The method of manufacturing products of the type wheels

 

(57) Abstract:

The inventive method of manufacturing products of the type wheels, includes preparation of the original piece, making a backward extrusion of the intermediate semi-finished product in the form of a bowl, the firmware of the center hole, forming the flange and the disk part with the formation of the relief, the formation of the profile of the rim portion with the flanges, the final thermal and mechanical processing. To the shape of the bowl is formed along the perimeter of the end wall of the tapered flange diameter equal to 0,95-0,99 diameter of the flanges, after which, zadamlya the wall of the bowl radial compression, form a backward extrusion of the second flange in the form of shaped flange on the back side of the bowl and finish the process of moving metal cone flange and forming the rim. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to the field of metal forming and can be used in forging shops of metallurgical and machine-building plants in the manufacture of automobile wheels and the like products.

A known method of manufacture of type wheels, including the preparation of the original piece, the manufacture of the intermediate semi-finished product in the form of a bowl direct vydavlevanija ledge, the forming of the flanges and the disc portion, forming the rim of the disk part with the wheels, the final thermal and mechanical processing. The forming of the flange and the disk part of the start of the deformation of the outer surface of the bottom part, and finish education on the perimeter of the annular ledge and the metal displaced from the bottom, flange flange, then thermoabrasion radial displacement of the metal of the wall profile of the rim part, deformative from a wall of the second flange [1]

The disadvantage of this method is the large number of transitions that require the manufacture of complex tooling, limited range, because of the thin walls cannot then produce the more massive the flange, and an increase in the wall to the width of the flange eliminates the number of operations, but increases the consumption of metal. In addition, while direct extrusion of a long wall in a reverse move burrs are formed on the surface, which also reduces the quality of the product.

A known method of manufacture of the wheels, including the preparation of the original piece, forming an intermediate semi-finished product in the form of a bowl with a wall variable, forming on the Cup flange and the disk part, the formation of the wall promezhutochnogo of cake mix in a bowl with the wall variable, forming on the Cup flange and the disk portion, the shape of the profile wall rim portion and the second flange, the final thermal and mechanical processing. Forming an intermediate semi-finished product in the form of bowls are backward extrusion with obtaining the walls of a height equal to 0,97-1,01 distance from the disk portion to the end of the annular ribs of the inner flange of the finished wheel. After forming bowls produce the firmware of the center hole and by shifting the entire volume of the workpiece are formed of relief on the disk part. The formation of ribs is produced simultaneously with the formation of the rim part, moving backward extrusion of the excess metal with the formation of the annular ribs of the inner flange and with the simultaneous formation of the Central tubular bone [2]

The disadvantage of this method is the low quality products due to the mismatch of the formed metal texture with the shape of the product, which reduces fatigue characteristics and increases the consumption of the metal due to the necessity of large allowances on the outer surface of the workpiece.

We propose a method of manufacturing products of the type wheels, including the preparation of the original piece, manufactured by Garrett, Borg is the education of relief, the formation of the profile of the rim portion with the flanges, the final thermal and mechanical processing. To the shape of the bowl is formed along the perimeter of the end wall of the tapered flange diameter of 0.95-0.99 diameter of the flanges, after which, zadamlya the wall of the bowl radial compression, form a backward extrusion of the second flange in the form of shaped flange on the back side of the bowl and finish the process of moving metal cone flange and forming the rim.

The proposed method of construction of the wheel differs from the prototype in that the ending shape of the bowl is formed along the perimeter of the end wall of the tapered flange diameter of 0.95 0.99 diameter of the flanges, after which, zadamlya the wall of the bowl radial compression, form a backward extrusion of the second flange in the form of shaped flange on the back side of the bowl and finish the process of moving metal cone flange and forming the rim.

The technical result of the proposed method is to improve the quality of products and reducing the consumption of metal.

The proposed set of operations allows for the minimum number of operations to achieve education products, texture deformation in the cross section which faction to increase fatigue (performance) characteristics of the wheel.

The figures shows the stage of production where:

in Fig.1 forming an intermediate semi-finished product in the form of bowls;

in Fig. 2 the formation of the relief on the disk part and the final formation of the flanges, the rim part and the tubular extrusion process.

The method of manufacture of the parts is as follows. First, any of the known methods of preparing the source of the workpiece 1. The initial billet set, for example, in the centering recess of the ejector 2, which is in the cavity of the matrix 3 and the lower punch 4 (Fig. 1A). Loading the plug 4 by the force P, produce the opposite of the extruded shape of the Cup 5 with the wall 6 of variable thickness and a tapered annular flange 7 around the perimeter of the end wall, the diameter of which is equal to 0,95 0,99 diameter of the flanges.

Thus obtained intermediate semi-finished product 5 is placed in a final split matrix 8 and locking the last effort P1attached through the ring 9 to the end of the matrix, pinch radial compression wall 6, bowls, summing when the plug 10 (Fig.2) to the bowl from the bottom. The implementation of this operation is most conveniently on double action presses or presses with GE locking matrix values that simplifies the design of the tool and work with it. Putting the punch 10, the force P2begin to deform the bottom part II mix (bowl) 5, forming a metal bottom backward extrusion of the second flange in the form of shaped flange 12 on the reverse side of the bowl with simultaneous formation of the bottom disk of the wheel with the desired relief (Fig.2B).

If necessary, the formation of the Central hole in the disk part of the firmware of the holes are at the same time with the formation of relief.

Finish the process by displacement of metal from the bottom of the conical flange 7 with final formation of the first flange and the final shape of the wall 6 of the bowl rim.

Further, the return stroke of the press is extracted from the matrix of the punch 10. The matrix is held in place against disclosure ring 9 with a force of P1.

Then lift the ring and move the plunger lift of the matrix at the same time exposing them to remove the wheel.

Stamped in accordance with Fig. 2 products are subjected to final heat treatment, and then mechanically processed to the desired dimensions.

Due to the fact that the proposed method allows to approximate the shape of the resulting product to form a finished part, the amount of machining is dramatically reduced, which in turn dramatically reduces the consumption of metal.

In addition, the formed texture deformation in the cross section of the product actually coincides with the configuration of the wheel, which increases fatigue (performance) characteristics of the wheel.

Depending on the specific conditions of the method can be carried out without heating the workpiece and tooling (stamping highly plastic materials) or with the heating of the workpiece, or by heating the workpiece and tool (high strength maloplastichnye aluminum, magnesium and titanium alloys).

Examples of implementation

1. Manufacturer of wheel size 5,h of alloy 1420 with the disk part, located in the same plane with the base of the outer flange.

As the original piece was used machined ingot of alloy 1420 dimensions h mm, which was preliminarily subjected to isostatic processing in an argon atmosphere in Gazette.

In the future, to training, the original procurement was again heated and two systems on flat strikers in the washer.

l 2 (Fig.1A), then put the plug 4 and produced backward extrusion of a metal washer in the annulus between the matrix 3 and the plug 4, forming the Cup 5 with the wall 6 of a thickness of 8 mm and diameter D=332 mm (the diameter of the rim plus the allowance for machining) and a tapered annular flange 7 with a diameter equal to 356 mm (Fig.1B).

This diameter is 0,96 from the final diameter then formed flange that predetermines the possibility of metal flow in this zone at the final stage of the forming wheel.

The thus prepared semi-finished product 5 was heated and placed in the stamp on contrepoison 13, which force P1(in the drawing is shown) held in the upper position. When lowering the head plate of the press mounted on it with a punch 10 and a buffer device with a ring 9 last effort P1Ptoffset part of the matrix 8 and contrepoison 13 with a semi-finished product 5 down. When this part of the matrix by a conical surface of the final stamp was limited to the center, so he made a pinched radial compression of the wall 6 of the provisional formation profile rim part (Fig.2).

After lowering contrepoison, parts of the matrix and semi-finished p is the employment shrank and descending while the punch 10 was produced deformation of the bottom part of the semi-finished product, forming a metal bottom backward extrusion of the second flange in the form of shaped flange 12 on the reverse side of the bowl with simultaneous formation of the bottom part of the Cup disk of the wheel with the desired relief (Fig.2B).

At the final stage of deformation move the metal from the bottom of the conical flange 7 with final formation of the first flange and the final shape of the wall 6 of the bowl rim.

Stamped in accordance with Fig. 2 products are subjected to final heat treatment, and then mechanically processed to the desired dimensions.

When processing the bottom part removed part vyshtampovannye in the bottom part of the relief that allows you to open shaped holes in the bottom for the implementation of the ventilation of the brakes and give the original form.

Due to the fact that the proposed method allows to approximate the shape of the resulting product to form a finished part, the amount of machining is dramatically reduced, which in turn dramatically reduces the consumption of metal.

2. Manufacturer of sports wheel size 5x14 aluminum alloy AD.

From the ingot prepared workpiece dimensions h that natively in a matrix of 3 pre-stamp and deforming punch 4, received intermediate semi-finished product 5 in the form of a bowl (Fig. 1A, b).

Preformed thus the semi-finished product was further heated and placed in a mould similar to those shown in Fig. 2, which produced the final molding of the disk parts, rims and wheels. Stamped product was subjected to standard heat treatment and artificial aging, and then mechanically processed to final dimensions.

As shown by the experiments, the proposed method allows comparison with the known to significantly expand the range of manufactured wheels, as it provides not only the manufacture of wheels with different picture disk, but the manufacturer is fundamentally different wheels.

Thus, the proposed method allows for the minimum number of operations to achieve education products, texture deformation in the cross section of which in fact coincides with the configuration of the wheel, and this improves fatigue (operational) wheel characteristics and to minimize the machining tolerances, reducing the consumption of metal.

1. The method of manufacturing products of the type wheels, including the de bowl, the forming of the flange and the disk part with the formation of the relief, the formation of the profile of the rim portion with the flanges, the final thermal and mechanical processing, characterized in that, to the shape of the bowl is formed along the perimeter of the end wall of the tapered flange diameter equal to 0,95-0,99 diameter of the flanges, after which, zadamlya the wall of the bowl radial compression, form a backward extrusion of the second flange in the form of shaped flange on the back side of the bowl and finish the process of moving metal cone flange and forming the rim.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that simultaneously with the beginning of the forming of the relief of the bottom part are the firmware of the Central hole in the disk of the wheel.

 

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FIELD: instrument engineering.

SUBSTANCE: according to the method the blank of hanger is made taking direction of rolled stock into account. Then blank is subject to thermal processing, both sides of blank are cleared from material and hanger is formed by means of double-sided shaped embossing. According to the first variant of the method, blank is subject to heat-cyclical processing prior to double-sided embossing. According to the second variant, double-sided shaped embossing is made in two steps and heat-cyclical processing is performed between those two steps.

EFFECT: prolonged life of hanger; increased service life of press tool.

2 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly in forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering plants for manufacturing automobile wheels and similar products.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing initial blank; forming of it intermediate semi-finished product in the form of cup having shaped bottom, wall and in zone of transition of wall to bottom - thickened portion defined at inner side of cup by surface of revolution, by annular protrusion on outer end of bottom and by flange on end of wall; making central protrusion on inner end of bottom; forming flange on wall by applying axial effort to its end for increasing thickness of wall having constant diametrical size at inner side; then finally shaping blank due to expanding annular protrusion on bottom of cup for forming other flange. Blank is finally shaped during two stages. At first stage height of central protrusion of bottom is increased due to radial motion of bottom material from its center and simultaneously thickness of said protrusion and diametrical size of bottom with flange are decreased, part of wall adjoined to bottom is thickened. At second stage sleeve is calibrated from inside for achieving final diametrical size of its cavity. Then bushings are subjected to heat treatment and mechanical working.

EFFECT: enhanced strength characteristics of reduced-cost wheels.

3 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly in forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering plants for making motor vehicle wheels and similar articles.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing initial blank; then forming intermediate semi-finished product in the form of cup having shaped bottom, wall, thickened portion in zone of wall-bottom transition restricted at inner side of cup by surface of revolution, by annular protrusion on outer end of bottom and by flange on end of wall; forming flange of wall due to applying axial effort to its end at increasing wall thickness while keeping stable diametrical dimensions at inner side of wall; then finally shaping bushing due to expanding wall until final diametrical dimensions of its flange and deforming annular protrusion on cup bottom to other flange; restricting the last in peripheral zone of its outer end by cone surface of revolution having apex in axis of bushing; selecting conicity angle of said surface in predetermined range; realizing heat treatment of formed bushings.

EFFECT: enhanced strength characteristics of wheels in condition of cyclic loading during exploitation.

2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly in forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering plants for making motor vehicle wheels and similar products.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing initial blank; forming intermediate semi-finished product in the form of cup with flange on end of wall and with annular protrusion on outer end of bottom; forming flange of wall due to increasing thickness of wall near its end at constant diametrical dimensions at inner side of wall; then finally shaping blank with two beads; forming ne bead due to deforming flange of cup wall at expanding wall from inside at least in zone of its end; forming other bead due to expanding annular protrusion to cone at conicity angle of inner surface of protrusion in end zone exceeding conicity angle in zone adjacent to cup bottom; determining geometry sizes of semi-finished product and final blank according to given relations; then performing heat treatment and mechanical working of products.

EFFECT: significantly decreased cost of small lots of products.

2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly in forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering plants for making motor vehicle wheels and similar products.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing initial axially symmetrical blank and piercing dead seat along axis of blank; forming intermediate semi-finished product in the form of cup with shaped bottom, wall, thickened portion in zone of wall-bottom transition restricted at inner side of cup by surface of revolution, by annular protrusion of outer end of bottom and by flange of end of wall; forming flange of wall due to applying axial effort to its end while increasing thickness of wall near its end at constant diametrical dimensions at inner side; then finally shaping blank at deforming annular protrusion of cup bottom to other flange and expanding from inside end portion of wall. Expression is given for relating geometry parameters of initial and final blanks. Then formed sleeves are subjected to heat treatment and mechanical working.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of ready products due to providing rational structure of fibers at deforming blank and due to enhanced strength characteristics of fibers in condition of cyclic loading during exploitation.

3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metal, possibly in forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering plants for making wheels of automobiles and similar articles.

SUBSTANCE: tool includes die, punch, knocking out member with shaped portion, unit for stepped regulation of bottom thickness and height of cup. Said unit is in the form of apparatuses for changing length of punch and depth of die. In upper part of punch female type yoke with through stepped opening is mounted. In upper part of die there is seat whose diameter dimension corresponds to outer diameter of yoke. Depth of die is changed by means of apparatus in the form of flat ring arranged over shaped portion of knocking out member. Apparatus for changing length of punch is in the form of flat round gasket arranged inside yoke over punch. Punch has in its upper portion large-diameter step corresponding to diameter of large step of yoke opening.

EFFECT: possibility for producing by means of one tool semi-finished products of wheels with different combinations of width and thickness values.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly in forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering plants for making wheels of automobiles and similar articles.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing initial blank; forming intermediate semi-product in the form of cup having shaped bottom, wall, thickened part in zone of wall-to-bottom transition. Said thickened part is restricted at one side by surface of revolution, by annular protrusion on outer end of bottom and flange on end of wall. Intermediate semi-product is formed by two stages. At first stage bottom is partially punched for forming on outer end of bottom dead cavity and for forming on inner end of bottom central protrusion. Flange is formed on wall due to increasing thickness of wall near its end at keeping constant diameter dimensions of inner side. At second stage annular protrusion is formed and central zone of bottom is finally shaped due to lowering thickness of central protrusion while keeping its height. Simultaneously flange is formed on end of wall by its final size. Then blank is finally formed due to expanding annular protrusion on bottom of cup to other flange. Such sleeve is subjected to heat treatment and mechanical working.

EFFECT: enhanced strength characteristics of low-cost wheels.

3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy; metal plastic working.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in form forging shops of metallurgical and machine-building plant in manufacture of vehicle wheels and like articles. Proposed tool contains die and punch holder with punch and knock-out with shaped part movable relative to die. Punch is enclosed by replaceable round holder with support flat and support surface. Die is provided with socket in upper part whose diameter corresponds to outer diameter of holder, and with support flat. Holder is installed for longitudinal displacement and engagement by its support flat and support surface with support flat of die and with punch holder, respectively. Shaped part of knock-out is made replaceable to provide possibility of making wheels of different type-sizes using one tool.

EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering factories at making automobile wheels and similar products.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing initial blank by hot die forging; forming intermediate semi-finished product in the form of cup with wall passing to its bottom and with front rim in bottom zone and back rim near free end of cup; calibrating received intermediate semi-finished product according to final size between rims due to changing cup depth at applying deforming effort along axis of sleeve to back rim or to near-bottom portion of sleeve and fixing other of said two portions. Then calibrated semi-finished product is subjected to heat treatment and mechanical working.

EFFECT: possibility for producing semi-finished products of wheels with different distances between rims due to using universal fitting that needs only minimized tuning.

5 cl, 2 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly forming forged pieces, for example rings, gear wheels, flanges.

SUBSTANCE: initial blank is heated, preliminarily shaped, finally formed and trimmed. At final forming open die set is used; said die set has gap between its upper and lower halves. Said gap is arranged in zone of forging that is formed last. Dimensions of die set are no more than respective dimensions of forging in order to prevent deforming of displaced excess of metal.

EFFECT: lowered deforming efforts, decreased metal consumption.

11 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

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