The method of obtaining products directional solidification and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the turbines, in particular the production of parts for gas turbine engines directional solidification and can be used in the optical industry, semiconductor technology and chemical technology. The method differs in that the seed in the process of vertical extraction additionally result in horizontal reciprocating movement relative to the surface of the melt along the axis of rotation of this seed change the position of the point of return and scope of these reciprocating movements in accordance with the profile of the product. The method is carried out in the device, with the crucible in the form of a U-shaped tube over one end of which has a means for feeding the material, and on the other - structurally mounted rotatably around a horizontal axis and connected with means for reciprocating movement along this axis. Perhaps getting stronger turbine disks complex form along with the shaft. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 5 Il. The invention relates to the turbines, in particular the production of parts for gas turbine engines methods napravlennoi engineering and chemical technology.A known method of manufacturing parts in the form of bodies of revolution directional solidification of the melt, consisting in the preparation of the melt, bringing into contact with the melt priming, rotating around a horizontal axis, the temperature of the melt and pulling vertically seed and kristallisoituu details on it.This method is adopted for the prototype, by using the known device, comprising the following main characteristic elements: the heater, the material to melt, a seed crystal and its holder, the movement mechanisms of the seed vertically and rotation around the axis of the control device of the heater and the movement mechanisms of the seed, the crucible to melt. In this device the material to be melted is placed in the crucible 
Prototype method can also be implemented using a device, such as a heater material to melt, the crucible, the seed, the mechanism for moving the seed vertically, the control device of the heater and the movement mechanisms of seed, and even special shaper placed in the cavity of the crucible 
A device that can be used to implement the prototype method and videographies, creating on the upper end of the original billet narrow molten zone, which extends up vertically seed and newly formed therein crystalline product 
The disadvantage of this method and device is the inability to form the disk complex profile together with the turbine shaft.The purpose of this technical solution is the production of more durable turbine disks with spiral distribution of the elements of the microstructure due to the performance of the whole turbine shaft with the drive of a complex profile.To achieve this goal the seed in the process of vertical extraction result in a reciprocating horizontal movement relative to the melt, the scope of the move which is set in accordance with a preset profile of the parts being manufactured.The device for implementing the method supplemented by the mechanism of the reciprocating movement of the seed horizontally, the crucible is made in the form of a U-shaped tube, one end of which is mounted a hopper with powder material feeding, and over other seed.The crucible is made in the form of a hollow body of rotation and installed vozmojnostey crucible in the direction of the seed and the hopper with powder material feed is offset from the axis of rotation of the crucible in the opposite direction.The device for implementing the method, consisting of a heater around the remelted ingot, seed and mechanism for vertical movement of this piece, supplemented by the mechanism of the reciprocating movement of the seed horizontally.Essentially the new criterion of the proposed method, directional solidification, is a combination of vertical movement and rotation of the seed with its reciprocating movement horizontally relative to the melt. This combination allows you to create complex surfaces of solids of revolution, the profile of which is provided by a combination of individual movements.The method allows to produce parts of gas turbine engine disks complex profiles in one piece with the turbine shaft.The invention is illustrated by drawings.In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the device with the crucible in a U-shape to implement the method of directional crystallization of Fig. 2 the device melts the workpiece to implement the methods of Fig. 3 diagram of the means for moving satrak is S="ptx2">The main elements of multiple devices for the implementation of the proposed method are adjustable power heater 1, material 2 in the form of a powder or strip (Fig. 2) for the preparation of the working of the melt 3, the seed crystal 4, the tool moves priming 5, system 6 motion control seed and formed on her articles 7 and coherent presentation of material 2 for the preparation of the melt. This material is fed from hopper 8, if it is a powder material ( Fig. 1) or from the guide 9, if the material is pre-skorrektiroval in the band (Fig. 2). In the first case, the powder is U-shaped newesely the crucible 10 (Fig. 1), in a narrow elbow 11 which is placed a work melt 3 In the second case, the strip 2 as far as pulling the seed crystal and formed on her articles 7 moves up vertically with the feed mechanism 12.The means 5 for moving the seed crystal 4 with its holder 13 includes shafts 14 and 15, is fixed in the housing 16, the gears 17 and 18, the actuator 19 spins seed, the drive mechanism 20 moves 21 priming vertical actuator 22 and the mechanism 23 of the reciprocating movement of the seed horizontally.The unit is mounted in a sealed chamber, equipped with systemsmodel downloading the source material 2 devices crystallization. The chamber is pressurized, vacuum, filled with a protective gas. Serves power to the heater 1, prepare a work melt 3. A seed crystal 4 is brought into contact with the melt 3 and podpravlyat, rotating around a horizontal axis. Bring the seed in a reciprocating movement along the horizontal axis with a scale equal to the specified length "l" formed by the shaft. Regulate the working temperature of the melt by changing the power of the heater and pull the seed vertically upwards. Keep track of the process, fill material 2, the melt 3 is released during crystallization of the shaft, form the shaft. Then for a given program change the amplitude of the movement of seed and formed on NAF products from the values of l1to l>2(Fig. 4), while continuing the extrusion. In this form a complex profile of the turbine disk. Finish the process of crystallization at constant amplitude of displacement l2forming area of the turbine disk of constant thickness l2and given diameter D (Fig. 5). Increase 2.5 to 3 times the speed of pulling of the seed crystal and the frequency of its rotation, tearing the melt under the product. Turn off the heater, cool product, lasermedizin the camera and extract from it th and Y2O3a given composition, close to electric. Carry out preparatory operations (installation in the holder and aligning the seed, shaper, sealing equipment, vacuum and inert gas filling, prepare the melt. Lead a seed crystal into contact with the melt. Rotate the seed around a horizontal axis lead her into the reciprocating movement of the horizontally and extend vertically upward, forming a shaft with a diameter of 70 mm and a length of 80 mm, while by feeding the powder from the hopper specified level of the melt in the crucible is rotated around the vertical axis. Regulate the temperature of the melt by changing the heating power and the amplitude of the reciprocating movement of the seed horizontally form the turbine disk to the specified profile, with a maximum diameter D of 200 mmP R I m m e R 2. The source of the workpiece in the form of a strip width of 20 mm and 2.5 mm thick, prepared from a mixture of powders of Al2O3, ZrO2and Y2O3a given composition close to the eutectic, enter through the vacuum valve in the chamber. Perform other preparatory operations as in example 1. Preparing a molten zone at the upper end the aspects of moving horizontally and extend vertically upwards. As in example 1 to form a first shaft with a diameter of 70 mm and a length of 80 mm, and then the disk complex profile with a diameter of 200 mm In the crystallization process of the shaft and drive at a speed consistent with the speed of crystallization, move up vertically to the workpiece.In both cases, made of high strength discs complex profile along with ceramic shafts. The accuracy of the given geometry products 0.6 mm vs. (2-3,5)mm in the products obtained by the method prototype.Technical and economic efficiency of the present invention is to improve the efficiency of technological process of manufacturing of turbine disks in one piece with the turbine shaft by way of layering kristallizirovan material, and the strength of the monolithic structure is significantly increased. 1. The method of obtaining products directional solidification, including vertical pulling from the melt, the seed simultaneous rotation around a horizontal axis, characterized in that the seed in the process of vertical extraction yield additional horizontal reciprocating movement relative to the surface of the melt along the axis of rotation of this straw is Delia.2. Device for the production of directional solidification, containing the crucible to melt structurally mounted for rotation and vertical movement, and means for feeding into the crucible feed material, characterized in that the crucible is made in the form of a U-shaped tube, one end of which has a means for feeding the material, and on the other structurally, with the possibility of additional rotation around a horizontal axis and connected with means for reciprocating movement along this axis.
FIELD: devices for continuous grouped growing of the orientated layers of silicon on a carbonic fabric.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of growing of polycrystallic layers from a melt of silicon and may be used in production of solar cells (photo-converters) Substance of the invention: the device consist of a crucible for a melt mounted inside a heater, a substrates connected to gears of their relocation and a capillary feeding mechanism. The substrates are made out of a carbonic reticulated fabric, and the capillary feeding mechanism consists of two horizontal sections, located to the left and to the right of the crucible, each of which has a tail swathed by harnesses out of a carbonic thread. The crucible is made with the bottom hollow elongated spout supplied with an independent heater, under the crucible there is a tank for a drain of the crucible residue, the inner surface of which is coated by a layer of a hexagonal boron nitride, and above the crucible a vibrating feeder for feeding the ground silicon is mounted.
EFFECT: the invention ensures growing of polycrystallic layers from a melt of silicon.
FIELD: devices for growing from a melt of polycrystalline layers of silicon used for production of solar sells.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of growing from a melt of polycrystalline layers of silicon and may find application in production of solar cells (photoconverters). The substance of the invention: the device includes a crucible for a melt, a heater, a substrate linked with the gear of its relocation and a capillary feeding mechanism. The substrate is made out of a carbon reticular fabric, the heater consists of two sections of heating: a square section, inside which the crucible is mounted, and a right-angled section located above the substrate. At that the cross-section of the heater components is selected so, that the section of heating of the crucible is overheated in respect to the section of heating of the substrate. For a capillary feeding of the melt of silicon from the crucible use harnesses made out of a carbon filament spooled on a tail-end of the feeding mechanism. For replenishment of the level of the melt in the crucible use a vibrofeeder to feed the crushed silicon. The technical result of the invention is an increased productivity of the device and formation of conditions for production of the orientated coarse-crystalline structure of a silicon layer on the substrate naturally open for making of the rear electrical contact.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased productivity of the device, production of the orientated coarse-crystalline structures of the silicon layers on the substrates.
1 dwg 1 o
FIELD: electronic industry; production of profiled crystals from semiconductor materials and other materials used in electronic industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in growing profiled crystals from melt by drawing the seed holder and imparting rotation to seed holder and to molding agent with capillary zone for delivery of melt located between inner and outer curvilinear edges of working surface in form of spiral; the following relationship is satisfied: dR/dα≥0, where R and α are radius and angle of polar coordinate system with center at point of intersection of plane in which edges of working surface of molding agent and axes of its rotation lie. Molding agent may be so made that its working surface is located at angle relative to plane of its base. Molding agent may be made at gradual increase of molding surface above base. Proposed method may be used for growing crystals from rubin, sapphire, alumoyttrium garnet, composite eutectics refractory oxides, lithium niobate, molybdates of rare-earth metals and other substances of various forms, hollow parts inclusive in form of cone, sphere, rod (cylinder), ellipsoid at section in form of trochoid or any open curve at homogeneous structure.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining constant thickness of crystal or thickness changing according to definite law.
5 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: production of shaped crystals of refractory compounds such as leucosapphire, ruby, aluminum-yttrium garnet and other by growing from melt according to Stepanoff method.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of evacuating melting chamber and warming heat zone; adding to melting chamber at least one inert gas; providing temperature of heat zone till melting temperature of initial raw material in crucible while filing capillary system of shaper with melt; flashing seed crystal and growing it on end of shaper; drawing crystal; tearing off crystal and cooling it. During those steps applying to melting chamber mixture of inert gases containing, mainly argon and at least helium; setting in melting chamber pressure of mixture that is less than atmospheric pressure and after growing crystal up to its complete section melting off grown part of crystal just till seed and again realizing growing procedure. Then crystal is finally grown. After cooling ready crystal the last may subjected to annealing outside melting chamber for two stages, at first in reducing carbon-containing gas medium including inert gases and then in vacuum.
EFFECT: possibility for producing high optical quality crystals with improved uniformity of optical properties, less loss of yield, lowered cost price of produced crystals.
8 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: growing monocrystals of refractory oxides from melts by oriented crystallization; production of sapphire monocrystals corresponding to opto-electronics requirements.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has vacuum chamber with crucible and molding unit, tungsten heater, shields, rod with seed holder which is provided with crystal raising mechanism mounted outside the chamber, melt make-up system made in form of bin with tube and unit for control of heating and rate of raising the crystal. Device is additionally provided with annealing vacuum chamber mounted above chamber with crucible and molding unit coaxially relative to it and system for synchronization of mass of crystal being grown and consumption of make-up material; annealing vacuum chamber is provided with self-contained heater whose height is equal to or exceeds maximum size of length of crystal obtained; diameter of annealing chamber ranges from 0.6 to 0.9 of diameter of lower chamber; mounted in between chambers is partition with holes for rod with seed holder, crystal being grown and make-up; molding unit is made in form of parallelepiped with parallel through vertical slots which is mounted in crucible at clearance and is secured on crucible walls; height of parallelepiped is equal to 20-30% of crucible height; width of slots is 0.2-0.3 mm at distance between them of 0.2-0.5 mm; in horizontal plane ends of slots are blind. Proposed device makes it possible to eliminate voids lesser than 50 mcm in diameter at obtaining the crystals whose transversal size is lesser than 100 mm at crystallographic orientation of <1010> or <1120>. Power requirements are reduced by 4-6 times. Monocrystals grown with the aid of this device have low internal stresses which is important for further mechanical treatment of crystals.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements; low internal stresses of crystals.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: growing germanium monocrystals.
SUBSTANCE: germanium monocrystals are grown from melt on seed crystal with the use of molder filled with melt; molder has holes for removal of excessive melt formed during crystallization. First, crystal is enlarged on rotating seed crystal in radial direction till it gets in contact with molder placed in crucible without melt; then, rotation of crystal is discontinued and crystallization is carried out in axial direction by lowering the temperature till complete hardening of melt; molder is provided with holes in its lower part located at equal distance from one another at radius r satisfying the condition r<K/h, where K= 0.2 cm2; h is height of melt, cm; number of holes, 12-18. Molder may be made in form of round, square or rectangular ferrule. Proposed method makes it possible to obtain germanium crystals of universal shape with no defects in structure, free from mechanical stresses and homogeneous in distribution of admixtures.
EFFECT: increased productivity; reduced technological expenses; increased yield of product.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of growing of the rectangular monocrystals of sapphire.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the technology of growing from melts of the monocrystals of sapphire and may be used at production of the volumetric crystals with the crystallographic orientation along the axis <1010> or <1120>. The device contains the vacuum chamber with the installed in it the crucible, the rectangular shaper, the heater assembled out of the lamellas fixed on the current leads, the screens, the rod with the seed-crystal holder and the systems adjusting the hoisting speed of the seed crystal and power of the heater. The crucible, the generatrix of the lamellas and the deflector have the rectangular form, between the bottom of the crucible and the shaper there is the spacing, the altitude of the walls of the shaper exceeds the altitude of the crucible. The wall of the shaper in their upper part are made slit along the ribs and bent off along the slits in the direction of the walls of the chamber, the shaper rests on the upper edge of walls of the crucible by its slit parts. The technical result of the invention consists in the rise of the output of the single crystals up to 60 % due to reaching of integrity of the geometrical shape of the crystal with the crystallographic orientation along the axis <1010> or <1120> and acceleration of the growing process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased output of the suitable single crystals up to 60 % due to reaching the integrity of the geometrical shape of the crystal with the crystallographic orientation along the axis <1010> or <1120> and acceleration of the growing process.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: crystal growth.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises vacuum chamber with melting pot and molding unit, wolfram heater, shields, rod with the holder for seed provided with a mechanism for lifting crystal and mounted outside of the chamber, and melt make-up system made of a hopper with tube and system for control of heating and rate of crystal lift. The device is additionally provided with roasting vacuum chamber that is mounted above the chamber with melting pot and molding unit coaxially to it and the system for synchronization of mass of the crystal to be grown and the flow rate of the make-up material. The roasting chamber has autonomous heater whose height is equal or exceed the maximum size of the length of the crystal to be grown. The diameter of the roasting chamber is 0.6-0.9 of the diameter of the bottom chamber. The baffle provided with openings for the rod with seed holder is interposed between the chambers.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of crystal.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technological process.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to growth of monocrystalline silicon layers from a molten mass, and can be used in making solar cells (photoconverters). The device consists of a crucible for melting, a heater, consisting of two heating sections: a square one, the inside of which is fitted with a crucible, and a rectangular one, put over a substrate, a substrate, linked to its displacement mechanism, capillary feeder, bundles of carbon fibres, wound on the tail of the feeder, and a vibrating feeder for supplying crushed silicon. The substrate used is a carbon foil, covered by pyrographite layers. The capillary feeder has an opening for putting in the substrate, and the rectangular heating section is symmetrical about the substrate and has vertical incisions for letting in the substrate.
EFFECT: increased output of the device due to growth of thin silicon layers at the same time on both surfaces of the substrate, due to reduction of the specific consumption of initial silicon due to that, the substrate does not get soaked in the molten mass.
1 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: metallurgy, crystal growth.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns field of receiving profiled crystals of refrectory compounds, for instance, leucosapphire, ruby, yttrium aluminum garnet and others, growth from melt by method of Stepanov. Facility contains pot with installed in it form-builder with vertical capillary channels, at that it is outfitted by nozzle, fixed on bottom end of form-builder, enveloping it with forming of closed cavity, communicating to pot chamber by means of holes, implemented in nozzle. Nozzle can be fixed on bottom end of form-builder as with firm adherence to its side walls, as with formation of open between side walls of nozzle and form-builder. In nozzle chamber which is lower butt end of form-builder can be located filler with ability of passing of melt to the capillary channels. Filler can be implemented in the form of rods, or plates, or wires and located in chamber of nozzle as several layers.
EFFECT: receiving of crystals of higher quality, increasing of product yield and decreasing of cost price of receiving crystals.
11 cl, 4 dwg