The method of determining the strain and stress of the structural elements and the device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:Usage: in the field of non-destructive testing and allows high performance to estimate the parameters of the strain and stress. The invention is: to improve the performance of the estimation of parameters in the method including forming a light image of the object before and after deformation, converting the optical image into an electrical signal, a digital calculation mutually correlation functions (MCFs), a light image is incremented and stored in the first optically controlled transparency (OTM), and a light image of the deformed object is incremented and stored in the second SETUP, simultaneous reading, filtering, multiplication and integration of the original and deformed images and the position of the maximum MCFs are determined by the strain and stress. In a device containing a laser, camera, interface, computer, display, and monitor introduced, in addition to the two DMOS, microscope, plain and semi-transparent mirrors, optical gates, blocks read, a controlled power supply unit, synchronization unit, filters, integrating lens, an additional interface. 2 C. p. F.-ly, 9 Il. Izobreteniya and so on) and allows high performance to estimate the parameters of stress and strain.The known method and device for recording the deformation arising from the application of deforming forces, containing the light source illuminating the object with coherent light, the focusing and shifting optical element, which accepts reflecting from the object coherent light generates interfering focused image of the object, shifting one relative to another in the transverse direction of the device for recording the interferogram resulting from the interference of focused images  the principle of the method and device based on the analysis splinterfaction images taken before and after exposure to the effort.The disadvantage of this method and device is that you cannot fast (rapid) assessment of deformations and stresses due to the need for pre-memory (commit) images on the film.The closest technical solution of the invention is a method and apparatus for determining stress and strain of pipelines, pressure vessels and structural elements containing the source that directs a beam of light on the surface of the test object, the optical receiver (televisio is connected with the monitor, the microcomputer (with display), performing a comparison of the stored and current paintings 
A disadvantage of the known method and device is in a low speed because of the need to process all incoming information to the microcomputer.The purpose of the invention is to improve the performance of determining the amount of deformation and stress of the structural elements.This goal is achieved by the fact that:
1. In a known method for determining the strain and stress of structural elements, including the formation of a light image of the object before and after deformation, converting the optical image into an electrical signal, a digital calculation mutually correlation function, the parameters of which calculate the strain and stress, it has a light image of the original object is incremented and stored in the first optically controlled transparency, and a light image of the deformed object is incremented and stored in the second optically controlled transparency, simultaneous reading, filtering, multiplication and integration of the original and deformed images and the position of the maximum mutually korrelyatsionnoi object and connected in series television camera and interface, one output connected to a monitor, the other two with the television camera, and a bidirectional bus with the microcomputer, the output is connected to the display, between the object and the optical input of the television camera is connected in series United microscope, the first semi-transparent mirror, a first optical shutter that controls input connected to the output of the additionally introduced interface, the first optically controlled transparency, two separate inputs connected to the output of the controlled power supply managed optical transparency, the first block is read, a second input connected to the output of the control unit and synchronization, the first filter, the first mirror, the second semitransparent mirror and a lens, and between the output of the first semi-transparent and the second input of the second semi-transparent mirror is in series connected second mirror, the second optical shutter, a second input connected to the output of an additional interface, the second optically controlled transparency, two separate inputs connected to the output of the controlled power supply managed optical transparency, a second input connected to the second control unit and the synchronization alnum inputs of the first optically controlled transparency and the second optically controlled transparency, and some additional output interface connected to the bidirectional bus of the microcomputer, and the other separate output optional interface connected to the inputs of the controlled power supply unit optically controlled transparencies and control and synchronization, the first input coupled to the input of the first laser and the other input via the additionally introduced a second laser to the second input of the first semi-transparent mirror.The introduction of the microscope, the first and second mirrors, the first and second semi-transparent mirror, the first and second optical shutters of the first and second optically controlled transparencies, the first and second blocks are read, the control unit and the synchronization of the controlled power supply unit optically controlled transparencies, the first and second filters, lenses, additional interface and additional laser allows high performance to determine the required characteristics of the investigated area of the object due to the formation of proximity measures (mutually correlation function) in the optical range.Comparative analysis of the prototype and the proposed technical solution allows to conclude that the technical solution meets the criterion of "h is described filters, optically controlled transparencies for registration of compared images and the formation of mutually correlation function. The presence of distinctive signs, are not known in the technical solutions, allows to make a conclusion on whether the claimed solution to the criterion of "significant differences".In Fig.1 shows a structural diagram of a device.In Fig.2 given the basic (optical) of the device.In Fig. 3 presents images (reference and current) generated in the speckle effect.In Fig.4 Dan variant optically controlled transparency.In Fig. 5 shows an electrical diagram of a variant of the controlled power supply unit optically controlled transparencies.In Fig.6 given the structural scheme of the optical shutter.In Fig.7 Dan variant of the control unit and synchronization.In Fig.8 shows diagrams of control units and synchronization.In Fig. 9 shows a block diagram of computers (analysis of the correlation function).The device in Fig.1 contains the following elements:
1 laser (with collimator);
2 laser (lens);
3 object (research);
4 micro is Amy banner (POUT);
8 the first block read (CBE);
9 the first filter;
10 first mirror;
11 the second semi-transparent mirror;
13 camera (TC);
15 of microcomputers;
18 controlled power supply unit optically controlled transparencies (ABOUT);
19 power management and synchronization (BEADS);
20 the second mirror;
21, the second optical shutter;
22 second optically controlled transparency (PLANES);
23 the second block read (VBS);
24 the second filter (EOF);
25 additional interface (DI).From the structural diagram shown in Fig.1, it follows that the output of the laser 1 is connected through serially connected object 3, the microscope 4, the first semi-transparent mirror 5, the first optical shutter 6, PART 7, CBE 8, the first filter 9, the first mirror 10, the second semitransparent mirror 11, a lens 12, TC 13 and the interface 14 to the input (via a bidirectional bus) the microcomputer 15; the output of the microcomputer 15 is connected to the input of the display 16; a separate output interface 14 is connected to the monitor 17, a separate output of the first semi-transparent mirror 5 is connected through serially connected second mirror 20, the second optical shutter 21, the second optically addressable Tran is sensible output interface 25 is connected to separate inputs of the BEADS 19, ABOUT 18, the first optical shutter 6 and the second optical shutter 21; separate outputs of the BEADS 19 are connected to the inputs of laser 1 and laser 2; the output of the laser 2 is connected to a separate input of the first semi-transparent mirror 5; single exit CBE 8 is connected to a separate input of PART 7, and a separate exit VBS 23 separate entrance PLANES 22; the microcomputer 15 is connected to DI 25 bidirectional bus.The principle of the proposed device is based on correlation and extreme processing compare images  the Device operates cyclically: 1) preparation of optically controlled transparencies to work; 2) recording the reference image (EI); 3) record the current image (TI); 4) the formation of mutually correlation functions (MCFs); 5) analysis of MCFs (assessment of displacement of the deformed portion of the object relative to the reference).At the first stage of the cycle is the preparation of optically controlled transparencies 7, 22 to record the image. For this to corresponding inputs of POT and PLANES 22 of ABOUT 18 is energized polarization. Simultaneously, from laser 2 (containing the collimating lens capable of ashadawi light beam) through the first semitransparent mirror 5, a second mirror 20 through otcr banners) uniform light output. After a preparatory period ( 30 NS) [6, page 68 69] the device is ready to record the reference and current images (EI, TI).In the second phase of the cycle with the help of laser 1 (containing the collimating lens capable of radiating a beam of light) is illuminated region of the investigated object 3. When the illumination of the object 3, containing an optically rough surface when changing the height of the terrain are of the order of the wavelength of the incident light is observed speckle effect, which represents the image in the form of a granular structure [4, page 60 of 61] Each portion of the object 3 with a speckle image. This image is perceived and reinforced by the microscope 4 (which is PME-1 or STS-9). After that, through the semi-transparent mirror 5, the optical shutter 6, the first read image (i.e., EI) is supplied to PART 7. At the same time on PART 7 served with UBOUT UZap.considered one of th.the voltage of the write-read. After recording the image in PART 7 optical shutter 6 is closed.After recording EI similarly formed and is written T, which corresponds to the same portion of the object 3, but in a deformed state. TI is obtained by reflection of the laser beam light objetor 21 on PLANES 22. At the same time on PLANES 22 served with ABOUT 18 voltage recording-reading. After recording the TEE is closed, the second optical shutter 21 and starts the reading process TI and EI. Moreover, EI is read from PART 7 using PBS 8 and t PLANES 22 using VBS 23. Read image (EI, TI) are respectively the filters 9, 24, which represents a frosted glass, with which the scattering of a parallel beam of light (i.e., the conversion of coherent light incoherent). This operation is necessary for the formation of the correlation functions, the implementation of which requires spatial multiplication and summation of the two functions. Next image with filters 9, 24 are received through the respective mirrors 10, 11 on the lens 12 forming mutually correlation function (MCFs) TI and EI. Optical image MCFs is read by the television camera 13, the photosensitive surface of which is in the focal plane of the lens 12.Received mutually correlation function between EI and TI is described by the following expression 
< / BR>where UxUylinear and angular misalignment of TI relative to EI; F2(x1y1) function describing T; F1(x2xUy, i.e., the shear strain field is relatively undeformed.After the formation of MCFs final processing of the expression (1) is produced by the microcomputer 15, which via the interface 14 is connected with a television camera 15. Recall that further define the magnitude of the strain and stress of the portion of the object.It is known that the magnitude of the stress and strain of the surface can be calculated at any point of the object surface  expressions for the components of the deformation are determined in the following way:
< / BR>< / BR>< / BR>< / BR>xz=K= 0,
wherexx,yy,zz, xy,xzcomponents of deformation of the object surface along the respective axes X, Y, Z; Poisson's ratio.Stress components are determined from the strain components on the ratios of stress and strain from the formula:
< / BR>where E is the modulus of elasticity; thermal expansion coefficient; DT temperature change of the object;ijthe distortion tensor;ijmatrix deformation.Thus, the computer determining the values UxUyevaluates components diamm 15 also controls via an optional interface 25 the work of the BEADS 19 ABOUT 18 and optical gates 6, 21. The text of the program and the measurement results are displayed on the display 16.In Fig.2 shows the optical part of the device.The device contains the following elements:
1 laser (with collimator);
3 object (research);
5, 11 first and second semi-transparent mirror;
6, 21 of the first and second optical shutters;
7 the first optically controlled transparency (POUT);
8, 23 of the first and second blocks read;
9, 24 of the first and second filters;
10, 20, the first and second mirrors;
12, 29, 30 lens;
13 television camera;
22 second optically controlled transparency (PLANES);
26 the beam splitting element (prism, Glan-Thomson);
28 extender (reflector).As already mentioned, the first is the preparation of optically controlled transparencies 7 and 22 to record the image. To do this, from blocks of high voltage ABOUT is the polarization voltage to the corresponding electrode PART and PLANES 22. At the same time from the laser 2 through the lens 30, the semi-transparent mirror 5 and the mirror 20, through the open optical gates 6, 21 is supplied uniform light output, which is active for photopreviewvideo laser 1, perceived increases the microscope 4 and through the semi-transparent mirror 5 and the first (open) optical shutter 6 is supplied to PART 7. Similarly recorded TEE coming through the microscope 4, the semi-transparent mirror 5, the mirror 20 and the second (outdoor) optical shutter 21 on PLANES 22. Next is the reading of EI and TI with banners 7, 22, carried out by the blocks read 8, 23. PBS 8 and VBS 23 are identical and are as follows [5, page 99 -100]
Reading is performed in the mode to "reflection", which is the separation of the input and output of the read light provided by the beam-splitting element 26 (e.g., prism, Glan-Thomson). For the formation of the readout beam using the laser 27, the light beam which passes through the expander (reflector) 28 and lens 29 on the input plane of the element 26. Then the light through the element 26 is supplied to PART 7 and PLANES 22, is reflected from the mirror electrodes, reproducing the geometrical relief EI and TI, and passes through the element 26 to the lens 30. At the same time on PART 7 and PLANES 22 is energized write-read through the electronic switches of the power supply 18.Then EI is fed through the filter 9 (frosted glass), mirrors the 24 and the semi-transparent mirror 11.In Fig. 3 presents EI and TEE (part of image elements shown by arrows). As you can see, the speckle images are bitmap images, the relative shift which has to be determined.In Fig.4 shows the structure of managed optical transparency [5, page 201, 202] Banner operates as follows.Modulation of light based on the use of deformation magnetoterapia when reorientation of the domains used in the design of the device Ferricon (Ferroelectric Iconoscope). Magnetoterapia 33 on both sides of the superimposed layers of photosensitive semiconductor 32, over which is applied a conductive electrodes, with the input side of the translucent 31, and the output mirror 34. Before writing to the electrodes apply a voltage pre-polarization Ufloorto obtain the saturated residual polarization normal to the surfaces and evenly shining device on the input side through the translucent electrode 31.The parameters of semiconductor and ferroelectric chosen so that no clipping voltage was applied mainly to the layers of the photoconductor. Then to the electrodes connect the voltage recording with polarity reverse voltage is on the structure of the projected image surface 3 (through the microscope 4 and the semi-transparent mirror 5). In lit areas, there is a transfer voltage so that the external bias applied to the ferroelectric. On these sites is a local reorientation of the domains, the direction of which depends on the magnitude of the applied voltage at this point. Reorientation of domains is accompanied by the emergence of local mechanical stresses causing deformation of the surface of the ceramic plate, and hence the deformation of the output conductive mirror electrode. Formed on its surface geometric relief will reproduce the distribution of light in the recorded image.To erase the information is made uniform illumination patterns active for the photoconductor with light while applying to the electrodes a voltage of the pre-polarization.In Fig. 5 shows a circuit diagram of a managed power supply managed optical transparency.ABOUT consists of the following elements [8, page 31]
35 scheme AND;
36 the scheme, OR;
37 switch (relay);
38, 49 diode;
40, 47, 50 transistors;
41, 43, 48, 51, 63 resistors;
42, 44, 45, 46, 53 62 capacitors;
52 Trana (transistors 47, 50 (V2 V3)), the transformer 52 and the voltage multiplier, the assembled elements 54 70, in addition, ABOUT includes flowcharts AND / OR (35 36), is used to activate the mode "Write" or "Erase" EI or T, and the switch 37 (with corresponding groups of contacts K1.1 K2.3) used to enable (disable) high-voltage power supply.ABOUT consists of two identical blocks for power POUT 7 and PLANES 22.Works of ABOUT as follows.The inclusion of the power supply occurs on signals "Write EI", "Erase EI, Write T", "Erase TEE coming from the interface 25. Upon receipt of any of these signals enables the generator to be built on the transistors 47, 50, and into the primary winding of the transformer 52 is supplied voltage. The transformer 52 increases the voltage, the further increase in the voltage provided by the multiplier (items 54 70). In case of arrival of a signal Entry "EI" (or "Record TI) the relay coil 37 is de-energized and the first half of the multiplier. Voltage write read appropriate polarity at PART 7.When the signal "Erasing EI", "Erase TI through the key switches on the relay 37 (K1). It enables the multiplier (second Poluchenie voltage to erase the image, recorded in PART 7, PLANES 22.In Fig.6 shows a variant of the optical shutter 6, 21. The optical shutter consists of the following elements [6, page 183]
72 electrodes.The optical shutter is a waveguide modulator. Feeding him with interface 25 logical "1" (control voltage Upanelmodulator transmits the optical signal is fed to the input (II). Otherwise, the modulator interrupts the optical signal (optical signal-Iois missing).In Fig.7 shows a variant of the control unit and the synchronization 19. This unit is made for the case-control lasers that do not have a system control microcomputer (for example, from micro electronics-60"). BEADS includes four identical switch 73 to 76, including the appropriate lasers 1, 2 according to the control signals coming from the interface 25.Each of the switches 73 76 contains the following elements:
77, 81 resistor;
82 the condenser.The operation of such a switch is simple. The control signal coming from the interface 25, opens the transistor 79 (VT1), which feeds napryajennaya 8, 23.BEADS performs the following sequence of operations:
1) enable laser 1 when the signal interface 25 Entry "EI", "Write TI;
2) enable laser 2 when the signal "Erase";
3) inclusion of lasers in PBS 8 and VBS 23 when the signal "Read".It should be noted that the specific implementation of the BEADS depends on the type of lasers. If they can manage (enable) signal U 5V, the necessity in this part of the NECKLACE disappears, management will occur directly from the interface 25.An embodiment of the interface 14 is described in [3, page 202 206] the Interface 14 is a buffer storage device (BLT), allowing to remember the image being captured (read) by the camera 13, and to output the image MCFs on the screen of the monitor 17. The BLT also provides the control BUS 19, ABOUT 18 and optical gates 6, 21. As the interface 14 can be used as a standard interface I2 
In Fig. 8 shows time diagrams of the blocks of the device (electrical and light signals in the optical part of the device) in accordance with the control signals of the microcomputer. All necessary explanations are given in the figure.In Fig. what about the values of FF (which is determined by the displacement of the deformed portion of the object relative to the undeformed area). The algorithm starts with memorizing image MCFs in the interface 14 and rewriting it in the memory of the microcomputer (block 83). It then creates a window (at points) 3x3 (block 84) which is used for the analysis of MCFs and made a rough estimate of the coordinates of the greatest values FF (block 85). If the highest value of FF is in the center of the neighborhood (block 86), then the approximation (smoothing) function, calculating the coordinates (blocks 87) and processing the received result (block 89). If the highest value of FF is not in the center of the neighborhood, that determines the direction of movement to the extremum (R) (block 88), the census and the formation of new points (blocks 90, 91) and repeat the algorithm. The program is implemented in C, Kwasik and Assembler.The proposed method allows higher performance to evaluate the deformation and stress due to the formation of FF TI and EI in the optical range, and not on the microcomputer, as in the known method. It also significantly decreases the amount of information processed microcomputers.The proposed device has a higher performance compared with the known. We will show this. The performance of the proposed Stroiteli offered by the device;
tWPI.ydetermining the deformation of the known device.We define the performance of the proposed device
< / BR>where t1the time of passage of the light flux from the laser 2 to PART 7 and PLANES 22; t2preparing PART 7 and PLANES 22 to record images (erase information stored in the optical managed banners); t3the time of passage of the light flux from the laser 1 to PART 7; t4the recording time of the reference image in PART 7; t5time mechanical deformation of the object of study; t6the time of passage of the laser beam 1 to PLANES 22 (record the current image); t7the recording time of the current image PLANES 22; t8the readout time of the image carried out by the CBE 8 and VBS 23 with appropriate banners 7, 22 (this performance is due to the technical characteristics of PART 7, PLANES 22, ABOUT 18, BEADS 19); t9the time of passage of the light fluxes of the laser from the PBS 8 and VBS 23 to the television camera 13; t10the recording time of the optical image MCFs in the interface 14; t11the analysis MCFs on the microcomputer 15 (time estimation of deformation); t12the time required for the microcomputer 15 and the interface 25 to the control optical sat the , t3, t6, t9you can ignore because of the smallness compared to the times t2, t4, t5, t7, t8, t10, t11(this is due to the passage of the rays at the speed of light between the respective blocks of the device). Thus t1t3t6t90. In addition, the time t5deformation of the object can also not be ignored, because it does not depend on the realization of devices and is a constant value.Times t2, t4, t7, t8when used as a ferroelectric lithium niobate doped with iron, equal to 310-9s and more [6, page 69] Time t102010-3for image MCFs size 256256 (3, page 211] and time t11+ t121,210-5S. Thus tso I(310-9)4 + 2 10-2+ 1,210-50,02012 C.The performance of the known device is defined by the following expression:
< / BR>where t'1the time of passage of the light flux from the laser 1 to 3 and then to the television camera 13; t'2the recording time of EI in the memory interface 14; t'3the recording time T in the memory interface 14; t'4the time spent on the deformation of the object 3; t'5the processing of nano not included because of the flow at the speed of light. Times t'2t'32010-3from [3, page 211] the Time t'4can not be considered as time t5. Time t'515 (for image size 256256) and more.Substituting the data into the formula (4), we get
tWPI.y2010-3+ 2010-3+ 15 with 15,04 C.Finally by the formula (2), we obtain
< / BR>Thus the proposed device in 745,5 times faster defines the deformation of the portion of the object. 2 4 1. The method of determining the strain and stress of structural elements, including the formation of a light image of the object before and after deformation, converting the optical image into an electrical signal, the digital calculation of the mutual-correlation function of the parameters which calculate the strain and stress, characterized in that the light image of the original object is incremented and stored in the first show optical transparency, and a light image of the deformed object is incremented and stored in the second optically controlled transparency, simultaneous reading, filtering for light leakage, which carries information about the image, the multiplication and integration of the source and the deformation is I strain and tension.2. A device for determining the strain and stress of structural elements, containing a laser for illuminating the object and connected in series television camera and interface, one output connected to a monitor, the other two with the television camera, and a bidirectional bus with the computing unit, an output connected to the display, characterized in that it introduced a second laser, microscope, first and second semi-transparent mirror, the first and second optical shutters of the first and second optically controlled transparencies, the first and second blocks are read, the first and second filters, the first and second mirrors, a lens, an additional interface, managed supply unit optically controlled transparencies and power management and synchronization, and the microscope, the entrance of which is optically associated with the object, and the output optically connected to the input of a television camera connected in series through the first semitransparent mirror, a first optical shutter, managing input connected to the output of the added interface of the first optical controlled transparency, two separate inputs connected to the outputs of the controlled power supply managed optical transparency is Tr the first mirror, the second semitransparent mirror and the lens and between the output of the first semi-transparent and the second input of the second semi-transparent mirror is in series connected second mirror, the second optical shutter, a second input connected to the output of an additional interface, the second optically controlled transparency, two separate inputs connected to the outputs of the controlled power supply unit optically controlled transparencies, the second block is read, a second input connected to the second output of the control unit and synchronization, and the second filter, and the output signals of the first block is read and the second block is read connected to separate inputs of the first optically controlled transparency and the second optically controlled transparency, and some additional output interface is connected to a bidirectional bus with the computing unit, and the other separate output optional interface connected to the inputs of the controlled power supply unit optically controlled transparencies and control and synchronization, the first output coupled to the input of the first laser, and another exit through the additionally introduced a second laser with a second input of the first popup the
FIELD: the invention refers to control of the state for example of textile materials at their interaction with working parts of technological equipment.
SUBSTANCE: the essence is in scanning the surface of the moving material with the aid of the sensitive element of a piezo-converter. The average value of the current linear sizes of the structural elements are calculated according to the number of the impulses generated by a piezo-converter and defined by the quantity of the elements of the structure (for example by the number of weave units) on the reference length of the part of the moving object. Periodically the received results are compared with the corresponding starting data of the structure of the rigid part of the material.
EFFECT: increases accuracy of the evaluation of the strain-deformed state of the moving easily deformed materials of a grid-type structure with simultaneous simplification of technical realization.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; repair of vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: vehicle with damage body is lifted to preset height relative to floor, and check points on body are chosen. Part of points are arranged of sound part of body. Additional check point is marked on floor under bottom of body. Said point should be located at a distance from bottom not less than one fourth of maximum distance between chosen check points. Distances between all check points are measured, and basing on obtained data, three coordinates of all chosen check points are calculated by computer with determination of distribution of said check points in space. Then, by turning, check points of damage body are registered with similar check points in computer data base belonging to body of standard vehicle. Distribution of check points received in measurement is compared with distribution of check points in standard vehicle and, basing on results of measurement, value and direction of deformations of damaged body are determined.
EFFECT: simplified method at preservation of high accuracy of determination of deformations.
1 ex, 3 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: deformation detecting element with dispersion structures consists of piezoelectric plates on whose surface there is at least one interdigital converter and at least two dispersion reflecting structures, which uses the response lag time of the deformation detecting element as an information signal. The reflecting structures are on two sides of the interdigital transducers. The information signal can also be in form of the wave form or central frequency of a frequency-modulated probing signal, which ensures maximum amplitude response value of the deformation detecting element with dispersion structures.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measuring deformation owing to use of information on the central frequency of the device.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus consists of a basic direction selector (BDS), sighting targets (ST), radiator control devices (RCD), a preprocessing unit (PPU) a unit interfacing device (UID) and a processing unit (PU), whose first inputs and outputs are connected to the RCD. The second output is connected to a display, the second, third and fourth inputs are connected to a keyboard, a temperature sensor and a reference temperature sensor mounted on the housing of the BDS, respectively. The fifth input of the PU is connected to a BDS amplifier through series connected PPU and UID, and the third input of the PU is connected through the UID to the second input of the PPU. The BDS includes series-arranged power supply and control unit (PCU), optical image coordinate receiver (OICR), which is in form of a matrix-type photosensitive charge-coupled device, the output of which is connected to an amplifier, a lens, which is optically interfaced through a prism block with sighting targets which are located at the controlled points of the object within the field of vision of the lens in corresponding optical channels formed by said prism block. Each sighting target is placed on the perimeter of the object, wherein the number of sighting targets is not less than the number of points determining the geometric shape of the object, and has a radiator connected to the first output of the corresponding RCD, and an air temperature sensor whose output is connected to the second input of the corresponding RCD. Special cases of the design of the apparatus are characterised by that, each radiator is in form of a semiconductor emitting diode; the processing unit, the keyboard and the display are merged into a unit which is in form of a portable computer; the lens, OICR, PCU and amplifier merged into a unit which is in form of a television camera.
EFFECT: providing the possibility of controlling the deformation profile of an elongated object, maximum angle of torque of the structure, as well as high accuracy of measurements while maintaining high speed of operation of the system.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: digital multi-component motion sensor comprising a body, a recording unit, a sensitive element with motion sensors, connected into an electric circuit, differing by the fact that the elastic body of the sensor is made in the form of a monoblock from a composite material by winding of a tape of a thermoplastic material with further polymerisation of layers, with placement of deformation strain sensors in its layers, current-conducting elements and contact groups, mounted in layers of the body, the above monoblock of the body has the following structure of the layers differing according to performed functions within the body, counting from outside to inside, a protective layer, which protects elements of the sensor against environmental impact, a layer that levels thickness, comprising holes and grooves for protruding parts of the next layer, an instrumental layer comprising strain sensors, current-conducting elements and contact groups, a support layer that perceives load during writing of a handwritten text, an element of transfer of axial pressure of the writing unit is made in the form of a hollow rod with a writing unit installed in it and connected by the end with the sensitive element, made in the form of an elastic membrane jammed in the in the sensor's body, besides, the element of transfer of the axial movement of the writing unit is made in the form of a ball, contacting with a piezoelement, such as a piezoelement of direct effect of movements, besides, the axis of sensitivity of the piezoelement matches with the longitudinal axis of the sensor.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of a device due to selective measurement of static or smoothly changing movements along all directions of space with their subsequent digitisation, in particular, development of a small-size device in the form of a pen; rating of the movement of the writing unit during writing of a handwritten text for subsequent statistic treatment; obtaining higher reliability, since in solid multi-layer body the sensors are protected against unfavourable conditions of environment, besides, during manufacturing of the body an excessive quantity of sensors may be installed in its layers, which, whenever necessary, may be readjusted.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes, at depth h of the medium, performing deformation thereof with pressure p through a hard flat die, determining the modulus of overall and elastic deformation of the medium E0 (kG/cm2), Eel (kG/cm2), measuring the uniform thickness of the medium under the die with a width w (cm) or diameter d (cm), wherein the method includes, at the depth h of the structured medium, determining its internal friction angle and specific cohesion cstr (kG/cm2), calculating the internal friction angle of a medium with a disturbed structure as and specific cohesion thereof determining the value of the actively compressed thickness of the material medium under the die using the relationship - for an elastic structured medium and - for a medium with a disturbed structure, where d (cm) is the diameter of a circular die equivalent to a rectangular die w×l (cm×cm) with a side w<l; the value of elastic deformation of the decompressed medium under die pressure is calculated using the relationship and the value of active collapse of the material medium under excess die pressure p (kG/cm2) in the medium is determined from the relationship
EFFECT: simple method of determining elastic and overall deformation of a compressible material medium.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in defining module Eo (MPa) of general deformation and modulus of elasticity Eelast (MPa), internal friction angle of structured medium and its specific adhesion Ctcs (MPa), setting value of external pressure p (MPa) on deformable medium at preliminary calculated values of gravity (domestic) pressure at specified depth h of medium mass analysis total deformation compressed by die elastoviscoplastic (ground) material medium is defined by relationship where Stcs (cm) is elastic draught medium , SH (cm) is sludge medium with deformed structure, B (cm) is width of flat die, is diameter of circular die equivalent to rectangular with side B, Fd (cm2) is area of round stamp, νtcs and νH are values of coefficients of relative transverse deformation of deformable medium in structured and disturbed condition, defined by relationship: in a medium as and in walls of vertical mine and under conditions of compressive compression - and and - is strength parameters of medium with deformed structure and deformation of elastic flexible peat medium is determined from relationship where is peat modulus of elasticity (MPa).
EFFECT: disclosed is method for determining deformation of material medium under pressure.