Method heat to the spacecraft and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:Usage: in spacecraft in zero gravity, as well as at different accelerations for heat dissipation. Summary of the invention in the working space of the coolant circulating in at least one circulation duct, and evaporated environment are in mutual heat transfer contact, and heat together with steam is discharged to the atmosphere surrounding the spacecraft. Contact resulting in heat transfer, occurs in at least two spatially separated zones of the working volume, and these zones are variable values of pressure and temperature, and the cooling liquid and the evaporated medium is passed through these stages in the following order: coolant first passes through the notch from the highest pressure and temperature, and then through stages with gradually decreasing pressure and/or temperature. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 8 C. p. F.-ly, 1 Il. The invention relates to a method of heat dissipation and device for carrying out the method for spacecraft that during starting and landing pass through the earth's atmosphere or from the safe and the safe discharge of the heat in the application of evaporative heat exchangers.The basic principle of the heat sink when using such heat exchangers is that the cooled medium circulating in the active circuit for the implementation of the heat sink is in heat exchange contact with the evaporated medium, which is contained in aboard a spacecraft tank and subsequently discharged in the form of vapor into the surrounding atmosphere.In order to optimize the use of evaporated environment, achieving the most complete evaporation, it is very important to achieve the best possible thermal contact, and consequently, the most comprehensive heat transfer between the cooling fluid, on the one hand, and evaporated environment, on the other hand.The closest analogue is the evaporative heat exchanger in which the coolant flows openly through the workspace, while the evaporated medium enters this space through a separate, usually arranged in sections, channels. The coolant passes through the aperture located in the workspace, to create a tortuous flow (1).One of the requirements for heat exchangers of this t is the fluid (water in this case) at the outlet of the heat exchanger must be maintained at a constant level, of 6oC.As evaporated environment in the present case, the selected liquid ammonia (NH3) that flows into the evaporator from the corresponding reservoir through the injection system and discharged after evaporation into the environment. The temperature of the ammonia present in the tank is from 0 to 70oC, the pressure corresponds to the saturated vapor pressure or increases due to the supply of gaseous nitrogen or helium through the inlet pipe from the tank for the storage of these gases.When the flow of liquid ammonia in the evaporator pressure decreases dramatically. Therefore, immediately after the injection valve evaporates as much ammonia as necessary to ensure that the temperature of the incoming liquid after the valve corresponds to the temperature of saturated steam, which is a function of the pressure in the evaporator.In the absence of special technical devices the pressure in the evaporator depends only on the absolute ambient pressure, which is discharged evaporating Amici, and the pressure loss of the flow of ammonia through the exhaust valve, and, under certain circumstances, from pressure surges in the throttling cross-section of the outlet channel.T the th path, to the absorption could be implemented. However, under no circumstances, it should not be so low that in the boundary layer circulation circuit could be local icing.Since such heat exchangers must be operated in vacuum conditions (about 600 PA) and at normal atmospheric pressure (101.3 kPa) and in connection with a wide range of heat loads generated flows vaporous ammonia varying intensity, the pressure during the evaporation, and hence the evaporation temperature varies depending on the load and the specified mode: when the greatest load the evaporation temperature maximum, at partial load, it has the lowest value.For regulating the pressure of the evaporation of ammonia and temperature in the above literature is offered on the input evaporated environment to provide a regulating valve initial pressure and maintain the pressure in the evaporation volume at a constant level regardless of the quantity of steam generated and at the same time from the pressure of the environment. Since the proposed solution requires the installation regulate the awn excluded, then, given the need to create backup option, you will need to provide additional installation of at least one valve and installation of parallel branches with two additional valves. This solution, however, will require the installation of four valves, which means a substantial increase in mass and volume, constructions, and also involves additional cost.An object of the invention is the improvement of the method so simply and without the use of additional mechanical parts to create the possibility of maintaining the temperature of evaporation of the volatile environment regardless of the load pressure and the pressure at such a low level that it was possible permanent removal of the desired amount of heat and at the same time, the temperature was maintained at such a level that was completely eliminated the possibility of ice formation in the boundary layer between the coolant and the details of the site intended for evaporation environment. An additional aim of the invention is to develop a device designed to implement the method.The task is solved in that in the way of heat, according to which RAEE, in one active circuit, and evaporated environment, and heat transfer evaporated environment, which is then in the form of steam output into the surrounding atmosphere, the contact is carried out in two spatially separated stages, in which the set of variable values of pressure and temperature, and the flow of coolant and evaporated environment is organized so that the coolant first passes through the stage with the maximum temperature and maximum pressure, and then through stages with gradually decreasing pressure and/or temperature.In addition, the coolant and evaporated medium is passed through a separate stage in the opposite direction, the cooling fluid is water, and evaporated environment ammonia (NH3values of pressure and temperature are selected so that one of the steps was only a partial evaporation of the volatile environment. In addition, evaporated environment can also be hydrogen (H2), and within each stage the main flow direction of the coolant coincides with the direction evaporated environment.The task of the device for heat dissipation is solved in that the device containing the evaporation is m space which flows a cooling liquid and evaporated environment, the workspace consists of at least two separated from other stages, in which the pressure and temperature are different, and the degree connected with each other by pipelines. In addition, between the steps is set, at least one aperture, and each of the steps posted by bundles of tubes to pass evaporated environment, outside washed by the flow of coolant.The drawing shows a principal sketch of a multi-stage (in this case a three-stage) evaporative heat exchanger. Stages consist of three separated from each other cameras 1-3, located in a common frame, which is not shown in the figure. In each of the cylindrical chambers 1-3 is located on the beam oriented in the longitudinal direction of the tubes, through which passes the evaporated medium (in the case ammonia) and which on the outside are washed by the cooling fluid (in the above example, execution of water).Evaporated medium is injected through the inlet valve 4 into the chamber 1 of the first stage heat exchanger, passes through this chamber and then through a connecting pipe 5 into the chamber 2, which represents the second stage. Hence it through the second plug is camping in pairs, discharged into the atmosphere through the discharge outlet 7.The cooling fluid flow path which presents a continuous, denoted by the numeral 8, a curve, a line is drawn from the outlet 7 into the chamber 3, the third stage heat exchanger. In this chamber it washes located here tubes intended for injection evaporated environment, passes through the connecting pipe into the chamber 2 and, finally, into the chamber 1 where it is being cooled to the required temperature, is returned to the cooling elements of the spacecraft. For ease of consideration, the system of piping for the coolant shown in the figure is not shown.Assuming that the temperature of the coolant flowing into the chamber 3, is in the range 24-65oC, and that the coolant must leave the chamber 1, having a temperature of 6oWith, it is necessary to implement such a mode of cooling the pressure of the ammonia can be estimated to establish the curve of vapor pressure with the additional condition that the temperature of the ammonia should always be below the temperature exposed to the cooling fluid. In this slave is greater than the maximum pressure of the outer atmosphere, preferable, in order to adjust the pressure in the zone of the connecting pipe 5 to mount the diaphragm 9 and to provide to this place the approximate constancy of the flow rate of evaporated environment. This means, on the other hand, I always moved the same amount of heat, so the first stage designed for minimum loads when the coolant temperature at the inlet of approximately 24oC.Thus, for the second stage, in which the cooling water temperature is over 24oC, based on similar assumptions, the maximum water temperature is equal to the 35oC, and the minimum pressure of the evaporated medium 160 kPa. In order that the pressure in the first stage does not exceed 516 kPa, the pressure in the second stage may not exceed approximately 280 kPa.Finally, in the third and last stage, which will involve the installation of additional diaphragm 10, the coolant temperature from its maximum value of 65oC, is reduced to approximately 35oC, on the basis of which the estimated pressure of the evaporated medium is in the range 47-150 kPa.Given the number of the soup liquid and from evaporated environment are the same. Under especially favorable circumstances it turns out that to ensure proper function of the evaporative heat exchanger, namely, the cooling fluid to a constant temperature, component 6oC, and a full translation of the evaporated medium in the vapor phase, may be sufficient two-stage cooling system, which of course is the subject of the present invention. 1. Method heat to the spacecraft in zero gravity, as well as at different accelerations, according to which in the workspace in mutual thermal contact enter the coolant circulating in at least one active circuit, and evaporated environment, and heat transfer evaporated environment, which is then in the form of steam output into the atmosphere, characterized in that the contact needed for heat transfer, carry out at least two spatially separated stages, in which the set of variable values of pressure and temperature, and the flow of coolant and evaporated environment designed what coolant to first pass through the stage with a maximum temperature and max is 2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cooling liquid and the evaporated medium is passed through a separate stage in the opposite direction.3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the cooling fluid is water.4. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the evaporated medium is ammonia (NH3).5. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the values of pressure and temperature, and evaporated environment are selected in such a way that in one of the steps was only a partial evaporation of the volatile environment.6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the evaporated medium is liquid hydrogen (H2).7. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-6, characterized in that within each individual stage the main flow direction of the coolant coincides with the direction evaporated environment.8. The device for heat dissipation in spacecraft in zero gravity, as well as at different accelerations, containing having at least one active circulating coolant circuit evaporative heat exchanger in the working space which flows a cooling liquid and evaporated Serena, in which the pressure and temperature conditions are different, and what stage are connected to each other by the connecting pipelines.9. The device under item 8, characterized in that the connecting pipelines between the different levels there is at least one aperture.10. The device under item 9 or 10, characterized in that each of the speed cameras installed bundles of tubes to pass evaporated environment, outside washed by the flow of coolant.Priority points:
1992 PP. 1, 5, 6, 8, 9;
1991 PP. 2, 3, 4, 7, 10.
FIELD: space technology.
SUBSTANCE: unconfined space of gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator is subject to periodical change at the same average-mass temperature of heat-transfer agent. The ratio of Vi≤(Vi+l+nϕ) 1) is used to judge if leak-proofness corresponds to standard value, where Vi is volume of gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator for i-th measurement, Vi+l is volume of gas chamber of hydropneumatic compensator for subsequent measurement, n is time interval between i-th and i+1 measurement, ϕ is standard value of volumetric loss of heat-transfer agent during specific time interval. Difference in unconfined spaces achieved between (i+1)-th and i-th measurement is used to determine real leakage of heat-transfer agent from system during specific time interval. Current value of unconfined space of system hydro-pneumatic compensator gas chamber is measured instead of measuring working pressure of the system for the same average-mass temperature of heat-transfer agent. Difference between measured spaces related to time interval between measurements has to be value of real leakage of heat-transfer agent observed during specific time interval.
EFFECT: simplified and reliable method of inspection.
FIELD: spacecraft temperature control systems; removal of low-potential heat from on-board systems of spacecraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed trickling cooler-radiator includes heat-transfer agent storage and delivery system, drop generator with acoustic oscillation exciting element, drop collector, transfer pumps and pipe lines. Trickling cooler-radiator is provided with heat stabilization system including heaters mounted on structural members of cooler-radiator and thermostatting units made in form of shield-vacuum insulation of these members. Said system is also provided with bypass pipe line laid between drop generator and collector and provided with volumetric expansion compensator (with electric heater) and automatic temperature control unit ensuring operation of heaters by signals from respective sensors. To reduce emission of heat-transfer agent, trickling cooler-radiator is provided with hydraulic accumulators at drop generator inlet and at drop accumulator outlet. Passages of output grid of drop generator have geometric and hydraulic characteristics varying from axis of symmetry towards periphery for smooth distribution of temperature field. Drop collector may be passive with inner surface formed by walls of one or several slotted passages through which heat-transfer agent is delivered for forming moving film.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; designing artificial satellites.
SUBSTANCE: proposed spacecraft has modules where service equipment is arranged and modules where target equipment and command and measuring devices are located. Optical devices of target equipment of infra-red range with cooled elements are mounted in central module. Radio equipment of on-board repeater is arranged in side modules whose position is changeable relative to position of central module. Optical and command and measuring devices are mounted on one frame at reduced coefficient of linear thermal expansion; they are combined with central module through three articulated supports. Cooled elements of optical devices are connected with radiators located beyond zone of thermal effect; service equipment module is provided with solar batteries having low dynamic effect on accuracy of spacecraft stabilization. Besides that, this module is provided with plasma engine whose working medium excludes contamination of said optical devices.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of spacecraft stabilization; electromagnetic compatibility of systems.
FIELD: spacecraft temperature control systems; ground servicing of upper stages of launch vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes evacuation of system, filling the system with de-aerated amount of heat-transfer agent, flow test of heat-transfer agent, calibrated drainage and setting the working pressure. Subjected to evacuation is inner cavity of system including liquid cavity of compensator; atmospheric pressure is built in gas cavity of compensator separated from its liquid cavity by membrane; filling the system with de-aerated heat-transfer agent is effected at excessive pressure in liquid cavity of compensator equal to 2 atm. In filling the system with heat-transfer agent, remaining air passing through liquid cavity of compensator is accumulated before respective drainage valve. Air is evacuated through this valve when heat-transfer agent flows through main communicated with valve.
EFFECT: reduction of air content in system after filling it with heat-transfer agent.
FIELD: the invention refers to means of temperature control of cosmic apparatus working on geostationary or high elliptical orbits.
SUBSTANCE: the proposed apparatus has an instrument container, located in a heat-insulation shield fulfilled in the form of a cylindrical sleeve with a cut. One butt-end of the instrument container is connected with the bottom of the sleeve with possibility of turning the shield relatively to the instrument container and a purpose sampling apparatus is installed at the other butt-end of the instrument container. A cylindrical radiator-refrigerant with thermal screen is installed axially to the instrument container through thermal outcome. The cosmic apparatus has a thermo buffer filled with heat-accumulating substance with the melting temperature on the level of the working temperature of the purpose sampling apparatus. The radiator-refrigerant is formed with several heat-insulating one from another sectors. Every part is connected with the butt-end of the element of the instrument container with low thermal conductivity and with the thermo buffet by the way of a thermo diode. The thermo duffer is connected with the purpose sampling apparatus by a thermal tube. A labyrinth seal may be fulfilled in the gap between the radiator-refrigerant and its thermal shield.
EFFECT: increases effectiveness of maintaining of the two-level temperature regime of optical systems of remote probe of the EARTH at voluntary orientations relatively to the Sun.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: space engineering; manufacture and ground servicing of spacecraft temperature control systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes filling the evacuated hydraulic main of temperature control system with de-aerated heat-transfer agent by forcing it out of filling truck tank by pressure. First, pressure is built up in gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator; this pressure exceeds pressure of pressurizing gas of filling truck tank. After forcing the heat-transfer agent into hydraulic main of temperature control system, gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator is brought into communication with surrounding atmosphere and its liquid chamber is filled with heat-transfer agent. Then, maximum permissible pressure created above heat-transfer agent in filling truck tank is applied to system, after which minimum free volume of gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator is measured and if measured volume coincides with specified magnitude, decision is made on complete filling of hydro-pneumatic compensator and temperature control system as a whole. Device proposed for realization of this method includes on-board valves and the following ground servicing facilities: filling truck with drain and filling mains, valve control units, vacuum unit, gas pressure source etc. Filling truck is provided with drainage tank connected with on-board and ground components by means of definite fittings. Ground servicing equipment includes reference reservoir fitted with absolute pressure gauge and communicated with atmosphere and on-board vent valve of gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator by means of definite fittings.
EFFECT: improved quality of filling due to separate filling of hydraulic main of temperature control system and liquid chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: communication, TV broadcasting and information retransmission satellites and their heat control systems.
SUBSTANCE: on-board device with concentrated heat source is placed inside inner cavity of heat-insulated closed liquid-radiation heat exchanger and excessive heat from this device is removed to circulating water supply line. Inlet and outlet of liquid cavity of said heat exchanger are connected with delivery and discharge lines of circulating water supply system. Connecting pipe lines are provided with drainage and cutoff valves mounted before inlet and outlet of said liquid cavity below heat exchanger level. Parameters of pipe line running from delivery main of circulating water supply system to inlet of said liquid cavity are selected according to special condition. Box-shaped liquid-radiation heat exchanger consists of two sections with double wall: base and hood; their liquid cavities are communicated with atmosphere through drainage holes provided with shut-off members.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure; reduction of expenses.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of heat control systems of communication, TV broadcasting and retransmission systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes manufacture of at least three similar thermal load simulators 2 at width of contact surface equal to width of web of heat-transfer agent collector. Heat transfer factors (K1,K2, K3) are determined at similar forces of pressing the contact plate of simulators 2 to skin surface of panel 1. Heat-transfer temperature at collector inlet is maintained equal to surrounding temperature. Said heat transfer factors are determined as follows: for simulator (K1) separately mounted on panel; for simulator (K2) mounted between two adjacent simulators in way of motion of heat-transfer agent; for simulator under conditions when other simulators (K3) are mounted opposite web of adjacent turns symmetrically relative to it. Quality of construction and technology of manufacture is judged from the following relationship: K2+K3-K1-ΔKj ≥ [K], where ΔKj is factor of influence of thermal resistance of joint between simulator contact surfaces and skin on heat-transfer factor; [K] is permissible magnitude of heat-transfer factor.
EFFECT: simplified procedure of check of honeycomb panel quality; low cost of manufacture of panels.
FIELD: spacecraft temperature control systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of temperature in areas of radiation surfaces of temperature control system, comparison of these temperatures with upper and low limiting magnitudes and delivery of heat to radiation surface when temperatures are below low magnitudes. Flight intervals at power requirement exceeding power generated by primary onboard power sources are determined. Amount of electric power consumed for temperature control of radiation surfaces is determined at the same intervals. Flight intervals for maximum possible accumulation of thermal energy on radiation surface in said zones within permissible temperatures are also determined. Expenses for radiation surface temperature control is taken into account. Before beginning of flight intervals at consumed electric power exceeding electric power generated by onboard power sources, heat is delivered to radiation surface zones which require consumption of power for their temperature control at these intervals. Delivery of heat is performed with upper limiting magnitudes of temperatures taken into account.
EFFECT: reduced loading of spacecraft power supply system due to reduced power requirement for radiation surface temperature control at retained preset temperature ranges on these surfaces.
FIELD: spacecraft temperature control systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of temperature of spacecraft structural members and onboard equipment and components of rocket propellant, heating them by celestial body heat and conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy as measured temperatures reach low limits of thermostatting range. In flight, intervals of thermal energy accumulation in propellant components (at excess of thermal energy and electric power on board) and intervals of its free liberation are determined. In case expected magnitude of accumulated energy during predetermined interval exceeds upper level for preset volume of propellant, heat of celestial bodies is accumulated till the end of this interval. Otherwise, excess of electric power generated on board is converted into heat which is delivered to propellant components. In predicting release of thermal energy from propellant components, its residual amount required for maintaining the propellant component temperature within required ranges is determined; temperature of structural members and onboard equipment is also measured. In case this temperature exceeds permissible levels, delivery of heat is discontinued. When temperature of propellant component gets beyond threshold magnitudes, removal of heat from propellant components is discontinued. Otherwise, delivery of heat to thermostattable elements and onboard equipment and/or to points of accumulation of heat for subsequent useful conversion is continued till beginning of next interval of accumulation of thermal energy. Then, thermal energy accumulation cycle is repeated.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of accumulation and release of thermal energy; reduced mass and overall dimensions; enhanced heat removal.
FIELD: mechanics, heating.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with the invention, the heat exchanger-modular water heater incorporates one or two modules each comprising, at least, two heat exchanger units integrated by a diffuser to feed a cooling medium and a confuser to withdraw the medium to be cooled, primarily, a turbine hot exhaust gas. It also comprises the manifolds feeding and withdrawing the medium being heated, primarily, air, each communicating, via a tube plate, with, at least, one multi-row bank of multipass heat exchange pipes, the various pipes being furnished with bends varying in number from four to six and forming four rectilinear runs combining their three bends. Note here that the spacing in, at least, one direction, within the band cross section, of a part of the pipes or within their limits, or of, at least, one bank of the pipes out coming from the medium feed manifold, or, at least, in one of the next runs in the same direction does not comply with that of the pipes or a part of them in their bank run right nearby the manifold withdrawing the medium being heated and/or in one of the previous bank runs. The unit of the heat exchange-modular air heater comprises four runs of the heat exchanger pipe multi-row four-pass bank, the said pipes being laid in horizontal rows spaced in horizontal and vertical planes, the manifolds feeding and withdrawing the medium being heated, each being connected, via separate tube plates, with heat exchanger pipes, each tube plate being mounted in the aforesaid manifold walls. Note here that the spacing in, at least, one direction, within the band cross section, of a part of the pipes or within their limits, or of, at least, one bank of the pipes out coming from the medium feed manifold, or, at least, in one of the next runs in the same direction does not comply with that of the pipes or a part of them in their bank run right nearby the manifold withdrawing the medium being heated and/or in one of the previous bank runs. In compliance with the proposed invention, the aforesaid heat exchanger unit-modular air heater comprises a carcass, a bottom, and upper and lower casing walls, a diffuser to feed the medium to be cooled and a confuser to feed the aforesaid medium, manifolds feeding and withdrawing the medium to be heated and furnished with tube plates that form, in every row, an even number of rectilinear multi-pipe banks including, at least, two inner and two outer banks integrated by constant-radius bends. Note here that the unit housing bottom, cover and one of the side walls represent panels with a reinforcement framing elements forming a flat rod systems, while the unit carcass is formed by a set of the aforesaid flat rod systems with intermediate posts inter jointing the aforesaid systems and the manifolds housings rigidly fixed thereto and, in their turn, attached to the unit bottom and inter jointed via two-ring diaphragms and a pipe medium displacer. Note that the parts of the aforesaid manifolds housings with the aforesaid tube plates and pipe medium displacer fitted therein form, when combined, the unit housing rigid face wall while the side walls allow fastening the diffuser and confuser elements. Note here also that the spacing in, at least, one direction, within the band cross section, of a part of the pipes or within their limits, or of, at least, one bank of the pipes out coming from the medium feed manifold, or, at least, in one of the next runs in the same direction does not comply with that of the pipes or a part of them in their bank run right nearby the manifold withdrawing the medium being heated and/or in one of the previous bank runs. In compliance with this invention, the aforesaid heat exchanger unit-modular air heater incorporates a multi-row heat exchanger pipe bank made up of, at least, two bundles of two-pass U-pipes forming, within one bundle, two-run horizontal rows of pipes spaced apart both in rows and between rows, manifolds of feeding and withdrawing the medium being heated and, at least one bypass chamber arranged there between. Note here that the aforesaid manifolds and the bypass chamber communicate with the heat exchanger pipes via a common tube plate or separate tube plates, at least, one part of the said plates forming a part of the aforesaid manifolds enclosure walls. Note also here that the spacing in, at least, one direction, within the band cross section, of a part of the pipes or within their limits, or of, at least, one bank of the pipes out coming from the medium feed manifold, or, at least, in one of the next runs in the same direction does not comply with that of the pipes or a part of them in their bank run right nearby the manifold withdrawing the medium being heated and/or in one of the previous bank runs.
EFFECT: higher heat exchange efficiency, lower metal intensity of regenerative air heater.
34 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: mechanics, heating.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with the invention, the heat exchanger-modular water heater incorporates one or two modules each comprising, at least, two heat exchanger units integrated by a diffuser to feed a cooling medium and a confuser to withdraw the medium to be cooled, primarily, a turbine hot exhaust gas. It also comprises the manifolds feeding and withdrawing the medium being heated, primarily, air, each communicating, via a tube plates fitted directly in the said manifold walls, with the multi-row bank of the four-pass heat exchanger variable standard-size pipes, the said standards sizes being calculated from the ratios covered by this invention and the aforesaid tube plates being secured by appropriated spacers. The multi-row bank can be made up of, at least, two trains of two-pass U-shape pipes integrated by the aforesaid manifolds and, at least, one bypass chamber.
EFFECT: high-efficiency heat exchanger, lower heat exchanger metal input, optimum design and spacers, higher design rigidity, simpler assembly of heat exchange pipe banks.
21 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in feed water heaters of thermal and nuclear power plants. Proposed heat exchanger consists of a shell inside which a central header and vertical tube platens connected with their ends to appropriate central header chambers are installed. At that each platen is made at least of one "П"-shaped section with transverse parts installed in the shell one above the other, and intermediate part wherein external tubes are installed longitudinally on the shell side, and internal tubes are located on the header side. Internal tubes of the intermediate section part are made with additional sections bent in the direction of central header and located between transverse parts of this section. In this case average tube length makes bigger in each platen, which leads to less number of tubes used in each platen, and therefore to velocity increase in tube and intertube spaces of platens and heat exchange intensification, which finally reduces heat exchanger specific amount of metal.
EFFECT: reducing thermal and hydraulic maldistributions in platens, which also improves platen heat exchange and reduces to a greater degree the heat exchanger specific amount of metal.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat engineering and can be used during arrangement of high thermally stressed heat exchanger of nuclear power plant. In heat exchanger consisting of bank of heat exchange coil tubes the ends of which are fixed in tube sheets arranged in the form of a platen, straight sections of several coil tubes are located consequently in one plane, and bent sections are opened to the side from location plane of straight sections; at that, opening of bends of opposite ends, straight sections, is made to different sides.
EFFECT: providing maximum compactness of tube bank of heat exchanger and reaching high degree of heat exchange efficiency owing to arrangement of heat removal surface itself during operation, increasing life time of reliable operation of heat exchanger design at high specific thermal stresses of the volume occupied with it.