How dehalogenate halogenated organic and organoelement compounds

 

(57) Abstract:

Use: detoxification of waste from chemical plants, especially POLYHALOGENATED aromatic compounds (including dioxins and furans), and accumulated in the warehouses and in the natural environment is prohibited to the use of pesticides, chemical warfare agents. The inventive halogen-containing compound is mixed with powder of calcium carbide, and then thermally initiated chemical interaction of the components of the original mixture. The reaction proceeds with spontaneous heating, resulting in a carbonaceous material which does not contain halogen and a halide of calcium, which is bound to be easily separated by dissolving in water with subsequent evaporation. 1 C.p. f-crystals.

The alleged invention relates to the field of organic and Organoelement chemistry, and in particular to processes for the removal of halogen atoms from various halogenated compounds.

One of the main objectives of these processes is detoxification products, especially harmful for human health and for the environment.

To them in the first place, include:

waste from chemical plants, and is especially polygalacturonase aromatic compounds /including polychlorinated biphenyls; polygalacturonase dioxins and dibenzofurans polychlorinated paraffins, polyvinyl chloride, grades, etc.

forbidden to eat pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, accumulated in warehouses and in natural conditions /DDT, HCH and other/;

halogenosilanes compounds used as aerosols, refrigeration technology in the production of polymeric materials, microelectronics, fire fighting facilities and recognized as responsible for the destruction of the ozone layer.

some types of chemical warfare agents developed in different countries and subject to destruction.

Dihalogenoalkane the above chemical products is becoming increasingly important scientific and technical challenge, requiring a simple, economically and environmentally acceptable and universal solutions.

There is a method of decomposition halogenorganics compounds their incineration in specially designed furnaces at temperatures of 950-1200oWith /1/.

The combustion products are galoidovodorodov, carbon dioxide and water. When necessary, the absorbance of the resulting galoidovodorodov.

The disadvantages of this method are the source of the product;

the formation of a large number abgaznaya hydrochloric acid, which is the secondary waste;

the need for large quantities of fuel;

air pollution by combustion products, including carbon dioxide, greenhouse effect.

There is a method of decomposing halogenated hydrocarbon waste productions by burning in corrosion-resistant furnace in the presence of water vapor in a fluidized bed of catalyst consisting of oxides of silicon, aluminum, sodium and potassium /2/.

Although this method provides a relatively complete combustion of various substances, and the escaping gases have a low chlorine content, it also has a number of disadvantages, namely:

high energy costs;

the use of expensive equipment;

deactivation of the catalyst and the necessity of his regenerations.

Also known thermochemical method of disposal of liquid and solid waste organofluorine compounds containing fluorine in amounts not less than 60 wt. /C/.

Waste is mixed with powdered calcium oxide, is placed in a container of any shape and heated at any point of the surface to a temperature not lower than 1000oWith, and the users. In the future, the autothermal process spreads, at a rate of 0.5 mm/sec. Its products are oxide and carbon dioxide /10-15 of the total mass/ as well as calcium fluoride.

As the main disadvantages of this method should be called as follows:

the method is not applicable to detoxify chlorine-, bromine - and itorganize compounds that make up the vast majority of harmful substances unichtojeniyu;

the method is not applicable for the destruction of freon with a fluorine content of less than 60% production and use of which is prohibited by the Montreal Convention 1989

from the description of the method /S/ it is evident that the authors have applied it only to destroy only one connection hexaferrite;

the result is used as the reagent of calcium oxide the main part of the carbon destroying fororganizations connection becomes highly toxic carbon monoxide and attributable to environmental contaminants carbon dioxide.

The aim of the present invention to provide an environmentally friendly method of dehalogenase toxic halogenated organic and Organoelement compounds.

The proposed method consists in PR who ice. The reaction thermally initiated by local heating of the reaction mixture. The reaction proceeds with spontaneous heating. Resulting in the formation of carbonaceous material not containing halide and a halide of calcium. Both products of the reaction are not environmental poisons. The halide of calcium can be easily separated from the mixture of reaction products by dissolving in water with subsequent evaporation.

If the reaction proceeds too vigorously, in the initial mixture further added diluent, such as halides or metal oxides, activated carbon, reaction products, etc.

A distinctive feature of the proposed method is the use of a powder of calcium carbide, which has a higher activity and versatility compared to calcium oxide, used in /C/.

Advantages of the proposed method are:

the possibility of detoxification of a wide range chlorine, brome itorganize and Organoelement compounds;

environmental friendliness of the process, namely the absence of polluting gases, contaminated wastewater and the harmlessness of the final reaction products;

high speed process of starting compounds;

the utilization of easily separated reaction products;

the absence of catalysts and process for their regeneration.

Due to the fact that the products of the reaction are the halides of calcium and easily detachable from them carbonaceous materials may further be used in production.

For the implementation of the proposed method, the original components are thoroughly mixed. The resulting homogeneous mixture was poured into a vertically situated quartz or steel reactor and condense. The loading of the reactor is carried out in a weak current of inert gas fed into the lower part of the reactor, after which the mixture is ignited by touching hot metal wire. Starts an exothermic reaction, extending from top to bottom height of the reactor. To prevent rapid reaction and release of products in the initial mixture in some cases add up to 200% wt. inert diluent, which can be used metal oxides, activated carbon, carbon black or the reaction products. After completion of the reaction the reactor was cooled down to room temperature and unload. The reaction products are washed with water or diluted to 10%/ acids is t the presence of halide by using high-quality samples of Bilstein.

Example 1.

The mixture of powders 2,4,5-trichlorophenolate sodium /1.8 g/ and calcium carbide /1.2 g of a technical product with 70% of the content of the basic substance is/ are placed in a vertical quartz tube with an inner diameter of 10 mm and asbestos tube inserted in the lower part of the reactor, and compacted, after which the mixture is ignited by touching a hot wire. Is exothermic reaction: its front is moved to the bottom of the reactor at a speed of 5 mm/sec. The reaction product is a light black mass, the volume of which is greater than the volume of the original mixture. Water extraction followed by evaporation of the extract, extract of 1.75 g of a mixture of calcium chloride and sodium. The black residue halogen is missing.

Example 2. In the conditions of example 1 carried out the reaction of 1.40 g of diadzein with 0,69 g of calcium carbide, mixed with 2 g of carbon black. A vigorous reaction is accompanied by formation of a black mass, after washing which of the wash water gain of 1.65 g /98%/ iodide of calcium.

Example 3. In the conditions of example 2 ignite the mixture 6,55 g paralipomena, and 1.00 g of hexapetala and of 3.43 g of calcium carbide. From the reaction product black loose weight water wash 6,27 g of calcium bromide. The remainder gives a negative test for br is g/ ignite under the conditions of example 1. Black reaction product after water extraction does not contain chlorine.

Example 5. A homogeneous mixture of powders of 1.15 g of calcium carbide and 1.00 g of performability caused by 1.50 g svejeporublennogo and cooled in a closed vessel of magnesium oxide, ignited in a porcelain crucible in the conditions of Example 1. A vigorous reaction is completed within a few seconds.

Example 6. A homogeneous mixture of powders of 1.15 g of calcium carbide and 1.00 g of performability applied to 2.50 g of activated carbon is ignited in a porcelain crucible in the conditions of example 1. The reaction is completed within a few seconds.

Example 7. In the conditions of example 1 conduct heat the reaction mixture of powders consisting of 2.85 g of hexachlorobenzene, 3,05 g of calcium carbide and 12 g of the reaction products. The mixture burns with a speed of 2.5 m/sec. After completion of the burning of black reaction product water wash 3,20 g of calcium chloride.

Example 8. A jelly-like mass, obtained by the swelling 1.45 g of polyvinylidenechloride in 5 ml of chloroform, and pound in a mortar in the atmosphere of dry air with 1.54 g of powdered calcium carbide. When grinding chloroform evaporates, and the resulting plastic wad dried for 30 minutes at 100oWith vacuum water is I black reaction product water quantitatively wash of 1.65 g of calcium chloride.

Example 9. In the absence of moisture is cooked mixture 3,24 g complex compounds [Sh Cl42C9H7N]/ and 1.25 g of calcium carbide. After carrying out the reaction under the conditions of example 1 and hillshade get black product that does not contain chlorine. The quinoline /C9H7N/ during the reaction Argonauts.

1. How dehalogenate halogenated organic and Organoelement compounds by decomposition during thermal initiation of the reaction in the presence of calcium compounds, characterized in that dihalogenoalkane carry out the interaction of halogenated substances with powdered calcium carbide.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the initial mixture is injected inert diluent in amounts up to 200 wt. for example, metal oxides, activated carbon, soot, and reaction by-products.

 

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