Method heat to the spacecraft and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in spacecraft in zero gravity, as well as at different accelerations for heat dissipation. Summary of the invention in the working space of the coolant circulating in at least one circulation duct, and evaporated environment are in mutual heat transfer contact, and heat together with steam is discharged to the atmosphere surrounding the spacecraft. Contact resulting in heat transfer, occurs in at least two spatially separated zones of the working volume, and these zones are variable values of pressure and temperature, and the cooling liquid and the evaporated medium is passed through these stages in the following order: coolant first passes through the notch from the highest pressure and temperature, and then through stages with gradually decreasing pressure and/or temperature. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 8 C. p. F.-ly, 1 Il.

The invention relates to a method of heat dissipation and device for carrying out the method for spacecraft that during starting and landing pass through the earth's atmosphere or from the safe and the safe discharge of the heat in the application of evaporative heat exchangers.

The basic principle of the heat sink when using such heat exchangers is that the cooled medium circulating in the active circuit for the implementation of the heat sink is in heat exchange contact with the evaporated medium, which is contained in aboard a spacecraft tank and subsequently discharged in the form of vapor into the surrounding atmosphere.

In order to optimize the use of evaporated environment, achieving the most complete evaporation, it is very important to achieve the best possible thermal contact, and consequently, the most comprehensive heat transfer between the cooling fluid, on the one hand, and evaporated environment, on the other hand.

The closest analogue is the evaporative heat exchanger in which the coolant flows openly through the workspace, while the evaporated medium enters this space through a separate, usually arranged in sections, channels. The coolant passes through the aperture located in the workspace, to create a tortuous flow (1).

One of the requirements for heat exchangers of this t is the fluid (water in this case) at the outlet of the heat exchanger must be maintained at a constant level, of 6oC.

As evaporated environment in the present case, the selected liquid ammonia (NH3) that flows into the evaporator from the corresponding reservoir through the injection system and discharged after evaporation into the environment. The temperature of the ammonia present in the tank is from 0 to 70oC, the pressure corresponds to the saturated vapor pressure or increases due to the supply of gaseous nitrogen or helium through the inlet pipe from the tank for the storage of these gases.

When the flow of liquid ammonia in the evaporator pressure decreases dramatically. Therefore, immediately after the injection valve evaporates as much ammonia as necessary to ensure that the temperature of the incoming liquid after the valve corresponds to the temperature of saturated steam, which is a function of the pressure in the evaporator.

In the absence of special technical devices the pressure in the evaporator depends only on the absolute ambient pressure, which is discharged evaporating Amici, and the pressure loss of the flow of ammonia through the exhaust valve, and, under certain circumstances, from pressure surges in the throttling cross-section of the outlet channel.

T the th path, to the absorption could be implemented. However, under no circumstances, it should not be so low that in the boundary layer circulation circuit could be local icing.

Since such heat exchangers must be operated in vacuum conditions (about 600 PA) and at normal atmospheric pressure (101.3 kPa) and in connection with a wide range of heat loads generated flows vaporous ammonia varying intensity, the pressure during the evaporation, and hence the evaporation temperature varies depending on the load and the specified mode: when the greatest load the evaporation temperature maximum, at partial load, it has the lowest value.

For regulating the pressure of the evaporation of ammonia and temperature in the above literature is offered on the input evaporated environment to provide a regulating valve initial pressure and maintain the pressure in the evaporation volume at a constant level regardless of the quantity of steam generated and at the same time from the pressure of the environment. Since the proposed solution requires the installation regulate the awn excluded, then, given the need to create backup option, you will need to provide additional installation of at least one valve and installation of parallel branches with two additional valves. This solution, however, will require the installation of four valves, which means a substantial increase in mass and volume, constructions, and also involves additional cost.

An object of the invention is the improvement of the method so simply and without the use of additional mechanical parts to create the possibility of maintaining the temperature of evaporation of the volatile environment regardless of the load pressure and the pressure at such a low level that it was possible permanent removal of the desired amount of heat and at the same time, the temperature was maintained at such a level that was completely eliminated the possibility of ice formation in the boundary layer between the coolant and the details of the site intended for evaporation environment. An additional aim of the invention is to develop a device designed to implement the method.

The task is solved in that in the way of heat, according to which RAEE, in one active circuit, and evaporated environment, and heat transfer evaporated environment, which is then in the form of steam output into the surrounding atmosphere, the contact is carried out in two spatially separated stages, in which the set of variable values of pressure and temperature, and the flow of coolant and evaporated environment is organized so that the coolant first passes through the stage with the maximum temperature and maximum pressure, and then through stages with gradually decreasing pressure and/or temperature.

In addition, the coolant and evaporated medium is passed through a separate stage in the opposite direction, the cooling fluid is water, and evaporated environment ammonia (NH3values of pressure and temperature are selected so that one of the steps was only a partial evaporation of the volatile environment. In addition, evaporated environment can also be hydrogen (H2), and within each stage the main flow direction of the coolant coincides with the direction evaporated environment.

The task of the device for heat dissipation is solved in that the device containing the evaporation is m space which flows a cooling liquid and evaporated environment, the workspace consists of at least two separated from other stages, in which the pressure and temperature are different, and the degree connected with each other by pipelines. In addition, between the steps is set, at least one aperture, and each of the steps posted by bundles of tubes to pass evaporated environment, outside washed by the flow of coolant.

The drawing shows a principal sketch of a multi-stage (in this case a three-stage) evaporative heat exchanger. Stages consist of three separated from each other cameras 1-3, located in a common frame, which is not shown in the figure. In each of the cylindrical chambers 1-3 is located on the beam oriented in the longitudinal direction of the tubes, through which passes the evaporated medium (in the case ammonia) and which on the outside are washed by the cooling fluid (in the above example, execution of water).

Evaporated medium is injected through the inlet valve 4 into the chamber 1 of the first stage heat exchanger, passes through this chamber and then through a connecting pipe 5 into the chamber 2, which represents the second stage. Hence it through the second plug is camping in pairs, discharged into the atmosphere through the discharge outlet 7.

The cooling fluid flow path which presents a continuous, denoted by the numeral 8, a curve, a line is drawn from the outlet 7 into the chamber 3, the third stage heat exchanger. In this chamber it washes located here tubes intended for injection evaporated environment, passes through the connecting pipe into the chamber 2 and, finally, into the chamber 1 where it is being cooled to the required temperature, is returned to the cooling elements of the spacecraft. For ease of consideration, the system of piping for the coolant shown in the figure is not shown.

Assuming that the temperature of the coolant flowing into the chamber 3, is in the range 24-65oC, and that the coolant must leave the chamber 1, having a temperature of 6oWith, it is necessary to implement such a mode of cooling the pressure of the ammonia can be estimated to establish the curve of vapor pressure with the additional condition that the temperature of the ammonia should always be below the temperature exposed to the cooling fluid. In this slave is greater than the maximum pressure of the outer atmosphere, preferable, in order to adjust the pressure in the zone of the connecting pipe 5 to mount the diaphragm 9 and to provide to this place the approximate constancy of the flow rate of evaporated environment. This means, on the other hand, I always moved the same amount of heat, so the first stage designed for minimum loads when the coolant temperature at the inlet of approximately 24oC.

Thus, for the second stage, in which the cooling water temperature is over 24oC, based on similar assumptions, the maximum water temperature is equal to the 35oC, and the minimum pressure of the evaporated medium 160 kPa. In order that the pressure in the first stage does not exceed 516 kPa, the pressure in the second stage may not exceed approximately 280 kPa.

Finally, in the third and last stage, which will involve the installation of additional diaphragm 10, the coolant temperature from its maximum value of 65oC, is reduced to approximately 35oC, on the basis of which the estimated pressure of the evaporated medium is in the range 47-150 kPa.

Given the number of the soup liquid and from evaporated environment are the same. Under especially favorable circumstances it turns out that to ensure proper function of the evaporative heat exchanger, namely, the cooling fluid to a constant temperature, component 6oC, and a full translation of the evaporated medium in the vapor phase, may be sufficient two-stage cooling system, which of course is the subject of the present invention.

1. Method heat to the spacecraft in zero gravity, as well as at different accelerations, according to which in the workspace in mutual thermal contact enter the coolant circulating in at least one active circuit, and evaporated environment, and heat transfer evaporated environment, which is then in the form of steam output into the atmosphere, characterized in that the contact needed for heat transfer, carry out at least two spatially separated stages, in which the set of variable values of pressure and temperature, and the flow of coolant and evaporated environment designed what coolant to first pass through the stage with a maximum temperature and max is 2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cooling liquid and the evaporated medium is passed through a separate stage in the opposite direction.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the cooling fluid is water.

4. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the evaporated medium is ammonia (NH3).

5. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the values of pressure and temperature, and evaporated environment are selected in such a way that in one of the steps was only a partial evaporation of the volatile environment.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the evaporated medium is liquid hydrogen (H2).

7. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-6, characterized in that within each individual stage the main flow direction of the coolant coincides with the direction evaporated environment.

8. The device for heat dissipation in spacecraft in zero gravity, as well as at different accelerations, containing having at least one active circulating coolant circuit evaporative heat exchanger in the working space which flows a cooling liquid and evaporated Serena, in which the pressure and temperature conditions are different, and what stage are connected to each other by the connecting pipelines.

9. The device under item 8, characterized in that the connecting pipelines between the different levels there is at least one aperture.

10. The device under item 9 or 10, characterized in that each of the speed cameras installed bundles of tubes to pass evaporated environment, outside washed by the flow of coolant.

Priority points:

1992 PP. 1, 5, 6, 8, 9;

1991 PP. 2, 3, 4, 7, 10.

 

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