Greenhouse for growing vegetables and mushrooms
(57) Abstract:Usage: agriculture, field crops, buildings protected ground. The inventive greenhouse includes regulation of microclimate, Foundation, fence, covering the vegetable compartment in which you installed the vegetation blocks comprising armatures placed on them by tiers of trays with germinators for vegetables, and communicated with him the branch of cultivation of mushrooms. The frame of the vegetation unit consists of a triangular frame, and in the main channel, made under the vegetation unit, arranged the vegetation section and provided with an in-feed conveyor with trays of mushrooms. The section is separated from the vegetation unit breathable Svetozara partition. Below the base of the vegetable compartment is made of the auxiliary channel, separated by two insulating walls. This design of the greenhouse allows you to extend its functionality, to reduce the capital cost of its construction and to increase the productivity of cultivated vegetables 10-15%. 3 C. p. F.-ly, 5 Il. The invention relates to agriculture, particularly to cultivation facilities for growing RNA microclimate parameters, base, translucent roofing and side fence, covering the branch of cultivation of vegetables, in which rows of established vegetation blocks comprising armatures placed on them by tiers germinators for vegetables, and reported to this Department the Department cultivation of mushrooms that hosts the vegetation section, including trays of mushrooms, and which is provided with a node feed gas mixture (ed. mon. USSR N 950241, class A 01 G 9/24, 1981).However, the known greenhouse has a low performance and functionality.The task was to improve the performance and functionality of the greenhouse.This problem is solved by the present invention. In a greenhouse for growing vegetables and mushrooms containing the system of regulation of microclimate parameters, base, translucent roofing and side fence, covering the branch of cultivation of vegetables, in which rows of established vegetation blocks comprising armatures placed on them by tiers germinators for vegetables, and reported to this Department the Department cultivation of mushrooms, which is implemented by the node feed gas mixture, according to the invention the frame every the control of a hinge, and each vegetation section or part thereof is located in the main channel, performed below the base of the branch of cultivation of vegetables in the area under the appropriate vegetation unit, equipped with an in-feed conveyor, on which is placed the trays of mushrooms, and is separated from the vegetation unit breathable Svetozara partition located above the trays of mushrooms this vegetation section, while the lower branch of cultivation of vegetables made auxiliary channel, separated from the last by means of two insulating walls, mounted pivotally on the Foundation level of the specified branch with full overlap of the channel, and communicated with all the main channels.In a preferred embodiment of the greenhouse each conveyer is made annular, one of its end sections located in the auxiliary channel, and each main channel, except for the extreme, posted by one of the working sections of the feeding conveyors two adjacent vegetation sections, with each main channel near the side fence greenhouses, posted by one of the working sections of the in-feed conveyor of one of the sections, the first of which is pivotally connected with the upper edge of this channel at the level of the base of the branch of cultivation of vegetables, and the length of the second section is equal to the depth of the mentioned channel.Sections of insulating partitions attached to the Foundation level of the branch of cultivation of vegetables, made of translucent material.In Fig. 1 shows a section of the greenhouse of Fig. 2 three-dimensional image of the greenhouse with a detailed image of the channels and transporters, in Fig. 3 - the location of channels and transporters under the floor of the greenhouse of Fig. 4 channel incision, Fig. 5 design covers passages.Greenhouse for growing vegetables and mushrooms contains the system of regulation of microclimate parameters ( not shown), the base 1, translucent roofing 2 and side 3 of the fence, forming a branch of cultivation of vegetables 4, which established vegetation units 5, comprising a frame, consisting of the defined length blocks of triangular frames 6, the sides of which are connected pivotally to weld-free Assembly at the construction site conditions. On frames tiers are trays 7 growth chamber for growing plants (not shown). With the Department of cultivation 4 reported to the Department of ku the operating section 9 or its part is located in the main channel 11, located below the base 1 Department cultivation of vegetables 4 in the area under the appropriate vegetation unit 5, provided with a feed chain conveyor 12 on which is placed the trays of mushrooms 10.The vegetation section 9 is separated from the branch of cultivation of vegetables 4 and the vegetation unit 5 breathable Svetozara wall 13 above the trays of mushrooms 10 of this growing section 9. Below the base 1 Department cultivation of vegetables 4 are also auxiliary channel 14, separated from the compartment 4 by means of two insulating walls 15, each of which is made of two sections, the first of them is made of translucent material and is attached to the upper edge of the channel 14 at the level of the base 1, and the length of the second section is equal to the depth of the channel 11.Each in-feed chain conveyor 12 Department cultivation of mushrooms 8 ring made in the form of an endless belt (Fig. 2, 3). One of its end sections located in the auxiliary channel 14, and each main channel 11, except for the extreme, posted by one of the working sections of the feed conveyors 12 of two adjacent vegetation sections 9, each primary channel 11, which is the nearest to the side of the Ogre is ASS="ptx2">In the branch of cultivation of vegetables 4 between vegetation units 5 are platform-carriage 16 to move the robot 17 with handles 18 or for transportation of the collected vegetables.In-feed chain conveyor 12 consists of a drive and tensioning devices, traction unit, guiding and supporting devices (Fig. 2).Drive unit consists of a wave motor gear 19, the coupling chain single row 20, the drive sprocket 21, a bevel gear 22, with the drive sprocket 21 mounted on the shaft of the bevel gear 22 and the frame 23 under gross drive.The tension device consists of a bottom 24 and top 25 plates, rails 26 and a screw tensioning device 27.Traction body consists of a chain traction plate 28 that supports a sprocket 29 mounted on shafts rotating in bearings located in the bearing cups 30, trays of mushrooms 10, mounted on the traction plate circuit 28, moving on rails, consisting of two branches, each of which consists of two isosceles corners 31, between which a certain step rollers installed on the bearings. The guides are mounted on bearings in increments of OK is the al 11, the passage 32 in the hospital corridor, cultivation of mushrooms 8 and the passage 33 and 34 placed in the hospital corridor, the cultivation of vegetables 4 connecting the second part of the greenhouse with the channels 11.The channels 11 in the upper part contain opaque cover 13, which are connected to sources of compressed air (not shown). Through the holes 35 in the cover 13 are gases in the vegetable compartment 4 of the greenhouse. To the side fence 3 greenhouses adjacent room air conditioners 36, the wall of which 37 posted by outputs of the duct 38.A greenhouse works as follows.In the upper surface part of the greenhouse at the Department of cultivation of vegetables planted seedlings of cucumbers, tomatoes, on the trays 7 in growth chamber vegetation units 5. At the bottom, the underground part of the branch of cultivation of mushrooms 8 planted fungi, such as mushrooms.Cooked in a separate specialized areas of the substrate in trays 10 enters the underground passage 32 of the branch of cultivation of mushrooms 8, which has a feed conveyor 12. In the channels 11 support necessary for the production of mushrooms temperature and humidity and gas conditions. Harvesting of mushrooms produced in the passage 32.The feed conveyor 12 operates sleduushemu plate circuit 28, fixed on the trays 10, moving on rails 26, consisting of two branches.Pass with lids 15 is used for system maintenance conveyors. Cover, hinged to the Foundation level needed to allow easy passage of personnel during maintenance of the established on the basis of 1 greenhouse vegetation units 5. Swivel caps 15 provides ease of installation and opening. Through part covers made of translucent material, watching the transporters and their repair.The use of the proposed greenhouses for growing vegetables enhances the functionality of the greenhouse, which will reduce the capital cost of construction of individual-based mushroom houses, creating shared mushrooms and vegetables air-gas environment, increases the yield of vegetables for 10 to 15% 1. Greenhouse for growing vegetables and mushrooms containing the system of regulation of microclimate parameters, base, translucent roofing and side rails, covering the branch of cultivation of vegetables, in which rows of established vegetation blocks comprising armatures placed on them by tiers rastine section, includes trays for fungi, and which is provided with a node feed gas mixture, characterized in that the frame of each vegetation unit is installed in its length triangular frames, the sides of which are connected pivotally, and each of the vegetation section or part thereof is located in the main channel, performed below the base of the branch of cultivation of vegetables in the area under the appropriate vegetation unit, equipped with an in-feed conveyor that hosts loop for mushrooms, and separated from the vegetation unit breathable Svetozara partition located above the trays of mushrooms this vegetation section, while below the base of the branch of cultivation of vegetables made auxiliary channel, separated from the last by means of two insulating walls, mounted pivotally on the Foundation level of the specified branch with full overlap of the channel, and communicated with all the main channels.2. The greenhouse under item 1, characterized in that each feed conveyor is made of a ring, one of its end sections located in the auxiliary channel, and each main channel, except for the extreme, rasmuson the main channel, near to the side fence greenhouses, posted by one of the working sections of the in-feed conveyor to one of the vegetation section.3. The greenhouse is on PP.1 and 2, characterized in that each insulating partition of the auxiliary channel is made of two sections, the first of which is pivotally connected with the upper edge of this channel at the level of the base of the branch of cultivation of vegetables, and the length of the second section is equal to the depth of the mentioned channel.4. The greenhouse under item 3, characterized in that section of insulating partitions attached to the Foundation level of the branch of cultivation of vegetables, made of translucent material.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has vented space, apparatus for removal of carbonic acid gas from atmospheric air and carbonic acid gas generator for generating of carbonic acid gas with low content of carbon 14 isotope. Temperature mode inside greenhouse is reliably maintained by air conditioning and by employment of shock resistant light-transmitting covering tending to retain infrared heat energy. Self-cleaning of light-transmitting covering is provided by means of oxide coating. Sealing capacity of greenhouse is not affected by passage of personnel and equipment therein owing to employment of double door, wherein doors are mutually blocked. Soil air drainage is used for preventing gaseous carbonaceous soil decomposition products from getting into inner atmosphere of greenhouse. Intensified ripening of plants is enabled by addition of ethylene into inner atmosphere of greenhouse.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.
14 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of flowers, vegetables, decorative and tropical plants under home conditions.
SUBSTANCE: compact chamber is composed of at least two parts, that is, bath, extension rings-inserts, hood, and pan. Pan is placed into bath, ground is spilled, sown, watered and covered with hood. Said parts are secured to one another by adhesive tape. Compact chamber may have cylindrical or square volume of enclosure vessel subdivided into at least three main parts: lower part with bath for receiving of soil or other nutritive mixture, extension rings-inserts, and upper part with hood for creating closed space, wherein permanent humidity is maintained for creating advantageous conditions for plant growing. In case space is to be increased in vertical direction, ring-insert is positioned between bath and hood. For plant illumination, in case natural illumination is insufficient, lighting device is inserted into hood throat and switched to regulated pulse-duration power unit controlled from automatic program relay, which is turned-on and turned-off in accordance with set season, solar cycle, established at starting time by means of switches. Heating, air and moisture modes are regulated by means of vent windows defined by notches-depressions formed on vessel surface. Vent windows may be removed when necessary. Vent windows may be closed and opened by means of small windows set for predetermined threshold temperature values and automatically controlled by bimetal effect, and in case of necessity, heating system is switched on.
EFFECT: simplified and convenient maintenance, improved development of plants and reliable scientific results, when used in laboratory conditions.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method and equipment used in closed ground constructions, such as block greenhouses, for heating in winter or cooling in summer of useful air volume, as well as for regulating night and day temperature differences in autumn or in spring.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pumping out thermal energy from low-grade heat source into heating system with the use of heat pump; taking out low-grade heat from water of cooling system for cooling said water; spraying said water under roof for absorbing heat and collecting by means of water intake screen for further directing into cooling system tank, from which heat absorbed by water is pumped into heating system tank. Apparatus has heating system with water pump, heat pump equipped with evaporator and condenser, and cooling system comprising tank with heat pump evaporator built into tank, spraying pipes connected to tank through water pump and running to and under greenhouse roof, and water intake screen mounted under spraying pipes. Heating system is equipped with tank having heat pump condenser mounted into tank. Method and apparatus provide for year-round optimal temperature conditions for growing and development of plants.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of greenhouse production, reduced power consumed during heating period, provision for absorbing and utilizing excessive thermal energy during warm period of the year, and increased yield.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating trays and useful volume of greenhouse, with trays being heated with hydroponic solution having initial temperature below 300C and final temperature of at least 150C, when said solution is discharged from trays; keeping air temperature of at least 40C in useful volume of greenhouse; isolating useful volume of greenhouse from remaining volume.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for heating plants in hydroponic units of greenhouse, convenient maintenance and reduced costs of materials.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, constructions for protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has carcass for longitudinal walls, end panels and roof, light-transparent material for covering carcass openings, with part of carcass openings being adapted for closing and opening to provide for ventilation of green house interior, and drive for unit adapted to provide for automatic ventilation. Carcass openings are made in the form of air vents. Drive for automatic ventilation unit is equipped with system of levers pivotally secured to one another and to air vent flaps and rigidly fixed on member for securing of vacuum pipe with counterweight.
EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency in creating of advantageous conditions.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, growing of agricultural crops with the use of multiple-flow apparatuses arranged at different levels for exposing plants growing in containers to light.
SUBSTANCE: lighting apparatus is composed of individual modules, each including light channel, comprising guides, and mini-hotbeds movable along guides. Mini-hotbeds are mounted on wheels of different diameter for moving by gravity so as to provide their horizontal position by placing them onto inclined guides. Each mini-hotbed may be used as independent module, is furnished with light-transparent hood which simultaneously serves as water accumulator and spreader. Lighting apparatus may be mounted in special industrial, household, supplementary and other rooms provided that stabilized temperature of 15-20° is maintained and phyto-sanitary requirements are fulfilled. Apparatus of such construction is characterized in that rigid coupling between mini-hotbeds is avoided and in that gravity is used for movement of mini-hotbeds along inclined guides in light channel. Apparatus of such construction provides year-round growing of pre-basic sanitated seed potato, seedlings of potato and other vegetables and flowers, as well as products of said crops, tree, fungi, algae seedlings and other biological objects under regulated artificial conditions while eliminating conditions for contacting of seedlings with pathogens.
EFFECT: simplified construction, enhanced reliability in operation and reduced consumption of power.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing in protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has at least one greenhouse unit equipped with irrigation device. Greenhouse unit has ventilation device and soil heating device. Automatic control system for controlling said devices has at least one temperature sensor and at least one moisture content sensor, whose outputs are connected through amplifiers-converters to part of inputs of arithmetic-logic device adapted for receiving signals generated by said sensors, comparing resulting data with control data and generating control signals for switching-on said devices. Other part of arithmetic-logic device inputs is connected to outputs of replaceable permanent memory unit wherein program for selected climatic zone and program for growing of selected plant of this climatic zone are recorded. Third part of inputs is connected to position outputs for members of said devices, whose inputs are connected through control unit and amplifiers-converters to outputs of arithmetic-logic device and to inputs of indication unit. Voltage of 12 V is supplied to automatic control unit.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in growing wide range of plants of any climatic zone with automatic system for controlling of irrigation, ventilation and heating procedures.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: agriculture; growing plants at lesser consumption of electrical and thermal energy due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed greenhouse complex includes base, transparent heat-insulating dome-shaped coat with round transparent heat-insulation aperture in center. Coat is secured on load-bearing supports mounted vertically on base; it is manufactured from roofing blocks made from light-tight material at low heat conductivity and provided with through holes in form of truncated cones or pyramids coated from the inside with beam-reflecting material with their vertices directed inside or outside the coat. Holes are closed with inserts from the outside and inside which are made from thin transparent material; surfaces of said blocks directed inside coat and not occupied by through holes and technological holes are coated with beam-reflecting material. Areas with plants being cultivated, main and auxiliary technological equipment and plant life support systems are located inside coat and helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir consists of two vessels: one of them is filled with water and is mounted on base in center of coat and other is mounted coaxially inside first one and is insulated at sides and from beneath with low-conductivity material. Second vessel is closed at the top by its own transparent heat-insulating coat and is filled with common salt, for example. Two light reflectors which are cooled with water are made in form of truncated cones or truncated polyhedral pyramids. First of them with outer side light-reflecting surface is mounted with vertex downward above coat, coaxially with it. Second reflector is hollow; it is provided with light-reflecting surfaces; it is mounted coaxially relative to first reflector with vertex upward inside coat above helio-absorbing heat-insulating reservoir. Flat beam-reflecting panels located on area adjoining the coat concentrically relative to it are arranged in two rows. Each said panel is mounted on output link of its two-coordinated swivel mechanism provided with controllable drive. Base of drive is secured on bearing strut vertically mounted on ground surface. Provision is made for additional energy channel together with two said light reflectors which is made in form of flux of sun beams reflected by beam-reflecting panels of helio-absorbing heat-accumulating reservoir concentrated and directed downward. If necessary, it may be spread over entire surface. Controllable drives of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms are connected by their inputs to output of automatic control unit realized at base of computer center. Electrical inputs of center are connected with sensors of media contained in helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir and in space under coat, as well as with wind velocity and direction sensors and with coordinate position sensors of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements at intensified growth of plants due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
13 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protective complexes for plants, including greenhouses and hothouses equipped with electrotechnical and other equipment for care of plants and heat-loving bushes grown under home conditions or small-scale commercial plant growing conditions.
SUBSTANCE: protective complex has foundation pit with supporting carcass onto which transparent protective casing is put. Plastic walls of foundation pit are slightly extending beyond base of supporting carcass and are secured by means of drop screen. Foundation pit bed has ground provided with thermal layer and soil heating members. Foundation pit bed is connected through pipe to suspended closed reservoir hung under complex roof to define, in conjunction with foundation pit construction filled with ground and top layer of fertile soil, single reservoir with water influx-discharge regulated by means of electronic valves provided on branches as well as on pipe. Water is pumped through lower branch by means of water pump into suspension reservoir, and other branch equipped with electronic valve defines closed semicircle on pipe. Such construction provides water discharge by avoiding first branch from suspended reservoir into pipe equipped with corrugated insert provided at its lower end. Level of discharged water is controlled through bushing equipped with float having water level measuring ruler. Supporting carcass incorporates thermal sensors, humidity sensors, illumination sensors, air heating members, and illumination lamps. Valves are opened and closed by means of electronic device. All parts of protective complex are totally controlled by electronic instrument for maintaining optimal microclimate mode. On the basis of electronic instruments and with the use of communicating vessels principle, protective complex may be created, wherein, apart from setting optimal water level in ground soil and irrigation time, optimal heating and illumination mode may be maintained to thereby regulate plant development. Protective complex allows vegetable and other crops, as well as wild and exotic plants to be grown.
EFFECT: increased yield of vegetables and other crops.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, complex agricultural productions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves process and objects arranged in predetermined manner, and place planned according to relief, with geographic and other necessary factors being taken into consideration so that directions of natural air flows are corrected. Agricultural production includes complex greenhouses, heat accumulator, basin, garden, and wind shield. Air flow directed into garden is saturated with water vapors in gaseous state if increase in temperature is desirable when it is close to minimal admissible value, and in small droplet state when lower temperature is desirable. Processor functions as central controller. Objects of branches in agricultural production are selected so that objects of previous branches make raw material for objects of subsequent branches. Furthermore, joint mutually useful development of these objects at suitable conditions is possible. These conditions are created in complex greenhouse units intermediate with regard to said branches. General-purpose containers with raw material are conveyed through said complex greenhouse units. This results in multiple sequential-parallel utilization of raw materials in number of branches of industry. Method stipulates employment of useful relations between populations of organisms - objects of agricultural branches of industry: symbiosis and, according to kind of symbiosis, natural selection.
EFFECT: increased resource saving, reduced production costs of agricultural product and improved ecology of environment.
5 cl, 2 dwg