The way to protect trash lattice icing
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to methods of combating ice problems on the intake of hydraulic structures. The invention allows to prevent the primary phase of solidification of the sludge in the area of depression in the hydrodynamic shadow of the grille. In the end part of the hollow rod serves liquid working medium under pressure and with a speed that creates the entraining effect of the discharge and transport the sludge from the terminals of the lattice. In the result, there is no need of heating rods of the lattice. The invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering construction and relates, in particular, ways of dealing with ice problems at water intakes.There is a method of protection cerodinium gratings driving inland water ice with electric heating, in particular, the most used method windshield heating ( see Pejovich A. I. Heating trash grates HPP water intake structures", L: Gosenergoizdat, 1959, 18C.).However, as a means of preventing the crystallization of supercooled water grids, and also sticking to them floating in the stream of sludge, however, cannot protect the grill from the mechanical and preliminary heating is switched on ( before as water has overcooled).The method of heating time-consuming due to the exact choice of heating mode, the effective power including efficiency, the complexity of the installation of heaters. Optimum efficiency in practice could not be reached.For the prototype accepted closest in physical sense way to protect cerodinium gratings hydroelectric power stations, including the supply of the working environment inside the rods of the lattice under pressure and release it in the frontal part of the rods.with. N 81604, IPC EO 5/08, 1948), which is the closest analogue to the proposed method.In the prototype, the distinctive feature of the proposed lattice is the fulfillment of the tubular rods it from a porous material or perforation filling the internal cavity of the rods salt solution (working environment), which seeps on the outer surface of the pipe grid, wets them and this prevents the adhesion of sludge to the grid.The known method does not solve the problem of pressure drop in the zone at the tail (end) portions of the rods and, consequently, the occurrence of germ primary crystallization at a temperature different from the usual crystallization.The method in the prototype does not lead to sustainability of the rods R it (crystallization) completely. In addition, it is possible clogging of the pores of the sediments brine, corrosion elements cerodinium lattices, all of which lowers the strength and stability of rods.The purpose of the invention prevent the initial phase crystallization in the area of depression in the hydrodynamic shadow of the grille.To achieve the goal of water inside ( the end part) of the hollow rod serves under pressure, and the release by the frontal part of the rod in the area of depression thread, with a speed that allows you to relieve pressure and exercise electroysis effect for the demolition of the already formed sludge.The method is as follows.8 hollow rod (in the area of the exhaustion produce "blowing out" of the water jet to change the hydraulics of flow of the rods of the lattice water stream. The rod has a slotted hole in the leaf and its parts. Water supply in the rarefaction zone changes the amount of pressure between the rod has electroysis effect and allows you to remove the crystallization of the sludge. The rate of flow of the thread on the end surfaces of the rods of the grids is maintained equal to the velocity of the main flow, which is included in misterjaw space lattices.Studies pokaza, in winter conditions it is possible to remove the crystallization of the sludge and to transport it from the grids. The way to protect trash lattice icing, including the supply of pressure liquid working medium inside the rods of the lattice and release it in the frontal part of the rod, characterized in that the working environment is additionally produced from the rear of the rods, and as the working environment using the water, and the water output from terminals perform with speed, providing the removal of sludge from the lattice due to ejection.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for taking water from surface sources and it is designed to provide protection of diversion facilities from slush ice. Proposed device contains three-dimensional filtering cassettes installed in guide of slot structure of intake port of submerged water intake head of diversion facility consisting of metal rectangular frame with filtering plastic tubes tightly fitted in slots on inner side. Plastic tubes are made truncated along their generatrices on secant line of base of corresponding filtering plastic tube. Chord of secant line of base of filtering plastic tubes is either equal to or non- equal to outer diameter of tubes, and dimensions of metal rectangular frame are multiple of said chord. Truncated filtering plastic tubes can be installed in metal rectangular frame in slots on inner side, either vertically or horizontally, being interconnected by hydraulic insulating material.
EFFECT: provision of effecting protection of diversion facilities from slush ice.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic equipment, particularly mechanical equipment for hydraulic structures, namely heat power plants, atomic power plants and hydroelectric power plants, to protect underwater structure parts from unauthorized access in supply and discharge channels thereof.
SUBSTANCE: protective grid comprises vertical rods and connecting members. Two-level control system is arranged in the grid. One level comprises two independent signaling circuits. The first circuit is arranged in vertical rods shaped as vertical hollow pipes in which contact signaling means wire provided with sensors is arranged. The sensors are located in upper horizontal pipe of independent section. Wires of contact signaling means and sensors are united to form common cable. Wires of contact signaling means formed in the second circuit are located in two extreme hollow pipes and connected with two or more water sensors located in lower horizontal pipe. Lower horizontal pipe and upper horizontal pipe are communicated with all vertical hollow pipes. Common cable of the first circuit and wires of the second circuit are led out and connected to sound and light alarm of the grid and to operator's console. Another level has portable television probe adapted to perform vision-based monitoring and to determine quantity and qualitative characteristics of detected deformations. The television probe may slide along guiding means, for instance along rings. The grid may be installed in slots of hydraulic structure and may be displaced in horizontal direction by hoisting device. Upper and lower horizontal pipes, as well as vertical hollow pipes may be U-shaped or linear and are formed of round or elongated profile. Connecting member may be formed as solid horizontal plate or have hollow ellipsoid shape adapted to receive additional contact signaling means wires.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability, increased accuracy of deformation location and type.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a settling chamber 1 with a flushing gallery placed between the supply 2 and drainage 3 sections of the channel. The chamber is made with rising side slopes 21, in the lower part of which there is an inlet hole 4 of the flushing gallery 5. The system also comprises a centrifugal clarifier made in the form of cylindrical chambers 6 and 7. The bottom of the chamber 6 is made as inclined towards the central flushing hole. The chamber 7 is placed inside the vertical chamber 6. At the inlet to the settling chamber 1 there is a flat sluice gate 23 with a curvilinear screen 24. The flushing gallery 5 adjoins with its inlet to the inlet at the outer side of the cylindrical chamber 6 and is placed inside the chamber 7, equipped by additional nozzles. The second nozzle 13 is made in the form of an attachment 12 with a flow swirler and with development of a directed water flow connected to a source of discharge water pipeline, and is placed as coaxial to the vertical axis of the flushing drainage pipeline. The lower edge of the internal cylindrical chamber 7 is arranged above the bottom of the external cylindrical chamber 6. The inlet end wall of the flushing gallery is equipped with a horizontal screen 20.
EFFECT: simplified design and higher efficiency of water intake protection against ingress of bottom sediments and floating debris.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: method includes installation of a shield controller 4 and a threshold in a channel. The shield controller 4 is installed at the outlet of a transition section 1, placed between supply 2 and transit 3 channels. In the lower part of the shield controller 4 there is a flush hole 5. At the inlet of the receiving chamber there is a flat shield in the form of an overflow threshold with a drive 14 with capability of vertical displacement. Flow energy redistribution is carried out by displacement of the flat shield. A jet-guiding threshold is made from two sections in the form of a curvilinear and rectilinear 18 one in the vertical direction of walls, providing for the jet-guiding system and kinematically connected with the overflow threshold. The curvilinear wall is installed on the axis 13 as capable of rotation. Installation of the jet-guiding system, movable in vertical and horizontal planes and connected with the movable overflow threshold, placed at the side of the lateral wall of the receiving chamber, provides for concentration of sediment flushing in direction of the flushing hole 5 of the shield controller 4 and further into the transit channel 3.
EFFECT: increased reliability in operation by means of lower impact at a control accessory of bottom and suspended sediments contained in water.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: water intake contains base or platform, housing and trash screen at its ends. The platform if formed and housing is fixed to its upper surface. Then at least one screen is installed so that inner space embodies platform with housing and screens at the bottom of water source. Outlet of the housing is connected to pipeline. Water intake forms half cylinder at the platform. Anchors can fix edges of water intake to the upper surface of platform. The base can have barrier placed at its one end. Each of screens is installed to the platform near the housing and forms half cylinders. Each screen forms inner cavity communicated with inner hollow space of the housing. Each first and second screens contain a lateral wall, closed distal end and open proximal end fixed to the housing. Closed distal ends have end walls. Water intake can have intermediate walls located between inner space of the housing and inner space of screens. In each transient wall there's at least one flow modifier. Flow modifiers together with platform form half cylinder. Water intake can have a collector placed in screens. Screen structure can include ribs located along screen length. It can also have wire located across ribs.
EFFECT: increasing protective efficiency of screens from silts and providing uniformity of flow distribution along surface area of screens.
28 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes an elastic cloth installed across the flow. The elastic cloth is made as meshed according to shape and size of the flow and is fixed to the frame. The frame is installed on a rotary crosspiece, which has a drive. At the same time the frame comprises a rotary axis parallel to the direction of the flow with the possibility of frame rotation with the elastic cloth perpendicularly to the direction of the flow and fixation of the frame in the necessary position. At the side part of the crosspiece there is a loading cart for removal of dirt.
EFFECT: increased quality of irrigating water treatment, simplified design and reduced energy intensity of treatment.
SUBSTANCE: electrode section is made as a flat structure, it consists of horizontal and vertical electrodes. The section is divided into 2 and more electrodes vertically and horizontally the section includes 1 and more electrodes. Diameter of the horizontal and vertical electrodes is not less than 10 mm, length of each electrode is more than 1m, and distance between the electrodes is not less than 0.05 m. Voltage is supplied either to horizontal or vertical electrodes only or to horizontal and vertical electrodes simultaneously.
EFFECT: more uniform structure of the electric field, increase in operational efficiency of the device without essential increase in the structure volume, improvement of operational reliability and efficiency of the device.
SUBSTANCE: device consists of supply channel 1 with cantilever 3, transit channel 2, and receiving well 4. Rotating filter element 8 with water-permeable plate 18 attached to horizontal rotation axis 11 is installed above well 4 on the side of transit channel 2. Element 8 consists of a set of two similar plates 9 and 10 attached to axis 11. Free end of plates 9 and 10 has slot 13. Horizontal plate 14 is attached with a plane to free ends of plates 9 and 10 and to the end of element 8. Flushing hole 15 with seal 16 is made in element 8 at attachment point to axis 11. Supporting plate 17 is located with an inclination towards transit channel 2 and attached to bottom edge of element 8. Transverse slot 28 for support position of supporting plate 17 is arranged at the bottom of transit channel 2. Grid 22 together with brier teeth 23 and 24 is fixed at the bottom of supply channel 1 with possibility of being turned on horizontal axis 21 and is restricted with a stop in the form of transverse vertical wall 27. Grid 22 is located above filter element 8 and has curved shape and faces with its concave side towards element 8. Slot 13 in plates 9 and 10 of element 8 is installed coaxially to bent end 25 of brier teeth 23 and 24 and the latter are restrictors of its vertical position.
EFFECT: simplifying design of the device and improving its operation reliability and water treatment quality.
5 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mechanical grid comprises a trash stack with a row of parallel bars on grid beams, scrapers with a row of parallel teeth on beams of scrapers for cleaning of the grid. The trash stack and scrapers are made as demountable. The grid beam is equipped with a detachable angle. Eyes of grid bars may be inserted into through holes of the grid beam. The protruding part of eyes from through holes in the grid beam is equipped with slots for insertion of the upper part of one of angle shelves into them, and the other shelf of the angle is fixed by a bolt joint to one of the shelves of the grid beam channel to form a lock joint.
EFFECT: unification of structure elements for commercial production of a standard device, faster assembly and adjustment of a device, simplified repair of a grid and scrapers, increased reliability of device operation.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrotechnical facilities, and can be used to remove deposits from bottom of the entrance bay and contaminations from trash screens. Device contains a framework with guides and cleaning loop, comprising separate sections hanged on endless haulage chains, located in the said guides and moved by drive. The framework with guides is made L-shape out of channels installed by ribs towards each other to ensure location on the rib internal surfaces of the support rollers of the cleaning loop, made in form of buckets secured on the endless hauling chains. Sections of the cleaning loop are arranged with overlapping through clamp width. In top part of the cleaning loop under buckets the offloading conveyor is provided to remove rubbish from area of the trash screen. Drive of the endless hauling chains is made from gear motor installed in top part of the framework coaxially with top drive shaft of the hauling chains.
EFFECT: quality cleaning and rubbish removal beyond the facility.