The method of expansion of the grounds under the sole foundation
(57) Abstract:The use in construction in the construction of strip Foundation. The inventive method includes the descent into the mountain the production of the device to extend its Foundation, the push elements extenders in wall framing spacer body having in longitudinal section the shape of a wedge, and the extraction of the formed cavity extension elements extenders. With the expansion of the grounds of trench excavations as elements extenders use two cylinders, the sum of the diameters of which are equal to the width of the trench. The cylinders have along the walls of the trench. The drive to push the elements extenders cylinders. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to the construction of the tape monolithic foundations created by the method of "wall" and can be used during construction in silty-clay soils that are in jugoplastika, soft-plastic consistency.During the construction of foundations in an open pit project work provides the following processes: passage of the pit, its drainage, preparation of substrate, the device fu is camping by making them relevant gradients or the use of special fasteners.Increasing volumes of earthworks require implementation in the construction practice of new progressive methods of building foundations. One of such methods is a method conventionally referred to as "slurry wall".There is a method of construction of the foundations of the "wall in the ground", which is in the construction of load-bearing walls of underground facilities through the passages of the deep trenches with vertical walls under a clay solution, followed by laying in a trench monolithic or precast concrete or reinforced concrete (1. Fig.56. S. 109).When monolithic concrete or reinforced concrete walls concrete mix is placed in the trench method of vertically moving the pipe. In some cases, the deep foundations that are constructed by the method of "wall", organized by drilling and filling with concrete intercept wells (2.Fig.II.4B, S. 240).They are then filled with the concrete mixture, and after curing of the concrete and set them considerable strength are drilling a third hole between them and then filled it with concrete, and so on up until the intersecting borehole gradually form a wall of the desired length and depth. With this method the There is a method of creating a fortified reference array in soils (ed.St. N 1470848, E 02 D 31/00), which represents education of wells, the drilling of these wells cracks in the ground by means of a jet of liquid and filling gaps as cutting concrete mix and the introduction into it of the reinforcement cage.The disadvantages of the considered methods are:
the need to have a powerful additional water sources and septic tanks for the formation of the pulp;
the difficulty and sometimes impossibility of the construction of foundations in the winter time;
the impossibility of weak soils to create a longitudinal cavity for placement of the solid cushion, width greater than the width of the Foundation wall, without additional excavation;
it is impossible to condense the base beneath the sole Foundation that leads to an increase in the width of the Foundation pads.Known methods of compacting soil (3 Fig.5.5 S. 69), when you get sealed base round shape, its dimensions do not exceed the size of the hole or slit.For soil compaction use hydroclean (ed.St. N 143951, MCI, E 211 C 37(02), which includes a hydraulic cylinder with a piston rod, spacer wedge associated with the narrow end with the rod, wedge-shaped in longitudinal section of the sliding cheeks turned the oklina possible broadening of the soles of the Foundation due to soil compaction on the side surface, but not the sole Foundation, and the broadening is formed of a round shape, and not longitudinal.The prototype of the function is a device broadening in the well  including shock actuator, a rod which is mounted for interaction with Widener in the form of balls interconnected, characterized in that in order to simplify the design, interacting with the balls of the lower part of the rod is provided with a tapered shape, and the Widener made of three balls interconnected by means of flexible connections. When using this device it is possible to create broadening in the well with the help of balls interconnected by flexible connections, which limit the amount of movement of the balls and the degree of compaction of the soil and do not serve for the purpose of lowering and lifting of the balls. These relationships were not able to keep the balls in the horizontal plane. With three balls cannot create broadening constant cross section throughout the length of the strip Foundation. If the area is broadening will be different, the tension in the Foundation soils under the sole Foundation will be different, it will lead to uneven precipitation of buildings and structures.These drawbacks are eliminated in the proposed method, where trassinelli, consisting of two cylinders, the sum of the diameters of which are equal to the width of the trench, and the cylinders have along the walls of the trench.The push elements dilator wall framing is the spacer body having in longitudinal section the shape of a wedge. The drive to push the elements extenders cylinders.The method of expansion of the base under the bottom strip Foundation in silty-clay soils is illustrated by drawings.In Fig. 1 shows a cross-section of the trench with its location on the bottom of the cylinder and spacer wedge; Fig.2 a cross-section of the trench after the introduction between the cylinders spacer wedge.In trench 1 has two cylinder 2, which are connected through a flexible connection 3 with the spacer wedge 4 connected through a rod 5 with the cylinder 6.After being pressed into the soil cylinder formed cavity 7 of compacted soil and trench 1 are filled with concrete. For the installation of foundations for the proposed method according to the layout of the foundations dug a trench at the depth location of the sole Foundation of the excavator or Baranauskas machine. Two cylinders with the help of a whole movement, for example, on a tractor or excavator. Both cylinder is lowered to the bottom of the trench by means of a power transmission on the tractor and implement a wedge between the cylinders, which are moved apart by the width of the wedge, thus forming a cavity of compacted soil. After the wedge is raised and simultaneously entrain the associated cylinders. Next, the tractor is moved by a distance equal to the length of the cylinder.For protection of the soil from the deconsolidation of the formed cavity is filled with concrete.The efficiency of the device tape monolithic foundations by way of a "wall" with broadening his feet in silty-clay soils is achieved by reducing construction time, since the formation of the cavity and filling it with concrete combined in time.Due to the lack of processes of opening and filling of the sinuses foundations reduced the amount of excavation work. Due to the compaction of soil Foundation increases its load-carrying capacity, which reduces the width of the sole of the base and respectively the consumption of materials. 1. The method of expansion of the grounds under the sole of the Foundation, including the descent into mining production device for expanding the base, the push elements is broken off cavity extension elements extenders, characterized in that when the extension of the grounds of trench excavations as elements extenders use two cylinders, the sum of the diameters of which are equal to the width of the trench, and the cylinders have along the walls of the trench.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the drive to push the elements extenders cylinders.
SUBSTANCE: milling plant for making vertical slots in soil is equipped with a slot-cutting milling device, comprising a frame, the first set of disc cutters and the second set of disc cutters, besides, sets of disc cutters for mining soil material under a frame are arranged next to each other on the lower side of the frame. A slot-cutting milling device comprises an alignment mechanism, with the help of which the first set of disc cutters may be installed with displacement in an inclined direction for the second set of disc cutters.
EFFECT: invention provides for the possibility to adjust the position of the first set of disc cutters relative to a frame and the second set of disc cutters, provision of coverage of cross sections of cutting in two sets of disc cutters.
15 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely, to erection of a trench wall element in soil. The method for erection of a trench wall element in soil, according to which with the help of a sampling device by means of soil material excavation, a trench is arranged in soil, and hardening medium is introduced into the trench to form a trench wall element. Between the device for sampling and the bearing device there are at least two ropes, for each of which positions of at least two rope points spaced along the vertical line are varied, by means of a metering instrument through measurement of angles and distances, and measured positions of rope points are used to determine the position of the device for sampling of soil.
EFFECT: provision of erection of a trench wall in soil with high accuracy, reduced material intensity.
16 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves constructing multilayer foundation; erecting upper building structures. Process of foundation forming includes laying concrete layer on base; preparing water-proof layer above concrete layer; forming one or more cast-in-place and/or composite and/or precast reinforced concrete panels along foundation height or area; forming intermediate layer of hardening material under upper panel and/or panels before and/after their forming, wherein hardening material characteristics are determined from a given relation; forming channels with opened ends in upper panel so channels extend the full panel thickness and preferably have widened areas in lower parts thereof; installing tubes preferably having widened areas in lower parts thereof; sealing intermediate layer and/or water-proof foundation layer along foundation perimeter; channels are formed in places of highest design foundation settlement and deflection, including areas under load-bearing support structure building members, namely columns and/or walls. Upper channel and/or tube ends are located in access area. Channels and tubes are used for injecting hardening material in intermediate layer through upper channel and tube ends during erecting and/or using building, during performing building, including earth-moving, works near building or building structures, which may result in building settlement and/or heeling and/or deformation. Injection of hardening material forms separation into layers and/or cracks in intermediate layer, which are filled with hardening material. Hardening material is injected in channel or pipe having x, y coordinates with pressure, also determined from a given relation.
EFFECT: reduced building settlement, heeling and deformation during erection and usage.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, in particular, to construction and operation of structures, having architecture of various heights. Method to prevent uneven subsidence of unevenly loaded foundations includes survey of soil, reinforcement of soil base in compliance with the data produced as a result of soil survey, and erection of foundation. Soil is surveyed under least loaded section of foundation. Then foundation is erected, and most loaded sections of soil base are reinforced by method of high-pressure injection proportionally to ratio of operational pressure of most loaded section to operational pressure of least loaded section.
EFFECT: provides for even subsidence of structure at various pressure of separate sections of foundations at soil by increasing stiffness of each section of base.
SUBSTANCE: method to reinforce soil, including formation of a well, installation of a flexible thin-walled shell in it, supply of a sealing substance into a gap between walls of the well and the shell, and development of a reinforcing action at the sealing substance, differing by the fact that for development of the reinforcing action, the thin-walled shell in the cross section is deformed into an oval shape, an additional gap is created along the small axis of the oval between walls of the well and the shell, the additional portion of the sealing substance is supplied into this gap, and the deformation wave is moved in the circumferential direction.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of soil reinforcing due to simultaneous reinforcement of soil and supply of a sealing substance.
13 cl, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes formation of a well, placement of a stretching tight shell in it and supply of sealing substance. The well is formed by driving a pipe with a plug at the end and a stretching tight shell on the outer surface into soil. The sealing substance is supplied into the specified shell via longitudinal slots made in the pipe. The device comprises a working organ and a facility of impact load application to it, comprising a pipe, where a rod is inserted as capable of longitudinal displacement in it and contact with the working element. The stretching tight shell is placed onto the pipe and fixed, and longitudinal slots are made underneath in the pipe. The working element is made in the form of a rod, forming a plug, with a cone-shaped tip at the end and inserted into the guide pipe as capable of limited longitudinal displacement in it. The rod comprises an accessory to prevent fallout from the pipe, and its cone-shaped tip protrudes from the pipe.
EFFECT: increased density of soil by introduction of a stretching tight shell into it, expansion of device capabilities for creation of a pile with a support in a base.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to recover a contact layer "foundation - soil base" includes the installation of injector pipes with injection holes, closed by a rubber collar and arranged in the gravel layer, in a pile foundation grill erected in winter time on bases, which are made of heaving soils for freezing and subsiding for thawing, after the arrangement of which during foundation soil thawing accompanied with subsiding processes, the contact layer "foundation - soil base" is recovered by the injection of cement mortar via the injector pipes into cavities of the gravel layer and cavities formed under the foundation with its subsequent hardening.
EFFECT: increased stability of foundations with a low grill, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity, increased manufacturability and quality of performed works.
SUBSTANCE: method for compacting bases formed by weak mineral soils includes making a well, filling a compacting material into the well, and creating the compacting impact by a hollow tubular working tool on the compacting material to form a compacting column. Preliminarily, engineering geological survey of the base soil is carried out, and the values of the strain modulus, the Poisson's ratio, the angle of internal friction, the specific cohesion, the specific gravity, the initial porosity coefficient of the weak mineral soil are determined. Then, the effective value of the strain modulus εi at expanding the compacting material in the well is calculated by the initial and specified porosity coefficient of the weak mineral soil according to the given dependence. Thereinafter the column spacing pitch is defined by the selection method in a range from one to three diameters of the columns, which gives the value of the design base deformation modulus, the necessary increase of the well radius in the process of indentation is calculated by the given dependencies. The well is made by means of indenting a tool in the base soil, filling the compacting material into the well is carried out through the working tool cavity, and the compacting impact for forming a compacting column is carried out by indenting the working tool into the compacting material. Additional engineering and geological survey are carried out on the site, the deformation modulus of the compacted soil between the columns, and the actual average deformation modulus of the base as a whole is calculated according to the given dependence. Then it is compared with the design one, and if the actual average base deformation modulus does not correspond to its design value, additional columns are installed between previously installed ones.
EFFECT: increasing soil compaction productivity, reducing material consumption and labour intensity.