Reactor for catalytic transformations

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of oil refining and petrochemistry.

The purpose of the invention is to simplify the design of the reactor, more effective use of reaction space and the loaded catalyst, reduction catalyst carryover from the apparatus.

Reactor for catalytic transformations includes a housing, upper and lower spherical bottom distribution plate, a device for output of the catalyst fitting of input and output products.

New in the reactor is perforated Cup, placed in the upper fitting serving the inner portion of which is perforated and provided with a travel stop Cup. 6 Il.

The invention relates to a device for carrying out chemical reactions and can be used in oil refining, chemical and other industries.

The reactor is one of the main machines in the process of catalytic reforming, Hydrotreating petroleum fractions, hydrocracking, isomerization, and other it produces a chemical reaction of hydrocarbons and other substances change their structure and chemical structure.

The disadvantages of this design are the reduction of the reaction space, the increased cost of alloyed metals, the design complexity and the uneven distribution Gutseriev mixture through a bed of the catalyst, especially when changing the ratio of the hydrogen-containing gas raw total load [1]

A known design of a reactor for catalytic transformations with axial input Gutseriev mixture, comprising a housing, fitting to enter Gutseriev mixture and reaction products, a control grid, on which is loaded a layer of porcelain balls and catalyst.

The disadvantage of this design is insufficient use of the reaction space of the apparatus, the increased pressure drop in the catalyst bed [2]

Closest to the claimed, the technical essence and the achievable ISDA oils in the presence of hydrogen-containing gas with an ascending stream Gutseriev mixture, comprising a housing, the hopper, the distribution plate, the output device of a catalyst and a filter device [3]

The disadvantages of this design are: insufficient use of the reaction space and the loaded catalyst, as well as abrasion and ablation of part of the catalyst from the reactor in the system.

The aim of the present invention is more complete use of the reaction space and the loaded catalyst, reduction catalyst carryover from the apparatus.

This objective is achieved in that the inner part of the upper nozzle exit of the reaction products lengthened and perforined, and it set the perforated glass. The size of the perforation holes smaller than the granules of the catalyst. Inside a perforated Cup download iron or porcelain balls, the diameter of which is larger than the perforation holes.

Comparative analysis of the prototype allows us to conclude that the claimed reactor for catalytic transformations differs in that the upper fitting perforated and extended into the reactor, inside it has a perforated glass diameter, providing its axial movement in the fitting. The glass in his the S="ptx2">

In the prototype the upper part of the reactor loaded with catalyst underemployed, there is an empty space between the grate and the top plate.

In addition, over the catalyst on the plate again there is a free space. Total free space according to preliminary calculations is at least 10-15% of the reactor volume.

In the proposed invention in the upper part of the reactor there are no voids. All space is filled with a catalyst.

Tested in a model glass reactors showed that the reactor has a blank space in the upper part and the upward flow Gutseriev mixture there is more movement of the granules of the catalyst than in a reactor filled with a catalyst completely, and thus their increased abrasion.

In the prototype of the catalyst loaded on the upper plate, the reaction is not involved, occupying the useful volume of the reactor 7-10% of the total. The proposed technical solution, all loaded in the reactor the catalyst works for the intended purpose. In addition, when equal volumes of the reactors in the proposed design of the catalyst is loaded more and work more efficiently.

Reactor for catalytic transformations has a body 1, upper 2 and lower 3 spherical bottom distribution plate 4, the output device catalyst 5, the socket for input Gutseriev mixture 6, an elongated nozzle for reaction products 7, which is located inside the perforated glass 8 and to which are fixed restrictors 9 perforated Cup 8. The reactor has a support ring 10 for mounting it on the base.

Reactor for catalytic transformation works as follows.

On the protruding perforated part of the upper fitting 7 secure the mesh with mesh size smaller than the granules of the catalyst. In rmode pneumatic devices are filled with catalyst emptiness beyond the perforated part of the upper fitting 7, and inside it set perforated glass 8, which secure the mesh and fall asleep in his cast-iron balls.

Bulk materials, including granular catalysts, when loading them into the devices take the form of an internal part of the device (as liquid) except for the upper part, where it formed a cone shape and, as a consequence - the void beyond the protruding part of the upper perforated fitting.

The catalyst loading in the reactor and its operation stages shown in Fig.3-6. Fig.3 the catalyst loaded into the reactor until the middle of serving a perforated part of the upper fitting 7. For the perforated part of the fitting emptiness. Next, using a pneumatic device filled with catalyst emptiness beyond the perforated part of the upper fitting 7. This operation is performed several times, depending on the diameter of the reactor and the diameter of the valve 7 (see Fig.4).

The next operation (see Fig.5) provides for the filling of the catalyst in the perforated part of the fitting is approximately 80% and then placed into the socket of the perforated glass with cast-iron balls 8. The level of catalyst in the upper fitting 7 should be such that the portion of the perforation 8 cups (20%) was that when this happens the final filling of the catalyst voids in the reactor volume and in the upper part thereof, and a perforated Cup 8 will occupy a lower position in the connecting pipe 7 (see Fig. 6).

As the seal of the catalyst during normal reactor operation, the perforated glass continues to descend, preventing the "wool" of the granules of the catalyst and abrasion. The wool of the catalyst becomes impossible, if the reactor is not empty (not filled with catalyst) space. Part of it, at the top of the perforated part of the fitting that goes on the "shrinkage". While the perforated glass under its own weight moves down together with the downstream catalyst and eliminates the formation of voids in the upper part of the reactor (see Fig.6).

In the operation of the catalyst with a low mechanical strength, it is possible to further movement of the perforated Cup down and in the absence of the stroke limiter 9, the Cup 8 may descend below the nozzle 7, which will lead to the entrainment of catalyst from the reactor system and the facility emergency shutdown and loss of the catalyst.

Examples 1-6 indicate that the proposed design allows you to reduce the lab reactor with a side reaction products (fitting conclusion products is 80% mark from the bottom as in the prototype). Charged to the reactor 100 grams alumnirelations catalyst (TU 38.101192-77), rinsed with nitrogen, then with hydrogen. Establish the flow of hydrogen through the reactor from the bottom up (upward flow), heat the catalyst up to 350oWith and served raw.

The experiment is carried out at a temperature of 350oC, a pressure of 4 MPa, the ratio of feed hydrogen feedstock 250 1 nm3/m3and space velocity of the raw materials 3 h-1. The raw material used fraction of diesel fuel, wikipaedia within 180-360oWith a sulfur content of 1.2 wt. The liquid reaction product after stabilization (stable hydrogenation product contains about 0.14 wt. sulfur. After 240 hours, the reactor was rinsed with hydrogen, then with nitrogen, cooled and discharged catalyst. After burning coke from the catalyst in a muffle furnace weight of the catalyst is 98,1, the Loss is 1.9 grams (1.9 per cent).

Example 2 (proposed device). For the experiment using a laboratory reactor with the reaction products through the upper fitting. Charged to the reactor 100 g alumnirelations catalyst (TU 38.101192-77).

In the upper socket set mesh bag stainless wire, filled with iron shot. The reactor is blown ADO 350oC. Experiment is carried out under the conditions of example 1 on the same raw materials. The obtained stable hydrogenation product contains of 0.12 wt. sulfur. After 240 hours, the reactor was rinsed with hydrogen, then nitrogen, cool, unload the catalyst. After burning coke from the catalyst in a muffle furnace weight of the catalyst is 99,8, Losses of 0.20 g (0.2%).

Example 3. The experiment is carried out with a laboratory reactor as in example 2, with the same raw materials at a temperature of 350oC, a pressure of 4 MPa, the ratio of hydrogen supply for raw materials 250 1 and space velocity of the feedstock to the catalyst 3.5 hours-1. The obtained stable hydrogenation product contains about 0.14 wt. sulfur. Loss of catalyst after burning coke to be 0.35 g (0,35%). The performance of the reactor is increased by 11.7% while maintaining the quality of the target product.

Example 4 (the known device). For the experiment using a reactor with a side reaction products (fitting is located on the 80-percent mark from the bottom, as in the prototype).

Charged to the reactor 100 g aluminoborosilicate catalyst (TU 38.101111-87), rinsed with nitrogen, then with hydrogen. Establish the flow of hydrogen through the reactor from the bottom up (upward flow), heat the catalyst up to 360oWith the hydrogen feedstock 500 1 and flow rate of feed of 1.1 h-1. As raw materials use a vacuum gas oil fraction, wikipaedia within 290-470oWith a sulphur content of 2.9 wt. The liquid reaction product after stabilization (stable hydrogenation product) contains of 0.45 by weight of sulfur. After 240 hours, the reactor was rinsed with hydrogen, nitrogen, cooled and discharged catalyst. After burning coke weight of the catalyst is of 97.8, catalyst Losses amount to 2.2 g 2.2%

Example 5 (proposed device). For the experiment using a laboratory reactor with the reaction products through the upper fitting (proposed device). Charged to the reactor 100 g aluminoborosilicate catalyst (TU 38.101111-87). In the upper fitting set mesh bag stainless wire, filled with iron shot. The reactor is rinsed with nitrogen, then with hydrogen. Establish the flow of hydrogen from the bottom up and warm up the catalyst to 360oC. Experiment is carried out under the conditions of example 4 on the same raw materials. The obtained stable hydrogenation product contains of 0.37 wt. sulfur. After 240 hours, the reactor was rinsed with hydrogen, nitrogen, cooled and discharged catalyst. After burning coke weight of the catalyst is 99.6, catalyst Losses 0.4 g or 0.4%

Example 6 (isostearamide 80% mark from the bottom, as in the prototype). Charged to the reactor 100 g of aluminium oxide-platinum catalyst AP-64 (TU 38.101486-77).

The reactor is rinsed with nitrogen, hydrogen. Establish the flow of hydrogen from the bottom up and warm up the catalyst to 500oC. Experiment is carried out under the conditions of example 6 on the same raw materials. The obtained stable catalysate has an octane number of 85 points. The difference is the octane number of the feedstock and catalyzate is 33 points. After 240 hours, the reactor was rinsed with hydrogen, nitrogen, cooled and discharged catalyst. After burning coke weight of the catalyst is reached 98.9, catalyst Losses 1.1 g or 1.1%

Reactor for catalytic reactions, comprising a housing, upper and lower plate, the distribution plate, the device for the catalyst, the lower hose Gutseriev mixture and top fitting of reaction products, wherein the upper fitting perforated and extended in the reactor vessel and provided with a perforated metal Cup with a diameter of providing its axial movement in the nozzle, and a travel stop Cup attached to the end portion of the upper fitting.

 

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