed during operation produce their alignment (adjust the direction of flux).

Excess heat is removed from the installation by opening air vents 2, placed in the roof 1 of the greenhouse. The frequency of this operation depends on the time of year.

The proposed solution can be used in agriculture for growing plants in a greenhouse in their growth process.

The invention allows to provide the whether the claimed technical solution can increase the yield of products by 15-20% while it is maturing and improving the quality, to reduce the energy costs of irradiation by 5-10%

1. Device for growing plants in a greenhouse containing vegetation units, including trays for the nutrient solution, communicated with the source of this solution and installed on the basis of the greenhouse and triangular frames, the irradiation system, which includes two groups of sources of optical radiation sources, the first of which is located above the trays for the nutrient solution between adjacent vegetation units, and the sources of the second group is placed in the cavity between the base of the greenhouse and triangular frames each vegetation unit, the air supply system comprising an air duct, at least part of which is located within vegetation units, formed by two interconnected curved surfaces with the same orientation vectors normal to these surfaces, facing its concave part in the direction of the optical sources of the second group, characterized in that the sources of optical radiation of the first group used radiation sources with respective shares of the distribution of the flow of energy in the spectral ranges of 400 to 500 nm, 500 to 600 nm and 600 to 700 nm, respectively, in the distribution of the respective shares of the energy flow in these spectral ranges, respectively, within 5 10% 15 25% and 60 to 70% in fact, at least having a smaller radius of curvature of the surface of each duct is covered with a reflective layer.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the optical sources of the second group each vegetation unit is located on the focal axis of the curved surface of the corresponding duct having a smaller radius of curvature.

3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the duct system supply air is made of elastic material.

 

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