The method of thermal decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials using solid carrier, the apparatus for implementing the method, the reactor for the decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials, and the heater - gasifier solid carrier

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in the processing of solid carbonaceous materials using solid carrier for thermal decomposition of solid fuels, solid household and industrial waste. The inventive installation for implementing the method of thermal decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials using solid carrier contains a reactor 1 having a vertical housing 2 variable cross-section with a pipe 3 for removal of steam and gas products from the top, the heater gasifier 4 having a vertical housing 5 with the pipe 6 for removal of gaseous products of gasification. Heater-gasifier 4 is located above the reactor 1 and coaxially with it. Pressure riser 7 to enter the solid coolant in the heater-gasifier 4 is connected to the top end to the bottom of the housing 5 of the heater gasifier 4, and the lower end kniznej part of the body 2 of the reactor 1. Drain riser 8 for exhaust heated solid heat carrier is connected to the top end to the bottom of the housing 5 of the heater gasifier 4, and the lower end to the middle part of the housing 2 of the reactor 1. 4 S. p. f-crystals, 14 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il.

Ih solid fuels (lignite, shale, lignite, peat), solid household and industrial waste (lignin, paper, wood, polymeric materials) using solid heat carrier (ash fuel, lime, river sand) in order to obtain a high-calorie gas mixture, which is used as energy fuel or as a source of valuable chemical products through further processing, energy (high temperature flue gases for use in steam boilers or waste heat boilers and obtain a solid product for use as building materials or adsorbents for the purification of oil-contaminated wastewater.

The proposed method and installation are used in waste-free and environmentally friendly technologies in the production of thermal and electric energy, chemical industry and construction materials production.

The known method of thermal decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials using solid carrier comprising grinding and drying of the original carbonaceous material feed to the reactor having a variable cross-section, of the particles of carbonaceous materials in its middle part, the steam flow in the lower casima fluidized bed, heating the particles to a temperature of thermal decomposition, separation of dust from the resulting combined-cycle of products, the return of dust in a fluidized bed of particles, the exhaust steam and gas products for the separation, removal of the mixture of waste solids and particulate heat carrier from the bottom of the reactor, feeding them into the heater-gasifier in ascending gas stream, heating the mixture of particles in the zone of oxidation of the heater gasifier in the presence of the oxidant gas and the flow of heated particles as the solid carrier in the reactor compartment formed in the zone of oxidation gases from solid particles and returning the solid particles in the zone of oxidation gasifier-heater [1]< / BR>
Known device for thermal decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials using solid carrier containing a reactor having a vertical housing of variable cross section, provided with a means for inputting the processed material in the middle portion, means for injection of steam into the lower part and the outlet for removal of vapor-gas products from the top, the heater gasifier having a vertical casing provided with a means for supplying a gas-oxidant and socket for removal of gaseous products from the top is to the heater-gasifier drain riser connected to the top end to the bottom of the heater-gasifier and the lower end of the reactor cyclones combined-cycle products, located inside the reactor vessel in its upper extended part with nozzles for dust removal in a fluidized layer of a mixture of particles of the processed material and the solid carrier and nozzles for removal of steam and gas products, a system for separating steam and gas products, including a distillation column connected to the outlet for removal of vapor-gas products, cyclone gasification products with nozzles for removal of dust and exhaust the products of gasification, connected to the heater-gasifier [1]

In the known method and the installation of a solid coolant is introduced into the lower part of the reactor and away from the middle part, couples are served in two points: in the lower and middle part of the reactor, which leads to increased steam flow, increase the size of the reactor and the distillation column due to the dilution of the gas-vapor products vapor, i.e., to increase capital and operating costs. In addition, the heater gasifier gas-oxidant served by radial jets in its lower part, and a mixture of coolant and exhaust of the fuel particles is t efficient combustion of the organic mass of coal char and as a consequence leads to a significant underburning and reduce the total energy efficiency of the installation as a whole. In addition, the increase in operating expenses.

The aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the method and the installation processing of various carbonaceous materials in waste-free and environmentally friendly technologies in the production of heat and electricity with getting this products with different properties.

The aim of the invention is to expand the functionality of the installation, improved reliability, reduced capital and energy costs.

The essence of the method of thermal decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials using solid carrier is that it includes grinding and drying of the original carbonaceous material feed to the reactor having a variable cross-section, of the particles of carbonaceous materials in its middle part, the supply of steam to the bottom of the reactor and feeding the heated solid heat carrier, the contacting of the particles and the fluid in the fluidized bed mode, heating the particles to a temperature of thermal decomposition, separation of dust from the resulting combined-cycle of products, the return of dust in a fluidized bed of particles, the exhaust gas-vapor product is a, feeding them into the heater-gasifier in an upward flow of inert gas, heating the mixture of particles in the zone of oxidation of the heater gasifier in the presence of a gas-oxidizing agent and the flow of heated particles as the solid carrier in the reactor compartment formed in the zone of oxidation gases from solid particles and returning the solid particles in the zone of oxidation of the heater gasifier.

In the proposed method, the heated solid heat carrier served in the middle part of the reactor in a fluidized layer of a mixture of particles and fluid, placing the mixture of exhaust particulate material and fluid from the lower portion of the reactor. The mixture of exhaust particulate material and fluid is served in the lower part of the heater gasifier and heat the mixture of particles in the heater gasifier is carried out in the fluidized bed mode.

To handle various carbonaceous materials processing solid mixture of fluid and particulate material are added to the boiling water and/or water vapor, liquid and/or gaseous fuel.

We offer installation for thermal decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials using solid carrier contains the reaction is Ala in the middle part, means for injection of steam into the lower part and the outlet for removal of vapor-gas products from the top, the heater gasifier having a vertical casing provided with a means for supplying a gas-oxidant and nozzles for removal of gaseous gasification products from top and solid heat carrier from the bottom, pressure riser connected to the reactor and the upper end of the heater-gasifier, drain standpipe, is connected to the top end to the bottom of the heater-gasifier and the lower end of the reactor cyclones combined cycle products located inside the reactor vessel in its upper part with nozzles for dust removal in a fluidized bed of particles of the processed material and the solid carrier and nozzles for removal of steam and gas products, a system for separating steam and gas products, including a distillation column connected to the outlet for removal of vapor-gas products, cyclone gasification products with nozzles for removal of dust and exhaust the products of gasification, connected to the heater-gasifier.

In the proposed apparatus the lower discharge end of the riser is connected to the middle part of the reactor, the upper end of the discharge riser is the lower part of the reactor vessel.

Additional differences in installation are that the heater gasifier is located above the reactor and coaxially with it, the lower part of the heater gasifier performed with the diameter of the large diameter of the upper extended part of the reactor, the pressure and drain risers is provided with a temperature compensators are arranged vertically and symmetrically with respect to the axis of the reactor and at a distance L from the axis, satisfies the relation

0,5 D1> L > 0.5 D2< / BR>
where D1the diameter of the lower part of the heater's housing-gasifier;

D2the greatest diameter of the upper part of the reactor vessel.

Heater-gasifier is equipped with means for supplying a liquid and/or gaseous fuel, water and/or steam, is connected to the Central part of the body. The cyclone gasification products are located inside the heater gasifier in its upper part, and the nozzles for dust removal is directed in the fluidized bed of solid heat carrier and waste fuel particles.

The installation is supplied with the boiler, connected to the pipe for removal of gaseous products of gasification of the heater-gasifier, and a quenching device connected entrance to petrolchemical for collection of liquid products quenching. Setting differs in that it is equipped with a refrigerator solid material with means for input of water vapor and/or water, connected by the entrance to the lower part of the reactor and the outlet to the top of the heater gasifier.

The reactor for the decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials using solid carrier includes a vertical housing of variable cross-section from inlet to exhaust steam and gas products, the means for inputting the processed materials, connected to the Central part of the body, a drain pipe for input of heated solid heat carrier pressure pipe for removal of solid heat carrier, means for injection of steam into the lower part of the body, cyclones combined-cycle products, located inside the housing in its upper part with nozzles for dust removal in a fluidized bed of particulate material and a solid carrier and nozzles for removal of steam and gas products, and differs the bottom discharge end of the riser is connected to the Central part of the body, and the lower end of the discharge riser is connected to the lower part of the body.

Additional differences reactor are that it has an inclined removable baffles located in the lower overlap. In the proposed reactor means for input pair is made in the form of horizontal pipes located under the inclined bottom walls and provided with nozzles directed downward at an acute angle to the body axis and in the direction of the axis of the housing. The reactor is equipped with additional means for removal of solid products, connected to the lower part of the body.

The proposed heater-gasifier solid carrier used in the decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials, includes a vertical housing, a discharge pipe for input solid carrier, connected to the top end to the casing, a drain pipe for exhaust heated solid heat carrier connected to the top end to the bottom of the housing, means for supplying a gas-oxidant, an outlet for removal of the products of gasification, are connected to the upper part of the body, and the cyclone gasification products with nozzles for removal of dust and nozzles for removal of gaseous products of gasification, connected to the housing, characterized in that he is equipped with means for supplying a liquid and/or gaseous fuel, water and/or steam, is connected to the middle part of the casing, means for supplying kazookeylele vypolne to the lower sectors of the pipes, located at an acute angle to the horizontal and facing down in different directions from the axis of the distribution pipe, pressure pipe for input solid carrier is connected to the top end to the bottom of the hull.

Additional differences heater gasifier are that the cyclone gasification products are located inside the housing in its upper part, the nozzles for dust removal is directed in the fluidized bed of solid heat carrier and particulate material, and means for supplying a liquid or/gaseous fuels, water and/or steam are higher than the means for supplying a gas-oxidant.

In Fig.1 shows a diagram of the installation for implementing the method of Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of the reactor and heater gasifier of Fig.3 section a-a in Fig. 2; Fig.4 a section along B-B in Fig.3; Fig.5 a section along b-b In Fig.2; Fig.6 section G-G in Fig.2; Fig.7 section d-D in Fig.6.

Installation for implementing the method of thermal decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials using solid heat carrier (Fig.2) includes a reactor 1 having a vertical housing 2 variable cross-section with a pipe 3 for removal of vapor-gas product from the upper part, nagivational-gasifier 4 is located above the reactor 1 and coaxially with it. Pressure riser 7 to enter the solid coolant in the heater-gasifier 4 is connected to the top end to the bottom of the housing 5 of the heater gasifier 4, and the lower end to the lower part of the housing 2 of the reactor 1. Drain riser 8 for exhaust heated solid heat carrier is connected to the top end to the bottom of the housing 5 of the heater gasifier 4, and the lower end to the middle part of the housing 2 of the reactor 1.

The installation further comprises (Fig.1) a system for the separation of steam and gas products, including distillation column 9 and the hardening device 10, connected by the entrance to the pipe 3 to exhaust steam and gas products from the reactor 1 and one output to a distillation column 9, and the other outlet to the tank 11 for collection of liquid products quenching boiler 12, connected to the pipe 6 for removal of gaseous products of gasification of the housing 5 of the heater gasifier 4, refrigerator solid material 13 with the tool 14 to enter the water vapor and/or water, connected the entrance to the lower part of the housing 2 of the reactor 1 and the upper housing 5 heater-gasifier 4. The lower part of the heater gasifier 4 is made with a diameter large diameter upper extended part of the reactor 1. tropkami 17 and 18 for dust removal in a fluidized layer of the processed material and the heat transfer medium and the nozzles 19 and 20 for removal of steam and gas products. The reactor is equipped with means 21 for the injection of steam into the lower part of the housing 1 and a means 22 for input of the processed material, connected to the middle part of the housing 2, additional means 23 for removal of a mixture of solid products, connected to the lower housing 2. A reactor equipped with a removable inclined walls 24 and 25 located in the lower part of the housing 2. Adjacent partitions 24, 25 are displaced relative to each other and in horizontal projection partially overlap each other.

The means 21 for input pair is made in the form of a horizontal pipe 26 located under the bottom of the inclined walls 24 and equipped with nozzles 27 pointing downwards at an acute angle to the axis of the housing 2 and in the direction towards the axis of the housing 2.

Heater-gasifier 4 is equipped with a cyclone 28 and 29 of gasification products located inside the body 5 in its upper part with the pipes 30 and 31 for dust removal in a fluidized bed of particulate material and fluid and the pipes 32 and 33 for removal of gaseous products of gasification, the means 34 and 35 for supplying a liquid and/or gaseous fuel, water and/or steam, is connected to the middle part of the housing 5, the means 36 for supplying a gaseous oxidizing agent and parwada solid material and carrier connected to the lower housing 5.

The means 36 for supplying a gaseous oxidizing agent (Fig.3 and 4) made in the form of radial pipes 39 and is connected thereto distribution pipes 40 with nozzles 41, and a nozzle connected to the lower sectors of the pipes 40, are located at an acute angle to the horizontal and facing down in different directions from the axis of the distribution tube 40.

Means 34 and 35 for supplying a liquid and/or gaseous fuel, water and/or steam and the upper ends of the pressure and drain risers 7 and 8 are located above the means 36 for supplying a gaseous oxidizing agent. Pressure and drain risers 7 and 8 is provided with a temperature compensator 42 and 43 and adjustable valves 44 and 45, mounted in their lower parts. The struts 7 and 8 are arranged vertically symmetrically with respect to the reactor 1 at a distance L from the axis according to the value of 0.5 D1> L > 0.5 D2where D1the diameter of the lower housing 5 heater-gasifier 4, D2the greatest diameter of the upper part of the body 2 of the reactor 1. Pressure riser 7 is equipped with a breaker plate 46 above its upper end, and a drain riser 8 is equipped with a funnel 47.

At the top of the heater-gas is tion, and the pipe 6 for removal of gaseous products of gasification of the heater gasifier 4. The upper part of the housing 2 of the reactor 1 and the lower part of the housing 5 of the heater-gasifier connected by means of a cylindrical shell 49.

Installation (Fig. 1) contains warehousing 50 long-term storage of the original solid materials of low-grade solid fuel, solid carrier, which is used as the fuel ash or river sand, and limestone with machines and mechanisms (Fig.1 not shown), prepared for transportation in pneumatic conveying or conveyor-Elevator performance, drying and milling section 51, equipped with crushing and grinding mechanisms (Fig.1 not shown), crushing and milling device 52, in which the drying of the fuel, bunkers 53, 54 and 55 for storing the solid fuel, solid carrier and limestone, screw feeder 56 for feeding into the reactor 1 of the original solid material and the screw feeder 57 for feeding into the reactor 1 solid carrier and limestone, Autonomous furnace 58 for heating installation and connected to the crushing and grinding device 52, the heater 59 steam boiler 12, ustroystvo 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67 and 68, the pneumatic tubes 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 and 74, the valve-gates 75 and 76, refrigerators 77 and 78, a reflux condenser 79 and rectifying compartment 80, the production Department bituminous materials 81 and production of construction materials 82.

The device operates as follows (Fig.1). The source materials by rail or by road in bulk or in containers are delivered to the storage facility 50. Low-grade solid fuels by size class comes as "ordinary", i.e. with the grain size 0-200 mm Solid heat carrier (ash or river sand and limestone can be supplied with a particle size suitable for direct use at the facility. In that case, if they need training, they are similar to the original fuel that enters into the drying-milling section 51. Technological equipment warehousing 50 and drying and grinding compartment 51 in the figures are not shown,as their nomenclature and scheme of work are well known.

The last element in piledriving schemes before the fuel supply to the processing of the crushing and grinding device 52. In it, poem the CSO condition, that provides a satisfactory bulk properties at bunker storage. Drying fuel produced either by hot air supplied from the heater 59 steam boiler 12, or a mixture of hot and cold air supplied by the fan 61, or flue gases generated in the stand-alone furnace 58, the temperature should be no higher than 450oWith that achieved by the additive of cold air. View of the drying agent and the temperature of drying is determined by the properties of the processed fuel.

The drying agent by pneumatic transport pipe 69 delivers the solid particles alternately, respectively, in hoppers source of fuel 53, solid carrier 54 and limestone 55. After this drying agent is discharged into the gas separation space heater-gasifier 4 for vacuum cleaners. If stop (emergency or planned) in order to avoid sticking of the particles of solid materials with the loss of their bulk properties during prolonged storage bins empty for auxiliary pipelines, respectively, of the original fuel 70, solid carrier 71 and limestone 72 in warehousing 50.

Next install download by solid heat carrier from the hopper is rerabotka sulfur or high-sulfur fuel, as well as low-ash fuel, when a solid carrier is used, the inert material (e.g. river sand) or when the ashes of its own fuel contains small amounts (less than 10%) of the oxides of calcium and magnesium. When downloading the installation of solid coolant produce its heating by means of flue gases generated in the stand-alone furnace 58 and supplied to the means 36 for supplying a gaseous oxidizing agent heater gasifier 4, where a fluidized bed of solid heat carrier. Autonomous furnace 58 operates either on natural gas or heavy liquid products extracted from the processed fuel. Solid coolant from the reactor 1 is served in the pressure riser 7, is provided with a control valve 45, where he picked up transporting the air blowing fan 61. Solid coolant is withdrawn from the heater-gasifier 4 to drain the riser 8, is provided with a control valve 45 into the reactor 1. Thereby closes the circuit of the solid coolant between the reactor 1 and the heater-gasifier 4.

Upon reaching the temperature in the brine circuit 400-600o(Depending on the type of processed reactor stop the flow of flue gases in the means 36 for supplying a gaseous oxidizing agent heater gasifier 4, where is served the air from the fan 61. At the same Autonomous furnace 58 is turned off. Low-grade solid fuel received in the reactor 1, is subjected to thermal decomposition without air in a fluidized bed of solid heat carrier. Fluidized bed is formed due to separation from the source of fuel products of thermal decomposition (gases and resins) and evaporation of the remaining after drying moisture fuel, and also due to water vapor, which is fed through the tool 21 to the input pair, located in the lower part of the reactor 1. Water vapor rising up to meet the downward trend on the shelves because of the mixture of solid carrier and char, desorption of naturally from their surface pores flowing hydrocarbons. At the same time, water vapor in the lower desorption zone of the reactor plays the role of the hydraulic valve between the reactor 1, in which the main gas environment consists of hydrocarbons, and the pressure riser 7 filled with air. The height of the fluidized bed regulating valve 44. The temperature in the reactor is maintained in the range 450-750oC depending on the type of processed fuel. Low temperature process support in the processing of less thermally stable fuels (oil shale, lignite, peat), and the higher the temperature is, the W process temperature of thermal decomposition is carried out mainly by regulating the temperature of the solid carrier, supplied from heater gasifier 4, within 600-950oC.

The carrying portion of the solid material accumulated in the path of the installation that you want to display, select from the bottom of the reactor through valve 76 through the pipeline 74, if the resulting char in their properties meet the requirements of adsorbents for the purification of oil-contaminated wastewater, and used as a finished product, or it may be the main component in the manufacture of fuel briquettes. Typically, such properties of the char obtained by thermal decomposition of low-ash fuel (ash content of about 10%).

The mixture of solid carrier and char participating in the circuit, is output through the mixing unit discharge riser 7, where picked up transporteuses agent-air (or water vapor) and is served in a fluidized bed heater-gasifier. The combustion of the char occurs in the temperature range of 650-950oC in a fluidized bed of solid heat carrier, which is formed by the flow of air through the means 36 for supplying a gaseous oxidizing agent. Temperature control of the combustion carried out in three variants. Priceline increase the temperature in the fluidized bed through the tool 35 enter the water or water vapor for endothermic decomposition reaction of water vapor on the surface of the carbon particles with the formation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. While significantly reducing the temperature in the fluidized bed through the means 34 for supplying a liquid and/or gaseous fuel injected or heavy products allocated from pererabatyvaemogo fuel, or polluted runoff, or high sulfur fuel oil for combustion, thereby making them heat and fire clearance. The flue gases formed during the combustion of various organic components in a fluidized bed of solid heat carrier and the last separation zone heater-and two-stage gasifier cyclone cleaning cyclone gasification products 28 and 29,is removed for reuse in the steam boiler 12. Conclusion the carrying part of the solid product from the heater gasifier is carried out on the lower part of the fluidized bed through valve 75 to pipe 73 in the case of solid solemny product in its properties may be used in the production of building materials. This product is in most cases obtained by processing high-ash fuels.

Carrying a solid product (char from the reactor or solemny product from the heater gasifier) periodically output pipelines respectively 74 and 73 and served in the refrigerator solid material to enter the water vapor and/or water, and the main cooling agent is water supplied by a pump 62. Water vapor away from the top of the fridge and serve them for dust in the separating zone heater gasifier 4, where together with the combustion gases, they are two-stage cyclone cleaning cyclone gasification products 28 and 29 before discharge into the steam boiler 12. The temperature of the cooling solid product in the refrigerator should not be below 110-120oC avoid intense condensation of water vapor in the cooled solid product. Upon reaching this temperature stops the flow of water in the fridge, and then steam. The solid product is discharged from the plant and used as intended. At the conclusion of the char from the reactor 1 to send to the manufacture of bituminous materials 81 for the production of fuel briquettes and solemny product from the heater gasifier 4 is directed to the production of construction materials 82.

Gas-vapor mixture formed during thermal decomposition of the solid fuel in a fluidized bed of solid heat carrier and the last separation zone of the reactor 1 and the two-stage cyclone cleaned in cyclones combined cycle products 15 and 16, evereybody.

In this case, the gas-vapor mixture from the reactor is served in the hardening device 10 (ed. St. USSR N 1221227 from 23.05.83, CL 10 G 9/28), the purpose of which in addition to the main purpose of rapid temperature reduction for termination reactions of thermal decomposition and secondary reactions of polymerization and polycondensation and separation of heavy tar fraction is that the gas-vapor mixture is purified from neulovimoy dust, which eliminates clogging subsequent flues Komsomolskyi the FSD. Gas-vapor mixture together with carried out the solid particles is introduced into the quenching device 10 tangentially at a temperature of 450-750oC. the formed vortex flow through the nozzle, which is located along the axis of the apparatus, chilled water, the evaporation of which the temperature of the gas mixture is reduced to a level sufficient to stop unwanted reactions (300-400oC). Solid particles by centrifugal force against the wall of the quenching device 10 and washed with thermostable film of liquid, which is served in its upper annular cover. As thermostable liquid use condensed heavy fraction of vapor-gas mixture, which, after cooling in the water E of recirculate. The carrying of the heavy fraction of trapped particles to display in the manufacture of bituminous materials 81 for the production of fuel briquettes and roofing material.

The cooled vapor-gas mixture together with water vapor serves under the bottom plate of the rectifying column 9, creating an upward movement of steam and gas flow across the cross section and the height of the column. From the bottom of the column is taken at a temperature of 300-350oC heavy fraction of the condensed resin, which, after cooling in the refrigerator water surface 78 of the type served by the pump 66 for irrigation in the middle part of the column at a temperature of 200-250oC. the Balance of this faction resin pump 66 also serves on the own needs of the installation as fuel for Autonomous furnace 58 and heater gasifier 4, as well as for further processing in a distillation compartment 80 for the production of bitumen. Thus, in the lower part of the column is implemented by a counter, in which the ascending gas stream is enriched with a highly volatile component, and the descending liquid high-boiling hydrocarbons.

C the lower plate of the upper part of the column select average fraction of the resin (180-320oC) and is served by a pump 67 for further UP>With by filing for irrigation on the top plate part of the light fraction (90-180oC) selected in the reflux condenser 79 and the remaining part of the light fraction is served by the pump 65 for further processing in a distillation compartment 80.

High-calorific gas from the reflux condenser serves for combustion in the steam boiler 12. Steam boiler thus operates on gaseous fuel: high-calorie gas and high-temperature flue gas, which contains fine solid particles, Neulovimye two-stage cyclone cleaned air heater gasifier 4. To capture these particles after air heater boiler install additional system 60 thin vacuum cleaners (fabric filter or electrostatic precipitator). From this system, vacuum cleaners, and dry funnel of a steam boiler 5 dust independent streams are directed to the production of construction materials 62 and production of bituminous materials 81. The latter point is important because in the production of building materials at different stages require different particles, but pretty close dispersible composition. The proposed installation is technological fractionating captured solid particles, as the 12 and the system 60 thin vacuum cleaners. Dedusted flue gases released into the atmosphere. In a steam boiler pump 68 serves khimochistka water which may partially be selected after a water economizer in a quality product hot water, and the remainder after overheating in the form of water vapor. In addition, water is pumped into a water refrigerators 77, 78 surface type and a reflux condenser 79, where it is heated, is a commodity product with hot water.

The proposed method and installation by allowing a counter-current movement in the reactor in the fluidized bed mode a mixture of solid carbon-containing material and solid carrier and water vapor supplied into the lower part of the reactor, to provide them with intensive stirring, while reducing operational and capital costs, as energy input pair is used only to overcome the hydraulic resistance of the gas path, and reducing consumption of steam fed to the reactor, reduces the dimensions of the distillation system.

Heating of the solid coolant heater-gasifier produced in the fluidized bed mode, which ensures long time contacting the solid material with a gas-oxidant, Spa efficiency of the installation. Implemented installation supply system in the fluidized bed of particles of a solid carrier and material - water, water vapor, gaseous and liquid fuels, as well as limestone and sand allows to process on the proposed method, various solid carbonaceous materials that vary widely in their characteristics: moisture content, ash content, sulfur content. This achieves the required environmental performance with a reduction to acceptable emissions of oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and fine particulate matter.

Reduction of emission of sulfur compounds is achieved by the binding of the sulfur in the stages of thermal decomposition of carbonaceous materials, and post-combustion of the solid residue oxides of calcium contained in the area of material or limestone, with the formation of harmless sulfate compounds, a type of plaster that is removed from the installation. The reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides is achieved by post-combustion of the organic part of the material in the heater-gasifier at relatively low temperatures (up to 950oC) in which the nitrogen contained in the solid material, practically not involved in the formation of nitrogen oxides. Therefore, oxides of nitrogen, m is jigani, for example, natural gas. But at this stage reduces the formation of oxides of nitrogen by supplying to the combustion zone of gaseous fuel flue gases from the heater gasifier temperatures up to 950oC, i.e., implemented the so-called recirculation system to reduce the temperature in the combustion zone by entering the flue gases. Reduction of dust emissions into the environment is provided a multi-stage cyclonic cleaning stage decomposition of carbon-containing materials, wet cleaning in the quenching device, and applying a thin flue gas after the steam boiler.

In addition, the proposed method is non-waste technology for the processing of various carbonaceous materials. A wide range of adverse commodity products, in addition to the production of heat and electricity, includes valuable liquid products and solid products (adsorbents and construction materials). In addition to the saturation of the market with consumer goods, this leads to reduce the payback period of the installation.

Alignment of the reactor and heater gasifier in a single unit makes installation compact, with a minimum to the lower capital costs. Placement of cyclone gasification products inside the heater gasifier provides recycling of the collected dust in a fluidized bed by a straight, vertical risers, which contributes to the reliable operation of the transport pipes in a favorable hydraulic conditions, when the system of the circulation loop of rigid material hydraulically closed.

To improve mixing of solid material and gas-oxidant, as well as increasing the residence time of the solid material in the heater gasifier, thereby increasing the energy efficiency of the unit for complete afterburning of fuel, means for supplying a gas-oxidant made in the form of radial tubes and connected thereto distribution pipes with nozzles. Nozzle connected to the lower sectors of the pipe at an acute angle to the horizon and down-directed in different directions from the axis of the distribution tube, thereby reducing the abrasive wear of the nozzles to ensure uniform distribution of the gas-coolant throughout the cross section of the heater gasifier.

C in order to reduce abrasion and increase turnaround installation means for supplying a pair in realm, pointing downwards at an acute angle to the axis of the device and in the direction of its axis. This arrangement of nozzles allows you to create a uniform cross-sectional area of the reactor upward movement of vapor phase toward the downward flow of particles, repeatedly changing the direction by means of the angle plates, and adjacent walls are displaced relative to each other and in horizontal projection partially overlap each other.

The angle plates are removable, allowing you to make short-term repairs and inspection of the reactor during stops in minimum time and with minimum costs. Outlet for the steam in the reactor as a gas-oxidizing agent in the heater gasifier made in the form of nozzles. Due to the high velocities of the gaseous environments of nozzles around them creates an intense vortex dust streams, which are subjected to erosion calibrated orifice nozzles, requiring in this case replacement. Proposed installation of nozzles are replaced individually without replacing switchgear, in which they are mounted, which reduces operational and capital costs.

1. The method of thermal decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials with espulso in the reactor, having a variable cross-section, of the particles of carbonaceous materials in its middle part, the supply of steam to the bottom of the reactor and feeding the heated solid heat carrier, the contacting of the particulate material and fluid in the fluidized bed mode, heating the particles to a temperature of thermal decomposition, separation of dust from the resulting combined-cycle of products, the return of dust in a fluidized bed of particles, the exhaust steam and gas products for the separation, removal of the mixture of waste solids and solid carrier, feeding them into the heater-gasifier in an upward flow of inert gas, heating a mixture of particles in the zone of oxidation of the heater gasifier in the presence of a gas-oxidizing agent and the flow of heated particles as the solid carrier in the reactor compartment formed in the zone of oxidation gases from solid particles and returning the solid particles in the zone of oxidation gasifier-heater, characterized in that the heated solid heat carrier served in the middle part of the reactor in a fluidized layer of a mixture of particles and fluid, placing the mixture of exhaust particulate material and fluid from the lower portion of the reactor.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the mixture of waste solids e-gasifier is carried out in the fluidized bed mode.

3. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that in the fluidized bed of particles of the solid carrier and the material injected water vapor and/or water and/or gas or liquid fuel.

4. The method according to PP.2 and 3, characterized in that in the fluidized bed of particles of the solid carrier and the material is injected limestone or sand.

5. Installation for thermal decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials using solid carrier containing a reactor having a vertical housing of variable cross-section, provided with a means for inputting the processed material in the middle portion, means for injection of steam into the lower part and the outlet for removal of vapor-gas products from the top, the heater gasifier having a vertical casing provided with a means for supplying a gas-oxidant and nozzles for removal of gaseous gasification products from top and solid heat carrier from the bottom, pressure riser connected to the reactor and the upper end of the heater-gasifier, drain standpipe, connected to the top end to the bottom of the heater-gasifier and the lower end of the reactor cyclones combined-cycle products, located inside the reactor vessel in his ver the La venting steam and gas products, system for separation of steam and gas products, including a distillation column connected to the outlet for removal of vapor-gas products, cyclone gasification products with nozzles for removal of dust and exhaust the products of gasification, connected to the heater-gasifier, wherein the lower discharge end of the riser is connected to the lower part of the heater's housing-gasifier, and the lower end of the discharge riser is connected to the lower part of the reactor vessel.

6. Installation under item 5, characterized in that the heater gasifier is located above the reactor and coaxially with it, the lower part of the heater gasifier has a diameter larger than the diameter of the upper extended part of the reactor, the pressure and drain risers is provided with a temperature compensator arranged vertically and symmetrically with respect to the axis of the reactor and at a distance L from the axis, satisfies the relation

0.5 D1> L > 0.5 D2,

where D1the diameter of the lower part of the heater's housing-gasifier;

D2the greatest diameter of the upper part of the reactor vessel.

7. Installation on PP.5 and 6, characterized in that the heater gasifier is equipped with means for supplying a liquid, and/or hazoor the AC on PP. 5-7, characterized in that the cyclone gasification products are located inside the heater gasifier, in its upper part, and the nozzles for dust removal is directed in the fluidized bed of solid heat carrier and waste fuel particles.

9. Installation on PP. 5-8, characterized in that it is equipped with a steam boiler connected to the pipe for removal of gaseous products of gasification of the heater gasifier.

10. Installation on PP. 5-9, characterized in that it is equipped with a quenching device, connected to the inlet to the outlet for removal of vapor-gas product from the reactor and one output to a distillation column, and another exit to the vessel for collecting liquid products quenching.

11. Installation on PP. 5-10, characterized in that it is equipped with a refrigerator solid material with means for input of water vapor and/or water, connected by the entrance to the lower part of the reactor and the outlet to the top of the heater gasifier.

12. The reactor for the decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials using solid carrier comprising a vertical casing of variable cross-section from inlet to exhaust steam and gas products, sredstvami solid carrier, pressure pipe for removal of solid heat carrier, means for injection of steam into the lower part of the body, cyclones combined-cycle products, located inside the housing in its upper part with nozzles for dust removal in a fluidized bed of particulate material and a solid carrier and nozzles for removal of vapor-gas product, wherein the lower discharge end of the riser is connected to the Central part of the body, and the lower end of the discharge riser is connected to the lower part of the body.

13. The reactor under item 12, characterized in that it is equipped with an inclined removable baffles located in the lower part of the body, adjacent partitions are shifted relative to each other and in horizontal projection partially overlap each other.

14. Reactor PP. 12 and 13, characterized in that the means for the input pair is made in the form of horizontal pipes located under the inclined bottom walls and provided with nozzles directed downward at an acute angle to the body axis and in the direction of the axis of the housing.

15. Heater-gasifier solid carrier used in the decomposition of solid carbonaceous materials, comprising a vertical casing, a discharge pipe for entry of solid teplonositeley the top end to the bottom of the housing, means for supplying a gas-oxidant, an outlet for removal of the products of gasification, are connected to the upper part of the body, and the cyclone gasification products with nozzles for removal of dust and nozzles for removal of gaseous products of gasification, connected to the housing, characterized in that it has means for supplying a liquid and/or gaseous fuel, water and/or steam, is connected to the middle part of the casing, means for supplying a gas-oxidant made in the form of radial tubes and connected thereto distribution pipes with nozzles, and a nozzle connected to the lower sectors of the pipes, located at an acute angle to the horizontal and facing down in different directions from the axis of the distribution tube, discharge runoff to enter the solid carrier is connected to the top end to the bottom of the hull.

16. Heater-gasifier under item 15, characterized in that the cyclone gasification products are located inside the housing in its upper part, the nozzles for dust removal is directed in the fluidized bed of solid heat carrier and particulate material.

17. Heater-gasifier on PP. 15 and 16, characterized in that the means for supplying a liquid and/or gaseous fuel, ificati on PP. 15-17, characterized in that it is provided with means for the supply of limestone or sand.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to a device for thermal processing of solid fuels: peat, coal, wood, other hydrocarbon solids, and metal-containing materials

The invention relates to the field of chemical engineering and can be used to produce synthesis gas from solid fuels

FIELD: pyrolysis and gasification of solid organic agents or mixtures of organic agents.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes introduction of raw materials in one or several drying and pyrolysis reactors with one or several reactors with movable bed or one or several rotating reactors or one or several rotating reactors and reactors with movable bed for contact with material of fluidized combustion bed containing only ash of organic agent or unburnt carbon residues of organic agents and additional material of fluidized bed for contact with material of fluidized bed and reactor wall of fluidized combustion bed. As a result, water vapor and pyrolysis products containing condensable components and solid carbon residues are formed. Solid carbon residues or solid carbon residues and part of water vapor and pyrolysis gas with condensable components and material of fluidized bed are returned to fluidized combustion layer where carbon reside of organic components is burnt. Material of fluidized bed is heated and is again directed to pyrolysis reactor where pyrolysis residues performing function of stationary fluidized bed are burnt. After drying, water vapor and pyrolysis gases with condensable components are subjected to treatment in additional reaction zones of indirect heat exchanger at addition of vapor, oxygen and air or their mixture to pyrolysis gas or to heat exchanger in order to obtain gaseous product at high calorific power. Device proposed for realization of this method includes pyrolysis reactor, fluidized combustion bead for pyrolysis residue and reaction zone for pyrolysis gases.

EFFECT: increased calorific power.

15 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and facility for thermal processing of high-ash and low-calorie solid fuels and may be used in coal-processing, oil and chemical, shale-processing industries. Solid fuel is supplied to facility and is milled there. After that, fuel is dried and supplied to preliminary preparation chamber for gross raw material to be subjected to pyrolysis. Tar oil or bitumen and black oil fuel in liquid state are supplied to the same chamber through oil waste preparation units. Tar oil, bitumen and black oil fuel are sprayed to the surface of dried milled fuel. Part of high-sulfur wastes are supplied to process boiling bed furnace to neutral or oxidising zone with temperature 600-750°C. Other part of sulfur-free wastes are supplied to restoration zone of boiling bed reactor where pyrolysis takes place at 400-500°C. Generated steam and gas mixture is cleaned and condensed with the production of valuable liquid and gas products. Solid carbonic residue - semi-coke is incinerated in process furnace where solid coolant is produced. Excess of semi-coke are discharged for further use as raw material.

EFFECT: utilisation of liquid hydrocarbon wastes in high-ash low-calorie solid fuel processing in boiling bed with solid coolant and increase of liquid and gas hydrocarbons output.

5 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method and system for refined fuel thermal processing with solid heat carrier, can be used in fuel processing, chemical industries and power engineering. Fuel is dried in gas pipe, heated up in adsorbing exchanger by mixing with gas-vapour mixture and low-temperature coke; gas-vapour mixture and solid phase are separated in cyclone separator. Solid phase from adsorbing exchanger and from cyclone separator is mixed with solid heat carrier in mixing hopper of pyrolysis reactor and supplied to pyrolysis. Fuel is pyrolysed in air-fluidised bed with solid heat carrier in pyrolysis reactor designed as two base-connected cones with concave curvilinear generating. Activated carbon is produced by low-temperature coke fractionation 1-6 mm in separation unit consisting of louvre dust-concentrator, cyclone separator and ejector. Residual low-temperature coke is supplied with gas-vapour mixture to adsorbing exchanger. Gas-vapour mixture processed in cyclone separator is supplied to additional cyclone separator with low-temperature coke delivery. Solid heat carrier is delivered to coke heater with air-fluidised bed equipped with muffle with burners, in-built cyclone separators and bypasses, and returned to pyrolysis. Combustion gas containing dust-like particles is exhausted by bypass to gas pipe for adjustable drying of fuel. Allows for higher efficiency of fuel processing and for production of dust-free low-temperature coke.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of fuel processing and production of dust-free low-temperature coke.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: technological processes, fuel.

SUBSTANCE: method includes drying of solid fuel, its pyrolysis in reactor in fluidizated layer with solid coolant with preparation of steam-gas mixture and coal char, their discharge from reactor and separation. Steam-gas mixture is cleaned, and part of it is burned in combustion chamber of gas turbine with generation of electric energy and utilization of exhaust gases. Coal char is separated into coal char separator into two flows by fractions. Coarse fraction is sent to activator for production of activated coal, and the fine one - into gas generator for preparation of generator gas, which is then cleaned and conditioned together with remaining part of cleaned steam-gas mixture to prepare synthesis-gas, which is supplied to reactor for synthesis of liquid carbohydrates. Solid coolant is heated in technological furnace by its partial combustion with production of smoke gases and returned to pyrolysis reactor. At that prepared activated coal is directed as sorption material for purification of steam-gas mixture and generator gas, and spent activated coal is returned back to gasification stage.

EFFECT: maximum possible amount of high-quality liquid fuels of wide purpose with simultaneous efficient power generation by application of gas tube installation.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method of complex thermochemical solid fuel processing consists in drying and grinding of fuel to dusty condition. Pyrolysis is carried out to produce a steam and gas mixture and coal char. The steam and gas mixture is exposed to multistage division. At the first stage products are released, which are not exposed to further decomposition, such as di- and triphenyl methane, pyrene, diphenyl, phenanthren, chrysene. At the second stage naphthalene and hydroxynaphthalene is released, which make it possible to produce coal oil and are sent to a system of steam and gas mixture cleaning from benzol. At the third stage a light resin fraction is released. After multistage separation a coke gas is cleaned from hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and benzol. The cleaned coke gas is burnt in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine. Steam is produced, and combustion products are recycled in a recovery boiler. The produced steam is used during steam-oxygen gasification of a part of coal char. Activated carbon is produced from the remaining part of coal char, which is used as a sorbent. Also a plant is proposed for complex thermochemical processing of solid fuel.

EFFECT: complex processing of solid fuel with serial discharge of division products.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an apparatus for producing a pyrolysis product. The apparatus includes: a pyrolysis reactor (2) for forming pyrolysis product fractions from raw material by fast pyrolysis, a separating device (4) for separating fractions from pyrolysis product fractions after pyrolysis, a condensing device (3) for condensing gaseous pyrolysis product fractions to mainly liquid pyrolysis product fractions, a combustion boiler (1) arranged in conjunction with the pyrolysis reactor, a heat carrier which is heated in the combustion boiler and is used to transfer energy, and feeding devices (5, 6, 22) for feeding raw materials into the pyrolysis reactor and the combustion boiler. The apparatus is characterised by that the separating device (4) is arranged substantially in conjunction with the pyrolysis reactor (2) for separating fractions, different from the gaseous pyrolysis product fractions, from the gaseous pyrolysis product fractions after pyrolysis, wherein fractions different from gaseous pyrolysis product fractions also include a heat carrier, and said apparatus has means (13) for feeding fractions different from the gaseous pyrolysis product fractions the from the separator (4) to the combustion boiler (1), and said apparatus has means of feeding a by-product stream, a residue stream and/or a waste stream into the combustion boiler, said streams being selected from the following streams: non-condensible gases (10) from the condensing device, gaseous combustion product fraction (19), waste stream (23) from the feed material of the pyrolysis reactor and solid substances (21) from the condensing device, and said apparatus has means (9) of feeding heat carrier from the combustion boiler (1) into the pyrolysis reactor (2), and said apparatus has means of feeding carrier gas (14) into the pyrolysis reactor (2), and said apparatus has means of preparing a mixture of feed material (6) for the pyrolysis reactor and carrier gas (14) and means of feeding heated heat carrier (9) into the mixture of feed material for the pyrolysis reactor and the carrier gas.

EFFECT: apparatus enables to avoid the need to feed additional fuel into a pyrolysis reactor, and also enables to use different process streams, streams of by-products and undesirable intermediate/end products efficiently.

14 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of conducting pyrolysis using a bubble fluidised layer boiler involves feeding solid fuel into a pyrolysis apparatus (4) having means (5) of feeding fluidising gas and one or more outlet openings (6) for removing condensed gaseous substances separated from the pyrolysed fuel into a condenser (8) through a line (7). The means (5) of feeding fluidising gas are arranged such that they form crossing streams of fluidising gas towards the direction of feeding the fluidised layer material and fuel. The fluidised layer material is fed from the furnace (1) of the boiler through an adjoining wall into the pyrolysis apparatus (4).

EFFECT: invention improves efficiency and provides longer dwell time of material in pyrolysis conditions.

18 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of conducting pyrolysis involves feeding first starting material into a burning boiler and feeding second staring material into a pyrolysis reactor (a). Energy is obtained from the first starting material in the burning boiler and then transferred from the burning boiler to the pyrolysis reactor by a heat carrier (b). The heat carrier is heated in the burning boiler (c). Gaseous and liquid product fractions are obtained in the pyrolysis reactor from the second starting material via fast rapid pyrolysis (d). The second starting material is mixed with a carrier gas to obtain a mixture, and the heat carrier heated in the burning boiler is fed into said mixture (e). The heat carrier is pumped in a closed system from the burning boiler to the pyrolysis reactor and from the pyrolysis reactor to the burning boiler through a separation step (f). Most of the streams of by-products, residues and wastes are fed into the burning boiler (g).

EFFECT: invention enables to simultaneously obtain heat energy and pyrolysis products using an environmentally safe method.

11 cl, 8 ex

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises recycling carrier material obtained at combustion 1 in the boiler fluidised bed to combustion process in pyrolysis 4b. Here, said material is mixed with solid propellant to extract condensable gaseous substances by heat released by hot carrier material incidental to offgas. Then, it is separated from offgas in separator 3 and forced by gravity between said separator 3 and combustion process in pyrolysis 4b. Wherein condensed gases are separated by fluidisation from said carrier mix and propellant. Now gases are separated from gas flow 7 of pyrolysis and converted into fluid as so-called pyrolysis oil. This method differs from known processes in that pyrolysis 4b is staged in boiler combustion chamber with circulating fluidised bed wherefrom carrier material coke and other combustibles mixed with carrier are forced via one or more return outlet pipes into combustion chamber. Invention covers the device for pyrolysis including combustion chamber 1 for combustion in fluidised bed, pyrolysis reactor 4 for circulation of carrier material in combustion in fluidised bed between combustion chamber and pyrolysis reactor. Note here that it additionally comprises fuel feed means 4, fluidising gas feed means 5 arranged in pyrolysis reactor and outlet 6 to extract condensable gases fro aid reactor 4 and gases condenser 8. Note that carrier material is circulated in combustion chamber simultaneously with hot offgas flow. Separator 3 is located above pyrolysis reactor 4. Said separator can separated carrier material from offgas. Circulation circuit comprises connection pipeline 11, 12 between separator 3 and pyrolysis reactor 4 to transfer carrier material by gravity to reactor 4 and return pipe 12, 12' between reactor 4 and combustion chamber 1 to feed carrier material to combustion chamber 1. Note that outlet 6 is made in pyrolysis reactor chamber 4, at its top section over the mix of carrier material fluidised bed with propellant, to discharge condensed gases from said reactor. Proposed device differs from known designs in that pyrolysis chamber is confined by combustion chamber 1 communicated via one or more return outlet 12` With combustion chamber 1.

EFFECT: simplified circulation circuit.

18 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: to obtain synthesis-gas from biomass performed is preliminary processing of biomass, including biomass crushing until particles with size 1-6 mm are obtained and drying raw material to moisture 10-20 wt %. After that, pyrolysis of biomass is carried out by means of fast pyrolysis technology, with temperature of pyrolysis layer being 400-600C, and time of location of gaseous phase on pyrolysis layer being 0.5-5 s. Product of pyrolysis layer is pyrolysis gas and coal powder. Pyrolysis gas is separated from coal powder and solid heat carrier by means of cyclone separator. After that, coal powder and solid heat carrier are separated in separator to separate solid phases, coal powder is charged into coal powder bin for accumulation, solid heat carrier is heated in chamber of boiling layer heating and solid heat carrier is supplied to pyrolysis layer for re-use. After that, pyrolysis gas is supplied to condensate accumulator to condense aerosol and condensation of condensable part of pyrolysis gas is carried out to form bio-oil, after that formed bio-oil is pumped by high pressure oil pump and supplied to gasification furnace for gasification. One part of non-condensed pyrolysis gas is supplied on combustion layer for combustion with air, and the other part of non-condensed pyrolysis gas is supplied on pyrolysis layer as fluidising medium.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase gasification effectiveness, stability and reliability of installation for obtaining synthesis gas from biomass.

9 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: solid fossil fuel processing.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing both organic and mineral parts of shale while simultaneously utilizing crude oil residues (goudrons). Processing comprises separation of shale into two products: concentrate of combustible part containing 70-90% organic mass and concentrate of noncombustible part containing 80-90% calcium carbonate with a small admixture of magnesium carbonate. Concentrate of combustible part in the form of organic mass with residual shale oil fractions or crude oil residues is subjected thermal dissolution at temperature up to 430°C to give light liquid products and solid residue having softening temperature above 90°C. In this case, another solvent is used, namely petroleum goudrons, whereas noncombustible part concentrate is processed into cement according to conventional technology. Concentrate of organic mass of concentrated shale is dissolved on heating at solvent-to-concentrated shale weight ratio (1-30):1 for 0.25 to 1 h.

EFFECT: increased yield of light petroleum products.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: thermal processing of low-grade solid fuels such as blacks and brown coal.

SUBSTANCE: method involves grinding low-grade solid fuels; drying; providing pyrolysis using solid heat-carrier in conjunction with hydrocarbon wastes to produce gaseous-vapor mixture and solid hydrocarbon residue; purifying and condensing gaseous-vapor mixture to produce valuable liquid and gaseous products; burning solid hydrocarbon residue to produce mixture of solid heat-carrier with combustion gases; separating combustion gases from solid heat-carrier. Hydrocarbon wastes are liquid hydrocarbons, bitumen, gas-tars and petroleum residues, which are preliminarily added to fuel after drying stage and to hot solid heat-carrier in contact chamber. Thereafter, resulted mixture is fed to pyrolysis stage in reactor. Apparatus for thermal processing of low-grade solid fuels such as blacks and brown coal is also described in Specification.

EFFECT: increased yield of low-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels including motor fuels due to additional pyrolysis of natural bitumen and petroleum residues.

6 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and facility for thermal processing of high-ash and low-calorie solid fuels and may be used in coal-processing, oil and chemical, shale-processing industries. Solid fuel is supplied to facility and is milled there. After that, fuel is dried and supplied to preliminary preparation chamber for gross raw material to be subjected to pyrolysis. Tar oil or bitumen and black oil fuel in liquid state are supplied to the same chamber through oil waste preparation units. Tar oil, bitumen and black oil fuel are sprayed to the surface of dried milled fuel. Part of high-sulfur wastes are supplied to process boiling bed furnace to neutral or oxidising zone with temperature 600-750°C. Other part of sulfur-free wastes are supplied to restoration zone of boiling bed reactor where pyrolysis takes place at 400-500°C. Generated steam and gas mixture is cleaned and condensed with the production of valuable liquid and gas products. Solid carbonic residue - semi-coke is incinerated in process furnace where solid coolant is produced. Excess of semi-coke are discharged for further use as raw material.

EFFECT: utilisation of liquid hydrocarbon wastes in high-ash low-calorie solid fuel processing in boiling bed with solid coolant and increase of liquid and gas hydrocarbons output.

5 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to thermal processing of slate coal and can be employed in slate coal processing industry, power engineering, for production of chemical raw material, liquid and gaseous power carriers, for production of cement, concrete, and also in agriculture. Method incorporates crumbling, drying of fine-grain slate coal (0-15 mm) with smoke fumes in a dryer of aero-fountain type, mixing of slate coal with a solid heat carrier for heating to temperature of pyrolysis and pyrolysis in a reactor with formation of a steam-gaseous mixture of pyrolysis products, directed to condensation, and mineral residue of pyrolysis. Part of organics of the mineral residue is burned in aero-fountain process fire chamber at temperature of de-carbonization not lower, than 900-1000°C and coefficient of circulation of a solid heat carrier 2-3 followed with formation of aero-suspension of hot smoke fumes and de-carbonized ashes. A required amount of ashes is separated from smoke fumes in a divider, the said ashes as a solid heat carrier are directed to mixing with slate coal. The excess of ashes, separated in the cyclone from hot smoke fumes is supplied together with added de-carbonised lime with additives into a mixer of the clinker charge and further for burning of cement clinker into a cement furnace. Following afterburning in an exhaust-heat boiler hot smoke fumes are directed into dryer of aero-fountain type for drying of slate coal.

EFFECT: production of liquid fractions with low contents of mechanical impurities and production of cement clinker.

5 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be employed in chemical and fuel processing industries at production of artificial liquid and gaseous fuel or substitute of oil. Combustible shale is batched into a case 1 of the reactor from a loading hopper 6. A rotating worm 2 propels combustible shale along the case 1 heated to 400-450°C and simultaneously mixes shale. As result of combustible shale contact with a heated wall of the case 1 of the reactor there occurs thermal decomposition of particles of powder fraction of combustible shale with formation of steam-gas mixture consisting of shale oil, shale gas and pyrolised water. Steam-gas mixture is sucked off via an exhaust channel 7. After pyrolysis heated semi-coke is thrown through a pressurised chamber 5 into a receiving hopper 8 for its further after-burning in a fire chamber 9. An air-blower 10 charges air into the fire chamber 9 and further smoke gases of a heat carrier come into a shell 3 of the case 1 of the reactor for pyrolysis implementation.

EFFECT: producing saturated steam-gas mixture with reduced power consumption due to utilisation of exhaust gases, also reducing specific amount of metal in facility.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: prepared fuel is supplied from hopper 1 by feeder 2 in mixer 3, where fuel is mixed with coolant coming from cyclone 4. Mixture of fuel and coolant is sent to pyrolysis reactor 5, where steam and gas mixture is created. Steam and gas mixture after cleaning from suspended particles of ash in settling chamber 6 and cyclone 9 is discharged into device for condensation of steam and gas mixture 10.

EFFECT: stable and efficient operation of plant under conditions of considerably variable heat of combustion.

2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of thermal processing ash-rich solid fuel with obtaining cement clinker involves mixing ground hard-backed and heated solid fuel with a prepared mixture of raw components, semicoking the obtained mixture in the presence of a solid heat carrier, releasing a gas-vapour phase and solid product of semicoking and their separation. The method is distinguished by that, the solid fuel used is slate coal containing (dry substance), wt %: CaO 1.89-30.47, SiO2 17.12-38.52, Al2O3 4.75-12.16, Fe2O3 3.9-6.55, MgO 0.1-2.11, SO3 0.76-4.8, p.p.p.28.0-49.6 or its mixture with raw components, where the latter is obtained from limestone and/or chalk stone and/or gypsum, gaize, pyrite cinder, tripoli, technical alumina, and clay, taken in amounts which provide for obtaining a mixture containing (dry substance), wt %: CaO 43.11-49.42, SiO2 5.52-8.73, Al2O3 0.44-3.22, Fe2O3 0.22-3.83, MgO 0.1-2.0, SO3 0.1-9.97, p.p.p.34.52-41.0. After semicoking, the solid product is subjected to oxidative decomposition at 800-1100C with subsequent separation of the obtained gaseous and solid products, and these solid products are taken directly or after mixture with raw components and decarbonisation of the obtained mixture for burning at 1300-1500C with subsequent cooling of the cement clinker obtained from burning. Solid fuel and the said mixture are taken in amounts which provide for obtaining portland cement clinker, after processing, containing, wt %: CaO 61.8-71.0, SiO2 19.8-24.6, Al2O3 4.4-7.7, Fe2O3 3.4-7.7, MgO 0.6-5.4, SO3 0.7-4.6. Preparation of the said mixture of raw components involves grinding, drying, heating as well as possible decarbonisation of the whole or part of the mixture of raw components at 750-1100C. Decarbonisation is done using heat from gaseous products of burning and/or semicoking, and/or oxidative decomposition, and/or heat from solid products of the latter.

EFFECT: increased degree of utilising heat energy, reduced amount of wastes and obtaining extra products when processing slates.

12 cl, 19 ex, 62 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves drying crushed slate, thermal decomposition using solid heat carrier obtaining a vapour-gas mixture, removal of mechanical impurities from the latter, extraction resin fractions with boiling point above 175C from the vapour-gas mixture, cooling the remaining vapour-gas mixture with its division into low-temperature coking gas, pyroligneous liquor and a gasoline fraction with boiling point below 175C, distillation of the latter with successive extraction of three fractions with boiling points 79 to 90C, 90 to 116C and 116 to 145C, extractive rectification of each of the three fractions in the presence of the same solvent - mixture of N-formylmorpholine and propylenecarbonate with subsequent extraction of thiophene, methylthiophenes and dimethyl-thiophenes from each fraction, respectively.

EFFECT: design of a method for thermal processing high-sulphur slate, which allows for obtaining valuable target chemical substances from the thiophene family, with cost effective and efficient processing of high-sulphur slate.

1 dwg, 3 ex

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