Method of manufacturing turbine blades

 

(57) Abstract:

The inventive method of manufacturing a turbine blade containing the stylus shank and, if necessary, the retaining plate is carried out by obtaining a casting in the form of a turbine blade alloy-based gamma-aluminide titanium with additives in the range of 0.5 to 8 atomic percent. Then the billet is subjected to hot isostatic pressing. Spend hot plastic deformation of the shank and the retaining plate with the formation of material with fine-grained structure. Carry out the heat treatment, at least part of the cast billets. The heat treatment are using induction heating at a temperature of 1200oC-1400oC. Hot plastic deformation are within the specified range of temperature and strain rate. To do this, it is possible to use a forging press. Before hot plastic deformation and heat treatment is conducted homogenization at a given temperature. Hot isostatic pressing is carried out at a given pressure in a certain temperature range. 1 C. p. 8 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, namely, to methods of manufacturing turbine necessary, the retaining plate by obtaining a billet of an alloy containing titanium and additives, forming hot isothermal plastic deformation with single or multiple machining the part corresponding to the shank, heat treatment, and removing excess metal from the processed workpiece to obtain the finished product /1/.

The disadvantage of this method is the relatively low quality of turbine blades due to the low ductility of the material of the blades, which negatively affects their life.

The technical result achieved by the present invention is to increase the service life of the blades in terms of bending loads.

This is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing a turbine blade containing the stylus shank and, if necessary, the plastic shroud, by obtaining a billet of an alloy containing titanium and additives, forming hot isothermal plastic deformation with single or multiple machining the part corresponding to the shank, heat treatment, and removing excess metal from the processed workpiece to obtain the finished product, according to the invention, the workpiece is made by molding on the languid interest, at least one or more elements: B, Co, Cr, Gr, Hf, Mn, Mo, Nb, Pd, Si, Ta, and then the cast billet is subjected to hot isostatic pressing, conduct specified hot plastic deformation of the shank and the retaining plate with the formation of fine-grained material structure, heat treatment are, at least part of the hot isostatic pressed the ways of cast billets, corresponding Peru turbine blades before or after the hot isothermal plastic deformation with the formation of a material with a coarse-grained structure.

The heat treatment is carried out using induction heating. The heat treatment is carried out at a temperature from 1200oWith up to 1400oC. Hot plastic deformation is produced in the range from 1050oC to 1200oWhen the strain rate in the range from 5.10-5c-1up to 10-2c-1to the extent the landing of 1.6, and

< / BR>
where h0 is the initial height of the products

h height of the product after processing pressure.

Hot plastic deformation is carried out in a forging press. Graciliformis part of the procurement process in the final press landing in at least two of the example is almost goryacheotsinkovannoy the workpiece before the hot isothermal plastic deformation is cooled to room temperature and then heated at speeds ranging from 10oC/min to 50oC/min to the temperature of the hot plastic deformation. The workpiece prior to hot plastic deformation and heat treatment homogenized at a temperature of from 1000oC to 1100oC. Hot isostatic pressing is carried out at a temperature of 1200oC-1300oC and a pressure of 100-150 MPa.

The most important advantage is from a technological point of view that the blade is a solid, suitable for the economic production of the casting. In addition, this method can be a simple way implemented in mass production through the use of such common tools as molds, ovens, presses, mechanical and electrochemical equipment.

Preferred examples of execution of this invention and achieved with their help, the more advantages are highlighted below using drawings.

In Fig.1 is annealed isostatically hot-pressed subjected to hot pressure treatment and thermally treated casting, from which by treatment with removal of material produced turbine blade according to this invention; Fig.2 the finished product.

According SPNA, subjected to hot pressure treatment and thermally treated casting possesses the basic properties of the material and shape of the turbine blades according to this invention. It contains stretches in the length of the pen 1, adjacent one end of the shank 2 and adjacent to the second end of the retaining plate 3. From the casting by a slight removal of material to produce a turbine blade according to this invention. Machining to remove material consists mainly in making casting dimensions in a given size turbine blades. For shank 2 and the retaining plate 3 is successfully produced by grinding and polishing. It is possible also to form the fastening grooves 4 Christmas type on the shank of the blade depicted in the figure by the dashed lines. Peru blades with success give a defined shape by electrochemical processing.

Figure casting consists essentially of an alloy on the basis of gamma-aluminide titanium with impurity substances. At least in some parts of the pen 1 this alloy is present in the form of a material having a coarse structure and structure, resulting in high tensile strength and high PDI is there in the form of material, with fine-grained structure and high ductility in comparison with material in the re-1. This achieves high durability of turbine blades. This is due, firstly, to the fact that the feather blades, which during operation of the turbine under the action of high temperatures, due to its coarse-grained structure and its structure has good tensile strength and long lasting durability that do not impact small plasticity of this part at low temperatures. Secondly, and this is due to the fact that during operation of the turbine the shank of the blade and shroud plate are subjected to relatively low temperatures and therefore, because of its fine-grained structure and its buildings have a high ductility in comparison with material in the plumage of the scapula. Consequently, the shank of the blade and shroud plate can for a long period of time to perceive relatively large torsional and bending forces without the formation of cracks caused by internal stresses.

Turbine blade according to this invention, can be used at medium and high temperatures, i.e., when temperature is ispolneniya gas turbine or compressor blade may have a plate 3 or to not have it.

Casting according to the picture produced as described below. In a protective gas atmosphere, such as argon, or in vacuum induction furnace smelted the following alloy on the basis of gamma-aluminide titanium with chromium as an impurity substance:

Aluminum 48 at.

Chrome 3 at.

Titanium Else.

Other suitable alloys include gamma titanium aluminides, in which the impurity element contains one or more elements such as boron, cobalt, chromium, germanium, hafnium, manganese, molybdenum, niobium, palladium, silicon, tantalum, vanadium, yttrium, tungsten, and zirconium. The amount of the impurity substance is preferably 0.5 to 8 at.

The melt is poured into a mold corresponding to the manufactured blade. Then, the resulting casting is suitable for homogenization annealed at about 1100oC for approximately 10 hours in an argon atmosphere and cool to room temperature. Then remove the linear crust and a layer of slag, dross, removing, for example, the surface layer thickness of about 1 mm by mechanical or chemical means. Casting purified from dross, placed in the proper capsule from soft carbon steel and welded to moving at a temperature of 120oC for 3 hours under a pressure of 120 PA.

Annealing of the alloy depending on the chemical composition to produce at a temperature of 1000-1100oC for at least half an hour and no more than 30 hours. This also applies to hot isostatic pressing, which should be performed at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300oC and a pressure of 100-150 MPa for at least 1 hour and not more than 5 hours.

Followed by one or multiple isothermal hot pressure treatment that part Ottorino and isostatically hot-pressed casting, which corresponds to the shank 2 and the retaining plate 3 with the formation of the material grain structure, and heat treatment at least that part of annealed and isostatically hot-pressed casting, which corresponds Peru 1 before isothermal processing or after the formation of coarse material structure.

This can go two ways. Going on the first path, is subjected to heat treatment annealed and isostatically hot-pressed casting before isothermal hot pressure treatment with the formation of coarse material structure, while selecting the second PU is subjected to heat treatment after isothermal hot working pressure with the formation of coarse material structure. Was appropriate before isothermal hot pressure treatment heat annealed and isostatically hot-pressed casting speeds of 10-50oC / minute to a temperature required for hot forming.

Going on the first path, heat the casting to a temperature of 1200-1400oAnd depending on the heating temperature and the chemical composition of the alloy is subjected to heat treatment for 0.5 to 25 hours. When cooling is possible to perform the heat treatment for further 1-5 hours. After heat treatment, the casting has a coarse structure and structure, resulting in high tensile strength and high creep strength. The last heat treatment, the casting is heated to 1100oC and maintained at this temperature. Then isothermal forging the shank 2 and/or the retaining plate 3 at 1100oC. Used tool is the forging die of the molybdenum alloy grades ZM of the following composition:

Titanium 0.5 to by weight

Zirconium is 0.1%

Carbon 0,02%

Molybdenum Else

Yield strength wykonywania material is roughly 260 MPa at 1100oC. the Forging is carried out by landing at a level landing 1,3, and
Linear strain-rate (the speed of the RAM in the forging press) is in the beginning of the process of forging 0.1 mm/s The initial pressure in the press about 300 MPa.

Depending on the chemical composition of the alloy hot pressure treatment can be carried out at temperatures in the range 1050-1200oWith the rate of deformation 510-5- 10-2c-1to the extent the landing of 1.6. Thus, it is expedient obtained by hot working pressure part, i.e., the shank 2 of the scapula, and (if available) of the retaining plate 3, to plant in the forging press first in at least two directions transversely to the longitudinal axis of the turbine blades, and then finally to otkapivat to the final form. Finally forged parts have fine-grained structure improved ductility as compared with the material of the pen blades. Turbine blades made of the above-described manner, the tensile strength and ductility of the material in Pere 1 is 390 MPa and 0.3%, respectively, and the shank 2 or shroud plate 3 370 MPa and 1.3%

Going the second way, the casting is heated, for example, with a heating rate of 10-50oC / minute to 1100oC and kept at this temperature. Then isothermal forging the shank 2 and/or the retaining plate 3 at a temperature of 1100oIn accordance with the previously described STRs compared with the material, in re 1 of the scapula.

Then using the induction coil placed around the pen 1 blades, heat up the pen to a temperature of 1200-1400oC depending on the heating temperature and the chemical composition of the alloy is subjected to heat treatment for 0.5 to 25 hours. When cooling is possible to conduct heat treatment for further 1-5 hours. After such heat treatment, the feather blade it has a predominantly coarse-grained structure and structure, resulting in high tensile strength and high creep strength. The turbine blades are made this way, the tensile strength and ductility of the material in re 1 and the shank 2, as in the shroud plate 3 have approximately the same values as in a turbine blade manufactured according to the previously described method.

1. A method of manufacturing a turbine blade containing the stylus shank and, if necessary, the retaining plate by obtaining a billet of an alloy containing titanium and additives, forming hot isothermal plastic deformation with single or multiple machining the part corresponding to the shank, heat treatment, and removing excess metal from processed zagotovka alloy-based gamma-aluminide titanium, containing an additive of 0.5 to 8.0 at. at least one or more elements: B, Co, Cr, Ge, Hf, Mn, Mo, Nb, Pd, Si, Ta, V, Y, W, and Zr, then the cast billet is subjected to hot isostatic pressing, hold hot plastic deformation of the shank and the retaining plate with the formation of material with fine grain size, heat treatment are at least part of the hot isostatic pressed by way of cast billets, corresponding Peru turbine blades before or after the hot isothermal plastic deformation with the formation of a material with a coarse-grained structure.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the heat treatment is carried out using induction heating.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the heat treatment is carried out at 1200 to 1400oC.

4. The method according to p. 1, 2 or 3, characterized in that the hot plastic deformation is produced in the range of 1050 1200oC at strain rate within 510-5>10-2with-1to the extent landing = 1,6, and where h0the initial height, h the height of the product after processing pressure.

5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the hot plasticerum part of the procurement process in the forging press landing in at least two directions transverse to the longitudinal axis of the turbine blades and then otkalyvayut to the end of the form.

7. The method according to PP.1 to 6, characterized in that isostatically goryacheotsinkovannoy the workpiece before the hot isothermal plastic deformation is cooled to room temperature and then heated at a rate of 10 to 50 degrees. /min until the temperature of the hot plastic deformation.

8. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 7, characterized in that the workpiece prior to hot plastic deformation and heat treatment homogenized at 1000 - 1100oC.

9. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 8, characterized in that the hot isostatic pressing is carried out at 1200 to 1300oC and 100 to 150 MPa.

 

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