The method of determination of parameters characterizing the state of the system wheel - rail, when the vehicle along a curved section of track
(57) Abstract:Use: rail transport to determine the parameters characterizing the state of the system "wheel-rail" when the vehicle along a curved section of track. The invention: the angles between the longitudinal axes of the trucks and the longitudinal axis of the frame of the vehicle, the length of the base of the vehicle, the magnitude of effort arising between the cart frame and the axes of the wheel pairs, determine the parameters characterizing the state of the system "wheel-rail", expressed as values guide efforts between the outer rail and the wheel flange lubricators. 4 Il. The invention relates to the field of railway transport, control and measuring devices and is intended to check the status of the railway track and rolling stock, to determine directing efforts at studying the interaction of rolling stock and track.There is a method of studying the processes of interaction of the crew and train paths by using a computing device to continuously over time to determine the dynamic forces transmitted by the wheels of the rolling stock on the PU structure, residual displacements of the rails to change the rigidity of the path and the recording device, the signals characterizing the specified design parameters of the rolling stock, the speed of movement of the latter, the stiffness of the way, bumps in the road and on wheels, deformation in the nodes of the upper structure, introducing computing device and receive signals proportional signals through functional transformation is converted into signals corresponding residual deformations in the nodes of the superstructure, the residual displacements of the rails and changes the stiffness of the way, and algebraically summed up these signals to the output function of the transducer output signals characterizing the set of deformation in the host superstructure, the roughness of the road and its rigidity.The total signal remembered in the registering device, and then, with a slight shift in time the signal returns to the input computing device /I/. The disadvantage of this method is that the signals proportional to the residual strain in the nodes of the upper structure and the residual displacements of the rails, and also changes the stiffness of the path do not change their characteristics during the study, tooless interaction of rolling stock and railway track model at the facility without regard to the actual conditions. In A. S. N 929485  which is complementary to the A. S. N 446445 additionally injected signals proportional to the residual deformation path and moving rails by increasing the number of cycles between the wheels and the crew on the railroad, however, this method does not reflect the real conditions of interaction of the crew and the path, and the study of the processes of interaction between crew and pathways occurs exclusively in the vertical plane.As a counterpart of the proposed method is adopted the method of determining the dynamic interaction of way and rolling stock power factors [C] lies in the fact that have a system of interconnected sensors, mounted on the sprung and unsprung parts of the crew, amplifiers, and electronic amplitude selectors, the output of which sets the solenoid timer, fixing the magnitude of the pulses extend in proportion to the path travelled paper, i.e., continuously record the values guiding the forces transmitted rails crest wheels of the rolling stock.The disadvantages of this invention are:
The use of an electrical sensor, kathrynweldy with a predefined gradation output adjusted electron-amplitude selector, i.e., the received signals are compared with signals received at the established way. Therefore, after comparing the obtained electrical signals reflecting unreal force or simulated.In addition, the electrical signals received from sensors depending on the signal level of the electron-amplitude selector is served in the appropriate solenoid timer recording just your targets on paper. This system filtering of the signal and divide it up into strong and weak, reflects the primitive practice of the pulse, which eventually registers to extend the paper signals that reflect only changes in electrical impulses unsprung or resilient network crew after the amplifier with undue and unnecessary degradation of the signal.Consider as another analogue of the invention is a method for determining the dynamic interaction of way and rolling stock power factors, because obtained by using method and recorded on paper signals do not reflect the interaction process system crew-rail, so the fixed value of the power factors are detached from the action is Alov with amplification and comparison with predetermined values of the pulses. It should be noted the lack of reliability associated with the use of sensor and electronic amplitude selector, which is not able to provide stable operation of the device. About the lack of accuracy of measurement by the fact that in the above invention does not say about the position of the crew in the curve sections of railway track, although, as is well known, when the carriage move in curves, the dynamic interaction between the crew-rails increase dramatically, also does not take into account interaction effects, such as distortions and drawdown way, the position of the crew in the curve, release the rail.Dynamic interaction system wheel-rail when moving train crew in curve track sections, is in direct dependence on the geometric parameters of the interaction of these systems and their mutual wear. In the process of conducting a patent search is installed fame which is the closest analogue of the method of continuous registration of the parameter characterizing the state of the system wheel-rail and defined when the carriage move in curves  which is selected as a prototype to declare.In the known method and device kidney and rear axles, the magnitude of which is dependent on the wear system wheel-rail.The method consists in the fact that with the help of a vehicle with front and rear suspension trolleys that move in a curve, in the position of maximum warp, measure the front and rear horizontal angles between the longitudinal axis of the frame of the vehicle and the longitudinal axis of the chassis trucks and define the curvature of a circular curve by the formula
< / BR>Thus, the magnitude of the radius of the circular curve of the railroad tracks in the plan depends on the magnitude of the rotation angles of the trucks relative to the base vehicle and the magnitude of the base itself. Device for determining the curvature of the path contains the sensors that are installed on the chassis trucks, implementing an electrical signal proportional to the rotation angle of the trucks.Electrical signals from the sensor into the voltage dividers and functional converters is fed to the input of the operational amplifier working mode of the adder. At the input of the operational amplifier boosts the signal proportional to the sum of the rotation angles as a function of the length of the base vehicle. The electric signal output device C is carried out in that the measured parameter of the curvature of the path depends on the degree of wear of the system wheel-rail and does not reflect the dynamic interaction parameters path and rolling stock.In the proposed method of continuous registration guide efforts at movement crew curves sections of railway track, which continuously register values guide the forces transmitted rails crests of wheels of vehicles, including two trucks, at any point on a circular curve in the horizontal plane, according to the invention, the truck is set to the maximum skew and measure the angles of rotation of the bogie relative to the king pin between the longitudinal axes of the trucks and the axis of the frame of the vehicle, measure the length of the base vehicle, half of the base of the truck, the size of the frame of efforts between the cart frame and wheel in pairs (values) in the transverse direction, then the measurement results determine the guiding forces occurring between the rails and crests wheelset formula for the first and second wheelset
< / BR>< / BR>where Y1a guiding force arising between the crest of the wheels of the first wheel and the outer rail;
YP2frame force acting on the second wheel pair;
a half base truck;
L base frame of the locomotive;
T friction of the wheels against the rail;
p- the angle of rotation of the front bogie relative to the pivot base of the vehicle;
Cthe rotation angle of the back of the truck relative to the pivot base of the vehicle.In the patent and technical literature by the authors of the technical solutions are not found, containing signs, similar to the distinctive features of the proposed method. Thus, we can conclude that the solution meets the criterion of "significant differences".To implement the proposed method of determining the guiding force when the carriage move in curves sections of railway track will consider a simplified diagram of two-axle trucks with operating her forces in the horizontal plane (Fig. 1), accept the condition: free razberi and the elastic displacement at the wheel pairs are not taken into account. Consider a dynamic fit without squeezing the rails.With the aim of continuous recording values of the guiding forces transmitted Chikov measure the angles of rotation of the bogie relative to the king pin between the longitudinal axes of the trucks and the axle of the vehicle chassis, measure the length of the base vehicle, half of the base of the truck, measure the size of the frame of efforts between the cart frame and wheel in pairs (values) in the transverse direction.Let us denote:
X pole length;
center of rotation of the truck;
T the resultant of the friction forces of the wheels on the rails;
H1the longitudinal component of the friction of one wheel of the first pair of wheels on the rails;
H2the longitudinal component of the friction of one wheel of the second pair of wheels on the rails;
V1the transverse component of the friction of one wheel of the first pair of wheels on the rails;
V2the transverse component of the friction of one wheel of the second pair of wheels on the rails;
2a base truck;
Y1guiding the efforts of the first wheel (reaction rail);
Y2guiding force of the second wheel pair;
2S the distance between the circles skating wheels.The method has the mathematical justification.Given the ratio of the transverse component of the friction forces V1to the resultant of forces of friction of the wheels on the rails T and relations pole distance X to the half length 2S, from the similarity of triangles we make a proportion:
< / BR>< / BR>from which we find the value of p is UB>1-Y1and V2-Y2given Ypframe efforts arising from the action of centrifugal forces and the reaction rail, get:
< / BR>< / BR>It is known that the rotation angles of the front and rear axles relative to the base vehicle are determined  by the formula:
< / BR>< / BR>tgppand tgCC,
because the angles of rotation does not exceed the value of 5oand identical for different installations of the crew in the curve,
wherep- the angle of rotation of the front truck;
Cthe angle of rotation of the rear truck;
L/2 half of the base of the vehicle;
a half base truck;
Xpthe pole distance of the first carriage;
XCthe pole distance of the rear truck;
R is the radius of the circular curve.Considering the position of the crew in the curve at the position of maximum skew is assumed that the pole length of the front and rear bogies, equal, i.e., XpXCX
Find X from the expression (7)
< / BR>From the formula (8) determine the value of R:
< / BR>Substituting (9) into (10) and simplifying, we get:
< / BR>From the expression (11) find the radius of the circular curve /6/:
< / BR>Find pole distance to the rear of the truck:
< / BR>where AE the formula defining the transverse forces arising between wheel and rail /7/
< / BR>where Y guiding force when the carriage move in a curve;
T friction of the wheels on the rails;
X pole length;
's half the distance between the circles riding wheelset.Substituting the expression (14) in (15), we obtain the values guiding efforts for the first and second wheelset
< / BR>< / BR>Thus, from the expressions (16) and (17) shows that the magnitude of the guides of the efforts of the rails when the carriage move in curves railroad tracks in the plan depends on the frame of effort, friction wheels on the rails, the values of angles of rotation of the bogies and the geometrical sizes of the crew; and half of the base of the cart, L is the base of the locomotive; S - half the distance between the circles skating wheels.In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the trucks operating on her own in a curve section of rail track,
where 2a base truck;
Y1a guiding force acting on the rail on the first wheel pair;
Y2a guiding force acting on the rail on the second wheel pair;
2S the distance between the circles Catania;
X pole length;
center of rotation of the truck;
T friction of the wheels against the rail;
where 1 frame front undercarriage;
2 rear frame of the undercarriage;
3 wheelset running trucks;
4 rail track;
5 axis frame chassis trucks (AB and A')
6 the frame of the vehicle.In this case, the axis of the rail track coincides with the axes of the driving bogies and axle of the vehicle, proximity sensors front and rear bogies generates an electrical signal corresponding to the value "0", the recording device is fixed straight line.The operation of the device in a static state when the vehicle is in the curve of the track shown in Fig. 3,
where 1 frame front undercarriage;
2 rear frame of the undercarriage;
3 wheelset running trucks;
4 rail track;
5 axis frame chassis trucks (AB and A');
6 the frame of the vehicle;
7 the axis of the frame of the vehicle, OO';
L the base of the vehicle;
Rkthe radius of the axis of the rail;
vp- the angle of rotation of the front truck, measured between the axis of the bogie frame and the axle frame Tran is sue the frame of the vehicle;
8 the proximity sensor (the stator);
9 core proximity sensor (rotor);
10 hard kinematic relationship of the rotor to the frame of the vehicle;
11 gauge frame efforts.The method is as follows.In the circular curve of the first 1 and the back 2 truck set at maximum warp, with the crest of the first wheel 3 truck pressed against the outer rail, and the rear inner rail of a rail track 4.Axis 5 rum running coincide with the axis of the track described by the radius Rk. But the Central axis 7 of the frame 6 of the vehicle does not coincide with the axes 5 rum running trucks, and hence with the axis of the rail track. Off axis 5 rum running trucks from the axis 7 of the frame 6 of the vehicle is fixed contactless inductive sensors, which is a coil-stator from moving in her core, the rotor coil is connected input windings to a source of alternating voltage, and the sensor housing is rigidly attached to the frame of the undercarriage, and the rotor has a rigid kinematic connection with the frame of the vehicle.The sensors that can detect the rotation angles set the right near St the front and undercarriagepand rear undercarriage C. The sensor frame efforts 11, the locking frame changes efforts are installed on the frame of the truck 1.2 and using the kinematic relations are connected with the axle angles wheelset 3. The sensors provide an electrical signal proportional to the pressure of the bogie frame on the axle angles wheelset.Under the base of the vehicle is understood miscompile the distance between the undercarriage bogies.Electrical signals from the sensors are received at the inputs of the signal processing units in the subsequent recording in the recording unit. Electrical signals on the outputs of the processing units is directly proportional to guide the effort.Value changing signal can be recorded any hardware or in the form of a graph on the ribbon diagram, or in digital form on magnetic media.Diagram of the device for continuous registration guide efforts is shown in Fig. 4.11 contactless inductive sensor frame efforts truck on the first wheel pair;
12 contactless inductive sensor frame efforts truck on the second wheel pair;
13 contactless inductive sensor rotation of the first x is th transducer;
16 rechargeable battery;
17 distribution transformer;
18 rectifier electrical signal of the inductive sensor of the first cart;
19 rectifier electrical signal of the inductive sensor in the rear of the truck;
20 rectifier electrical signal of the inductive sensor frame efforts wheelset;
21 rectifier electrical signal of the inductive sensor frame efforts of the second pair of wheels;
22, the signal processing unit, the registering guides the efforts of the first wheel (SPM-1);
23, the signal processing unit, the registering guides the efforts of the second wheel pair (SPM-2);
24 recording device.When measuring guide efforts in the circular curves of railway tracks in the plan were used locomotive TGM-4, in which the undercarriage had no cross Rysbekov wheelset. On the frames of trucks set housing contactless inductive sensors type ID WHLS, motile rods which, by means of a rigid kinematic link attached to the body of the locomotive, measure the angles between the longitudinal axis of the frame of the vehicle and the longitudinal axis of the chassis of the bogie relative to the pins.To determine ri and axle hub wheelset. On the part of the truck is fixed to the sensor housing, the movable rods which, by means of a rigid kinematic relations enshrined dont forget wheelset, measure the frame efforts acting on the wheelset.The device is made in a metal case size 240 x 220 x 120 mm, to which a shielded cable is used for connecting the outputs of the sensors. The device includes a static Converter, distribution transformer, a set of rectifiers, signal processing blocks SPM-1 and SPM-2. Registering the device (used two-coordinate recording accurate electrical device N-307-1), which connects to the device channel guide.All equipment proposed device is installed in the cab. Mobility device allows you to secure it fixed anywhere in the vehicle, the only exception is the recording device, which is installed horizontally on the table for visual and sampling, using different hardware recording part can be simplified system of registration of signals.The proposed device registers guides efforts between relatio scheme, but the possibility of installing the device on all types of railway vehicles, having two rotary undercarriage.The proposed method implements the possibility to define guiding efforts arising between the crests Buchs and a pair of wheels of the carriage and the rail of the railway track, in the prototype and other sources listed dimensions are not posted. Therefore, to carry out an objective analysis of the advantages of the proposed facility compared to the prototype impossible.Rationale technical and economic efficiency of the invention is difficult, because it guides the efforts of the rail track are in direct proportion to the wear of the rail and the flange of the wheel pair tires. Theoretically it is possible to perform an analytical calculation of the guides of the effort, but this calculation is so bulky that it does not go to any comparison with the proposed method and device according to the economic cost, by definition recording option.If we consider that for the analytical calculation of the need to attract highly qualified specialists programmers for making settlement program model dynamic fit curves in carelse, the cost of computing the salary of the staff, the costs will significantly exceed the costs associated with the use of the described method and device.This invention allows to control the process of deterioration of a system of wheel-rail. For example, only the elimination of costs associated with the replacement rails for side-to-wear and turning and replacing tires wheelset in 1990 by the Department of the North-Caucasian railway was spent 1200 thousand rubles Therefore, development activities, by definition, the magnitude of the guides efforts lead to economies driven costs.LITERATURE.1. USSR author's certificate N 446445, 61 K 9/08, 1974, bull. N 38.2. USSR author's certificate N 929485, 61 K 9/08, 1982, bull. N 19.3. USSR author's certificate N 119703, B 01 23/00, 1959, bull. N 9.4. USSR author's certificate N 1691447, B 01 35/04, prototype.5. Ivanov, C. N. Structure and dynamics of locomotives. Ed. 2nd extra. M. Transport. 1974, S. 291.6. USSR author's certificate N 4721167, E 01 35/04.7. Lisovenko S. I. Dynamics of locomotives. The tutorial. M. 1962, S. 219.8. Fundamentals of Metrology and electrical 1987 The method of determination of parameters characterizing the state of the system wheel
rail, when the vehicle along a curved section of track, which consists in the fact that when driving a vehicle with front and rear suspension trolleys along a curved section of track determine the angles between the longitudinal axes of the bogie frames and the longitudinal axis of the frame of the vehicle and the length of the base of the vehicle, which determine the parameters characterizing the state of the system wheel rail, characterized in that the determined half the length of the base of each truck and the amount of effort that occurs between the cart frame and the axes of the wheel pairs, which define the parameters characterizing the state of the system wheel rail, expressed as values guide the efforts mezhdunarodnym rail and wheel flange lubricators formula
< / BR>< / BR>where S is half the distance between the circles riding wheelset;
Y1a guiding force between the outer rail and a crest wheels of the first wheel;
Y2a guiding force between the outer rail and the crest of the wheels of the second wheel pair;
L the length of the base of the vehicle;
and the length of half of the base;
T power TREN is tion means, happy.Cthe angle between the longitudinal axis of the rear truck and the longitudinal axis of the vehicle chassis, I am glad.Yp1the force between the cart frame and the axle of the first wheel;
Yp2the force between the cart frame and the axle of the second wheel pair.
FIELD: railway transport; measuring facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to special purpose devices for measuring separate geometric parameters of reinforced concrete ties, i.e. propelling and canting of rail flats on reinforced concrete ties. Proposed device contains housing 1 with fitted-on transport handle 2, right-hand support 3 and left-hand support 4. First support screw 5 and second support screw 6 are installed on right-hand support 3, third support screw 7 and fourth support screw 8 are installed on left-hand support 4, right-hand catcher 9 and left-hand catcher 10 are installed on ends of housing 1, sensor 11 is secured on first support screw 5. Housing 1 carries also right-hand orientation handle 13 with pushbutton 15 and left-hand orientation handle 14. Base 16 is fastened in central part of housing 1, controller 17 and supply compartment 18 being secured on base 16. Device for measuring rail flat canting contains housing 1 with fitted-on transport handle 2, right-hand support 3 and left-hand support 4. First support screw 5 and second support screw 6 are installed on right-hand support 3. And third support screw 7 and fourth support screw 8 are installed on left0hand support 4. Right-hand catcher 9 and left-hand catcher 10 are installed on ends of housing 1, first sensor 11 is secured on first support screw 5, and second sensor 19 is installed on fourth support screw 8. Housing 1 carries right-hand orientation handle 13 with pushbutton 15, and left-hand orientation handle 14. Base 16 with fitted-on controller 17 and supply compartment 18 is secured in central part of housing 1. Moreover, support 21 is connected to housing 1 through vertical rods in central part.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of measurements, increased accuracy and provision of operative measurement of parameters under checking.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: railway transport.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of diagnosing condition of railway and street car tracks. Proposed device contains detectors designed for measuring deviation of gauge and position of track by level of sags, humps and cavities connected with contact members. Device contains also vertical parallel, inner and outer posts, rollers made for interaction with side working inner surfaces of side track, rollers made for interaction with upper working surfaces of rail track, jambs some ends of which are connected with roller races and others, with corresponding posts. One of detectors is made in form of dial indicator, being arranged on one of inner posts and coupled with roller-type contact elements made for interaction with side working inner surfaces of track. Rod of said indicator is in contact with upper end of other inner post. Springs are placed between inner post. Springs are placed between inner posts in upper and lower parts, mounted on upper surface of two pairs of bosses fitted on one axle. Holes are made in inner posts. Axle with bushing is placed in inner posts. Bracket is connected by one end to bushing, and other end of bracket serves for fastening to floor of test car. Second detector is made in form of metric rule secured to inner post, and two pointers secured on upper end faces of outer posts. Two pairs of slots are made on outer posts. Slots are arranged on one axis and they accommodate pins installed for movement. Pins are provided with stops from outer and inner parts of posts.
EFFECT: improved reliability of device, reduced cost, possibility of reading results of measuring directly from detectors.
FIELD: railway transport; permanent way.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of noncontact inspection of profile of ballast base passing square to longitudinal direction of track. Inspection is carried out together with recording of deviation of track in level and in position. Depending on recorded defects as to level (a) and profile of ballast base 13 obtained for said level, amount of crushed stone for lifting track 4 to preset level and uniform ballasting is determined. To find amount of crushed stone required for ballast base 12, recorded profile of ballast base 13 is applied to preset profile of cross section 14.
EFFECT: improved ballasting of track.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; permanent way.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of grading of existing bed of railway in which cables and/or pipes are laid beyond the limits of rails, and to laser measuring device to read bed profile. According to proposed method, operator removes material of bed by sucking through definite steps along bed to form pits or cross trenches at each side of track, and using laser camera, checks profile near pit and position of buried cables or pipes and stores obtained information. Then, using information kept in memory, operator controls device for mechanical digging of material from both sides of track without risk of damage to buried cables or pipes and profile of graded bed. Laser measuring device is mounted on railway motor car with cross guide beam 12 and carriage with laser camera which can be moved along guide beam. Laser camera is pointed with its lens downwards to read distance from ground, being connected with computer to record position of bogie on rails and distance from camera to ground.
EFFECT: provision of safe, quick and cheap method of railway bed grading with use of laser measuring device.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; permanent way testing facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method of pulling contact system cable comes to the following: each rail 6 is read off by means of distance pickup 16 placed over rail and moved continuously in longitudinal direction of track and scanning in plane 20 passing square to longitudinal direction of track. Problem points of measurement 25 on rail defining geometry of switch are recorded as measurement values in polar system of coordinates. Polar coordinates for measurement values are converted into Cartesian coordinates and information is recorded in memory at continuous measurements of distance by means of measuring wheel after which lateral section for switch 1 is calculated basing on recorded measurement values. Actual measurement values are compared in definite points of measurement 25 with preset values of at least two of enumerated parameters kept in memory, namely, width of clearance between counter-rail and running rail, through clearance or state of tongue as to its wear, minimum width between edge of guide rail and side edge of running rail in curve, width of gauge and/or distance between counter-rails or guide surfaces and deviation of obtained values from preset values. In device for noncontact measurement of lateral section or rail-to-rail distance of track, each pickup 16 is arranged in area over corresponding rail 6 being essentially laser scanner 17 for reading problem points of measurement 25 defining geometry of switch which is made for reciprocation at angle of scanning (α).
EFFECT: provision of quick and accurate determination and evaluation of measurands of vital importance for switch.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; track maintenance.
SUBSTANCE: geometry of track is measured by using high-accuracy measuring circuit with two mechanically coupled test trucks forming transport and mechanically coupled test trucks forming transport and mechanical part of measuring system and including covered distance meter and truck tilting level sensors relative to horizon and at least one radiating mark (optical radiation source) rigidly installed on first test truck in direction of movement and providing pressing of flange of wheel to inner head of base rail, and optical electronic receiving-and-analyzing system rigidly secured on second truck. Second truck is double axle, with flanges of corresponding wheelsets pressed to inner surface of head of base rail, thus forming measuring base identifying position of base rail in points of contact of corresponding wheelsets.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of measurement at simplification of process.
4 cl, 5 dwg