Reactor for catalytic transformations
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of oil refining and petrochemistry.The purpose of the invention is to simplify the design of the reactor, more effective use of reaction space and the loaded catalyst, reduction catalyst carryover from the apparatus.Reactor for catalytic transformations includes a housing, upper and lower spherical bottom distribution plate, a device for output of the catalyst fitting of input and output products.New in the reactor is perforated Cup, placed in the upper fitting serving the inner portion of which is perforated and provided with a travel stop Cup. 6 Il. The invention relates to a device for carrying out chemical reactions and can be used in oil refining, chemical and other industries.The reactor is one of the main machines in the process of catalytic reforming, Hydrotreating petroleum fractions, hydrocracking, isomerization, and other it produces a chemical reaction of hydrocarbons and other substances change their structure and chemical structure.The disadvantages of this design are the reduction of the reaction space, the increased cost of alloyed metals, the design complexity and the uneven distribution Gutseriev mixture through a bed of the catalyst, especially when changing the ratio of the hydrogen-containing gas raw total load 
A known design of a reactor for catalytic transformations with axial input Gutseriev mixture, comprising a housing, fitting to enter Gutseriev mixture and reaction products, a control grid, on which is loaded a layer of porcelain balls and catalyst.The disadvantage of this design is insufficient use of the reaction space of the apparatus, the increased pressure drop in the catalyst bed 
Closest to the claimed, the technical essence and the achievable ISDA oils in the presence of hydrogen-containing gas with an ascending stream Gutseriev mixture, comprising a housing, the hopper, the distribution plate, the output device of a catalyst and a filter device 
The disadvantages of this design are: insufficient use of the reaction space and the loaded catalyst, as well as abrasion and ablation of part of the catalyst from the reactor in the system.The aim of the present invention is more complete use of the reaction space and the loaded catalyst, reduction catalyst carryover from the apparatus.This objective is achieved in that the inner part of the upper nozzle exit of the reaction products lengthened and perforined, and it set the perforated glass. The size of the perforation holes smaller than the granules of the catalyst. Inside a perforated Cup download iron or porcelain balls, the diameter of which is larger than the perforation holes.Comparative analysis of the prototype allows us to conclude that the claimed reactor for catalytic transformations differs in that the upper fitting perforated and extended into the reactor, inside it has a perforated glass diameter, providing its axial movement in the fitting. The glass in his the S="ptx2">In the prototype the upper part of the reactor loaded with catalyst underemployed, there is an empty space between the grate and the top plate.In addition, over the catalyst on the plate again there is a free space. Total free space according to preliminary calculations is at least 10-15% of the reactor volume.In the proposed invention in the upper part of the reactor there are no voids. All space is filled with a catalyst.Tested in a model glass reactors showed that the reactor has a blank space in the upper part and the upward flow Gutseriev mixture there is more movement of the granules of the catalyst than in a reactor filled with a catalyst completely, and thus their increased abrasion.In the prototype of the catalyst loaded on the upper plate, the reaction is not involved, occupying the useful volume of the reactor 7-10% of the total. The proposed technical solution, all loaded in the reactor the catalyst works for the intended purpose. In addition, when equal volumes of the reactors in the proposed design of the catalyst is loaded more and work more efficiently.Reactor for catalytic transformations has a body 1, upper 2 and lower 3 spherical bottom distribution plate 4, the output device catalyst 5, the socket for input Gutseriev mixture 6, an elongated nozzle for reaction products 7, which is located inside the perforated glass 8 and to which are fixed restrictors 9 perforated Cup 8. The reactor has a support ring 10 for mounting it on the base.Reactor for catalytic transformation works as follows.On the protruding perforated part of the upper fitting 7 secure the mesh with mesh size smaller than the granules of the catalyst. In rmode pneumatic devices are filled with catalyst emptiness beyond the perforated part of the upper fitting 7, and inside it set perforated glass 8, which secure the mesh and fall asleep in his cast-iron balls.Bulk materials, including granular catalysts, when loading them into the devices take the form of an internal part of the device (as liquid) except for the upper part, where it formed a cone shape and, as a consequence - the void beyond the protruding part of the upper perforated fitting.The catalyst loading in the reactor and its operation stages shown in Fig.3-6. Fig.3 the catalyst loaded into the reactor until the middle of serving a perforated part of the upper fitting 7. For the perforated part of the fitting emptiness. Next, using a pneumatic device filled with catalyst emptiness beyond the perforated part of the upper fitting 7. This operation is performed several times, depending on the diameter of the reactor and the diameter of the valve 7 (see Fig.4).The next operation (see Fig.5) provides for the filling of the catalyst in the perforated part of the fitting is approximately 80% and then placed into the socket of the perforated glass with cast-iron balls 8. The level of catalyst in the upper fitting 7 should be such that the portion of the perforation 8 cups (20%) was that when this happens the final filling of the catalyst voids in the reactor volume and in the upper part thereof, and a perforated Cup 8 will occupy a lower position in the connecting pipe 7 (see Fig. 6).As the seal of the catalyst during normal reactor operation, the perforated glass continues to descend, preventing the "wool" of the granules of the catalyst and abrasion. The wool of the catalyst becomes impossible, if the reactor is not empty (not filled with catalyst) space. Part of it, at the top of the perforated part of the fitting that goes on the "shrinkage". While the perforated glass under its own weight moves down together with the downstream catalyst and eliminates the formation of voids in the upper part of the reactor (see Fig.6).In the operation of the catalyst with a low mechanical strength, it is possible to further movement of the perforated Cup down and in the absence of the stroke limiter 9, the Cup 8 may descend below the nozzle 7, which will lead to the entrainment of catalyst from the reactor system and the facility emergency shutdown and loss of the catalyst.Examples 1-6 indicate that the proposed design allows you to reduce the lab reactor with a side reaction products (fitting conclusion products is 80% mark from the bottom as in the prototype). Charged to the reactor 100 grams alumnirelations catalyst (TU 38.101192-77), rinsed with nitrogen, then with hydrogen. Establish the flow of hydrogen through the reactor from the bottom up (upward flow), heat the catalyst up to 350oWith and served raw.The experiment is carried out at a temperature of 350oC, a pressure of 4 MPa, the ratio of feed hydrogen feedstock 250 1 nm3/m3and space velocity of the raw materials 3 h-1. The raw material used fraction of diesel fuel, wikipaedia within 180-360oWith a sulfur content of 1.2 wt. The liquid reaction product after stabilization (stable hydrogenation product contains about 0.14 wt. sulfur. After 240 hours, the reactor was rinsed with hydrogen, then with nitrogen, cooled and discharged catalyst. After burning coke from the catalyst in a muffle furnace weight of the catalyst is 98,1, the Loss is 1.9 grams (1.9 per cent).Example 2 (proposed device). For the experiment using a laboratory reactor with the reaction products through the upper fitting. Charged to the reactor 100 g alumnirelations catalyst (TU 38.101192-77).In the upper socket set mesh bag stainless wire, filled with iron shot. The reactor is blown ADO 350oC. Experiment is carried out under the conditions of example 1 on the same raw materials. The obtained stable hydrogenation product contains of 0.12 wt. sulfur. After 240 hours, the reactor was rinsed with hydrogen, then nitrogen, cool, unload the catalyst. After burning coke from the catalyst in a muffle furnace weight of the catalyst is 99,8, Losses of 0.20 g (0.2%).Example 3. The experiment is carried out with a laboratory reactor as in example 2, with the same raw materials at a temperature of 350oC, a pressure of 4 MPa, the ratio of hydrogen supply for raw materials 250 1 and space velocity of the feedstock to the catalyst 3.5 hours-1. The obtained stable hydrogenation product contains about 0.14 wt. sulfur. Loss of catalyst after burning coke to be 0.35 g (0,35%). The performance of the reactor is increased by 11.7% while maintaining the quality of the target product.Example 4 (the known device). For the experiment using a reactor with a side reaction products (fitting is located on the 80-percent mark from the bottom, as in the prototype).Charged to the reactor 100 g aluminoborosilicate catalyst (TU 38.101111-87), rinsed with nitrogen, then with hydrogen. Establish the flow of hydrogen through the reactor from the bottom up (upward flow), heat the catalyst up to 360oWith the hydrogen feedstock 500 1 and flow rate of feed of 1.1 h-1. As raw materials use a vacuum gas oil fraction, wikipaedia within 290-470oWith a sulphur content of 2.9 wt. The liquid reaction product after stabilization (stable hydrogenation product) contains of 0.45 by weight of sulfur. After 240 hours, the reactor was rinsed with hydrogen, nitrogen, cooled and discharged catalyst. After burning coke weight of the catalyst is of 97.8, catalyst Losses amount to 2.2 g 2.2%
Example 5 (proposed device). For the experiment using a laboratory reactor with the reaction products through the upper fitting (proposed device). Charged to the reactor 100 g aluminoborosilicate catalyst (TU 38.101111-87). In the upper fitting set mesh bag stainless wire, filled with iron shot. The reactor is rinsed with nitrogen, then with hydrogen. Establish the flow of hydrogen from the bottom up and warm up the catalyst to 360oC. Experiment is carried out under the conditions of example 4 on the same raw materials. The obtained stable hydrogenation product contains of 0.37 wt. sulfur. After 240 hours, the reactor was rinsed with hydrogen, nitrogen, cooled and discharged catalyst. After burning coke weight of the catalyst is 99.6, catalyst Losses 0.4 g or 0.4%
Example 6 (isostearamide 80% mark from the bottom, as in the prototype). Charged to the reactor 100 g of aluminium oxide-platinum catalyst AP-64 (TU 38.101486-77).The reactor is rinsed with nitrogen, hydrogen. Establish the flow of hydrogen from the bottom up and warm up the catalyst to 500oC. Experiment is carried out under the conditions of example 6 on the same raw materials. The obtained stable catalysate has an octane number of 85 points. The difference is the octane number of the feedstock and catalyzate is 33 points. After 240 hours, the reactor was rinsed with hydrogen, nitrogen, cooled and discharged catalyst. After burning coke weight of the catalyst is reached 98.9, catalyst Losses 1.1 g or 1.1% Reactor for catalytic reactions, comprising a housing, upper and lower plate, the distribution plate, the device for the catalyst, the lower hose Gutseriev mixture and top fitting of reaction products, wherein the upper fitting perforated and extended in the reactor vessel and provided with a perforated metal Cup with a diameter of providing its axial movement in the nozzle, and a travel stop Cup attached to the end portion of the upper fitting.
FIELD: chemical industry, catalytic processes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a reactor for catalytic processes and is dealt with the field of chemical industry and may be used for catalytic processes. The reactor contains: a body; units of input and output for a reaction mixture and products of reactions; units of loading and unloading of a catalyst; a catalyst layer with the groups of the parallel hollow gas-permeable chambers located on it in height in one or several horizontal planes and each of the chambers has a perforated gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt connected to the group collector and used for input of additional amount of the reaction mixture. Each of perforated gas-permeable chambers is supplied with the second gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt. At that the impenetrable butts of the pipes are located on the opposite sides. The given engineering solution provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.
EFFECT: the invention provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: initiating ammonia conversion reaction.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is performed on reticular platinoid catalyst by passing the ammonia-containing gas mixture and oxygen-containing gas through it; local sections of catalyst surfaces are periodically heated to reaction initiating temperature by means of linear electric heating elements located directly on catalyst surface. Equivalent diameters of local sections of catalyst surface are selected between 1-5 of magnitude of external equivalent diameter of separate electric heating element; linear electric heating elements are connected to electric power source at duty factor from 20 to 1 s. Used as material for reticular platinoid catalyst are the following alloys: Pt-81, Pd-15, Rh-3.5 and Ru-0.5 mass-%; Pt-92,5, Pd -4.0 and Rh -3.5 mass-%; Pt-95 and Rh-5 mass-%; Pt-92.5 and Rh-7.5 mass-%. Initiating the ammonia conversion reaction by this method is performed in reactors for production of nitric and hydrocyanic acids and hydroxylamine sulfate.
EFFECT: reduction of time required for reaction over entire surface of catalyst; reduction of explosion danger.
2 cl, 10 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; a method of modernization of a completely detectable reactor.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of modernization of a completely detectable reactor. The method provides for modernization of an in-situ reactor of a heterogeneous exothermic synthesis having an external body with several located in it one over another and at some space from each other layers of a catalyst, at realization of which on the initial stage in the upper part of the body form at least the first layer of the catalyst filled in with the first catalyst having the activity picked beforehand; also form several layers of the catalyst located in the lower part of the body in parallel to each other. The layers located in the lower part of the body are filled in with the second catalyst, activity of which exceeds the activity of the first catalyst with which at least the first layer is filled in. The method of an exothermic heterogeneous synthesis with high yield is realized by feeding of the gaseous reagents in the reactor of a synthesis, which has a body with several catalyst layers resting on it, which are placed one over another at some space from each other and in which a reaction of interaction between the gaseous reagents runs. A reaction mixture also is fed at least from the first layer of the catalyst located in the upper part of the body into several layers of the catalyst located in parallel to each other in the lower part of the body. Let the reaction mixture run through the catalyst layers located in the lower part of the body and filled in with the catalyst the reaction activity of which exceeds activity of the catalyst, with which at least the first layer of the catalyst is filled in and the products of the reaction of the synthesis are taken out from the reactor catalyst layers located in the lower part of the body. The technical result is an increased conversion yield and productivity of the reactor at low operational costs and a low power consumption.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased conversion yield and productivity of the reactor at low operational costs and a lower power consumption.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: nuclear power engineering, transport, chemical mechanical engineering, and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for recombining hydrogen and oxygen in gas medium meant to ensure hydrogen safety includes bringing of gas mixture in contact with heated catalyst body disposed along heat-conducting channel to ensure heat transfer between them. Temperature of heat-conducting channel hot end at point of its contact with catalyst body is maintained between 150 and 350 °C and temperature of its cold end at point of its contact with catalyst body is maintained below that of hot end. Gas mixture is passed through catalyst body from cold end of heat-conducting channel to its hot end. Hydrogen-and-oxygen recombiner has case with inlet and outlet sections, as well as heat-conducting channel disposed in-between and catalyst body placed on the path of gas mixture flow along heat-conducting channel. The latter is equipped on conducting end with cooling device and on outlet end, with heater. Hydrogen concentration working range is extended to 0.5 - 25% of gas mixture.
EFFECT: enlarged hydrogen concentration range, enhanced operating reliability under different operating conditions.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; equipment for synthesis of hydrocarbons.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to chemical industry, in particular, to the horizontal reactor for synthesis of hydrocarbons according to Fisher-Tropsh method. The offered reactor consists of the single-type design coaxial horizontal reactive sections. Each section is mounted on a wheeled trolley with adjustable supports and incorporates a casing, a fixed in it through adapters catalytic box with a built-in heat exchanger, through which the heat transfer medium is compulsorily pumped over. The catalytic box is made in the form of a package assembly of the same type catalytic modules is sectional with usage of the fastening strainers and tightening gaskets. The catalytic module is assembled with usage of welding from longitudinal or transversal in respect to the longitudinal axis sections, the square-type flat soldered on corrugations or ribs double walled panels with the general depth of 5-15 mm, at the thickness of walls of 1 - 2 mm, at the height of corrugations or ribs of 3-9 mm at their depth of 0.3-2.0 mm with the shanks welded to them. The catalytic area is formed due to selection of the depth of the shanks greater, than the depth of the panels, owing to what at their assembly in compliance with shanks by means of welding between the panels are left the vertical slits of 5...20 mm width where fragments-granules of the catalytic agent are placed. The given engineering solution ensures conditions close to isothermal requirements of the synthesis through the whole volume of the reaction zone, ease of assembly and maintenance of the reactor in all climatic zones, and also in provision of its reliability, transportability and repairability.
EFFECT: the invention ensures conditions close to isothermal requirements of the synthesis through the whole volume of the reaction zone, ease of assembly and maintenance of the reactor in all climatic zones, its reliability, transportability and repairability.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: chemical engineering; production of reactors for catalytic synthesis.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical engineering, predominantly to reactors of catalytic synthesis. The horizontal multi-shelved catalytic reactor consists of a load-bearing plate, a high-pressure cylindrical body with a cover, which may be transported along the axis of the catalytic unit. The reactor has the typical component and the design of components of the catalytic unit, which consists of the sealed cylindrical catalytic containers, the load-bearing support frame and the module-type heat-exchange devices. The load-bearing support frame represents a crosswise section beam cantileverly fixed on the load-bearing support plate. The vertical plane of symmetry of the frame coincides with the longitudinal axis of the high-pressure body, and on the shelves there are catalytic containers installed in two parallel rows. The frame is cantileverly fixed to the load-bearing plate, through which all inlets and outlets are carried out. The plate is upright mounted on the horizontal foundation and the high-pressure body is joined with it. In the module heat-exchange devices there are tracts for passage of the reactionary gases and the heat-transfer medium. The invention ensures improved conditions of the reactor operation, reduction of its overall dimensions and the mass, simplification of the process of manufacture.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improved conditions of the reactor operation, reduction of its overall dimensions and the mass, simplification of the process of manufacture.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; methods and installations for treatment of the discharge gases in the processes of desulphurization.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the method and the installation intended for treatment of the discharge gases in the processes of desulphurization. The method provides for: production in the technological section of the discharge gas having the concentration of sulfur dioxide at least of 1.5 %; communication of the hydrogenation reactor through by the fluid medium with the technological section; provision of the hydrogenation reactor with the mixed feeding gas containing at least a part of the discharge gas and at least a part of the spent gas depleted by hydrogen sulfide; integration at least of a part the spent gas depleted by hydrogen sulfide from the contactor with the discharge gas from the technological section for formation of the mixed feeding gas having the concentration of the sulfur dioxide of no more than 2.5 %. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the output of the hydrogen sulfide and-or the sulfur dioxide.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the output of the hydrogen sulfide and-or the sulfur dioxide.
23 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry; devices for hydrocarbons processing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, to the devices used for hydrocarbons processing, in particular, to the reactor containing the vertically elongated reaction chamber, having, at least, one reaction layer and the reactor internal device. At that the reactor internal device contains the essentially horizontal lower supporting grating and, at least, one distributor made in the form of the distribution plate and the means for distribution of the cooling liquid medium. The distribution device is arranged above and at a distance from the lower supporting grating and is connected with it by means of the vertical elongated supports. The lower supporting grating rests on the upper surface of the reaction layer. Besides, the invention is pertaining to the usage of such reactor in the method of the hydrocarbons processing. The technical result of the invention is arrangement of the reactor internal device at the desirable vertical level of the reaction chamber.
EFFECT: the invention ensures arrangement of the reactor internal device at the desirable vertical level of the reaction chamber.
12 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; devices for production of the synthesis gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the radial type device for realization of oxidation of the gaseous hydrocarbon fuels with the help of the catalytic agent and may be used for production of the synthesis gas. The radial type device for production synthesis gas contains the gas-distribution perforated tube 3 and the catalytic agent 4. The catalytic agent is made in the form of the annular heat-conducting dispensing catalytic plates and the heat-conducting separators with the grooves alternating among themselves with formation of channels for the gaseous streams running and connected among themselves. On the both sides of the separator 6 there are grooves 7 made in the form of the evolvent from the center to the periphery. The annular plates of the catalytic agent are mounted perpendicularly to the axis of the shafts of the gas-distribution perforated tube 3. Inside of the gas-distribution perforated tube 3 there is the starting system, which consists of the mixer 1 with the ignition plug 2 or the electric heating component. The invention presents the compact and effective device.
EFFECT: the invention presents the compact and effective radial type device used for realization of oxidation of the gaseous hydrocarbon fuels with the help of the catalytic agent and for production of the synthesis gas.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns reactor with fluidized bed of fine catalyst, which reactor contains upright cylindrical body, sectioning grids with their free area increasing along the height of reactor, connecting pipes for supplying feedstock and evacuating contact gas, and receiving and withdrawing recycled catalyst, and cyclones with dust-removing risers. More specifically, upper grid has free area larger than 60 and lesser than 90% of the body section, ends of connecting pipes receiving recycled catalyst and ends of dust-removing risers are disposed above upper grid and below fluidized bed.
EFFECT: increased output of reactor, improved performance of dehydrogenation (increased yield of olefins and reduced consumption of catalyst), and improved environmental condition.