How razvlechenija natural leather and device for its implementation

C14B13 - Shredding hides or leather


(57) Abstract:

Use: waste processing technologies natural leather footwear and other industries. The inventive method razvlechenija natural leather material is divided into fiber bundles in two stages. At the first stage produces a weakening of efforts, holding the fiber in the whole volume of the skin. In the second stage, the material is subjected to razvlecheniy on a separate fiber bundles. With the implementation of the first stage, the material is subjected to stretching to the relative strain defined by the equation

p[cos21(1-)2+2] +

+2p[cos21(1+)-]+1-1/cos22= 0, where2angle crimp fibers;1- the angle of the beam axis;p- relative deformation; is the Poisson's ratio. Then in the stretched state, the material is subjected to compression before reaching the yield point. Device for razvlechenija natural leather includes a housing with a working net installed inside the rotor, mounted on the working surfaces of the rotor and casing of the grinding elements and the feed rolls. The feed rolls are made with a comb forming profile. Step crests t is determined from the expression,

< 2 C. and 1 C. p. F.-ly, 4 Il.

The invention relates to technology for processing waste natural leather footwear and other industries.

A known method of mechanical grinding dense fibrous materials, which consists in stretching and rupture areas of the material between the diverging working planes. According to this method work for most devices.

The disadvantage of this method are the large energy consumption for razvlechenie due to the high speed and large ways of forces, as well as high tensile strength elements of genuine leather, so as durability mainly conditioned by a complex interweaving of fibers (here and hereinafter the term fiber refers to the plexus fibrillin fibers constituting the bundle of fibers element of the microstructure of the skin, i.e. the notion of a bundle of fibers and fiber in this text is adequate). As a result of mutual pressure, tortuosity and petritoli they find themselves trapped in the volume just as the individual strands are clamped in a complex rope. Pull the strand of rope or bundle of fibers of the skin is possible only with a substantial reduction in length of the specimen. The material is torn between divergent working planes. Bronzy beam are on different sides of the line of fracture and rigidly clamped in the structure and strength, holding the beam exceeds his own strength), and the presence of the gain fiber (seamless transfer of untwisting and slippage of the fibers). This occurs for a very short fibers, and fibers, the destruction of which passes through the end of the fiber opposite the end poorly clamped and "out" of the material without destruction.

Predominant in this process is precisely the gap fibers. Because of this, the final product contains a large number of small fibers. The decrease in connection strength between the fibers is mainly due to the reduction of size of the samples, i.e. the convergence of the opposite marginal areas, which are relatively disheveled and fiber in them is released. The weakening of the connection strength with this method of treatment, which would ensure a seamless transfer of razvlechenie, is possible if the sample sizes commensurate with the length of the fibre bundles (i.e., the fiber passes the sample from one side to the other and the ends of its edges are exempt). Also the disadvantages of the method include that it does not exclude the possibility after the end of the process residue in the finished product undeveloped fractions, rugged plexus ("nodes"). This requires the introduction of additional steps the Department is some quality of the finished product.

The presence of short fibers in further processing requires the use of binders for bonding, in some cases more than 100% of the fiber weight. Much worse hygienic properties of the material.

The aim of the invention is to reduce the energy intensity of the process and improve the quality of the product by ensuring seamless transfer of razvlechenija.

The aim is achieved in that the material is razvlecheniy in two stages.

The first step is weakening efforts to hold fibers in the skin (less structure) by deformation in a special way. With the seamless transfer of razvlechenie is achieved by weakening the leather fabric throughout and regardless of the size of samples.

In the second stage of production of the dissolution of the material into fiber bundles.

The deformation of the material in a special way is the impact on the material of the complex tensile and compressive loads. The material is subjected to stretching to relative deformations calculated by the equation

p[cos21(1-2)+2]+2p[cos21(1+)-]+1- 0 (1)

Tensile fiber bundles begin to straighten up and focus on the direction of the applied load, as when straightening decreases tortuosity and petitot fibers, thus decreases the force that holds the fibres in the dermis. The tension of the material to the relative strain defined by the equation (1), provides rectification and orientation along the line of loading most of the fiber structure and is optimal between nedorazumeniem fibers and tapered, i.e. provides the minimum energy required to achieve the desired effect: facilitate razvlechenija by reducing effort, holding the fibers in the dermis. To save the structure, which is created in the skin resulting strain, the material is then subjected to compressive loads.

Deformation by compression allows to fix the oriented structure due to the compensation of the voltage, ensuring relaxation of strain and helps to break those rare adhesions and adhesions, which remained in the skin. Deformation by compression is carried out until the relative deformation of at least 85% as known data with these values in the skin there comes a limit of fiber-mesh material with high physical-mechanical properties becomes material, structure which is a package of straight and oriented fascicles, almost unrelated. The strength of this material is much lower.

After the weakening of the structure of the material is exposed directly to the dissolution of the individual fiber bundles. Since the bond strength is much less than the strength of themselves bundles of fibers, the process is easier, faster and betabrite.

In Fig.1 shows a device for implementing the method of Fig.2 and 3 the design of the feeding rolls; Fig.4 scheme of the main actors in the material during rolling between the rollers.

Device for razvlechenija natural leather contains a rapidly rotating rotor 1 mounted within a fixed housing 2, provided the boot nozzle 3 with the feed rollers 4 and 5, made in forming a comb-type angle profile . In the lower part of the device that is installed discharge pipe 6 with the working grid 7 for removal of the finished product. On the inner surface of the rotor 1 and the drum 2 is fixed straps 8 and 9 with the needle headset. The lower roller 5 is mounted on the torsion 10 to prevent jamming during the ingress of foreign bodies, and also has fur the motor. To derive spongy material from the device, use the fan (not shown).

The first stage of the weakening of leather and fabric, through the impact on the material of the complex tensile and compressive loads is implemented in the device in the rolls 4 and 5. Rolls made with forming a comb-like profile (Fig.2). Step ledges t is selected so that during rolling to prevent sliding and retracting material and laying it on the profile, and is determined by the formula



where the coefficient of friction between the material and the roller;

the thickness of the material;

- profile corner ledge roll.

Step is selected so as to ensure the fixing material on the ridges, and stretching it between adjacent teeth. The necessary relative deformation is provided by the depth of the troughs of the profile, which depends on the angle of the profile Angle is determined from the expression



whereprelative deformation that you want to create in the material.

The necessary deformation of the compression provided by the installation of the necessary clearance between the rollers and the force pressing the bottom of the roll.

The device operates as follows. Waste leather are loaded through paeniu, and in the plane of the axes of the rolls, where the gap is minimal, tensile added and compressive loads. After passing through the rolls, the material structure is broken and he loses high strength properties. In this form after you roll the skin gets into the zone of interaction between the strips 8 and 9 of the rotor drum, where it is subjected to the final separation of the fiber bundles. Spongy leather weight moving in the direction of movement of the rotor hits the net, through which is discharged from the device by means of the vane.

As the process of processing material on the rolls is carried out in a pseudostatic mode (because of the small path and rate of deformation), the costs of the energy is not large, and give the opportunity to significantly save energy costs on razdelyvanie and bring the process to a single pass of the material through the needle headset, i.e., to make it even more productive.

Due to the weakening of ties with the skin of the separation process proceeds bezobrazno with retaining the original length of the fiber, which is important for their subsequent use.

1. How razvlechenija natural leather, in which the skin is divided into fiber bundles in two stages, al are razvlecheniy on a separate fiber bundles, characterized in that during the implementation of the first stage, the material is subjected to stretching to the relative strain defined by the equation


< / BR>
where2angle crimp fibers;

1the angle of the beam axis;

prelative warp tension;

the Poisson's ratio,

and then in the stretched state, the material is subjected to compression to yield.

2. Device for razvlechenija natural leather, comprising a housing with a working grid mounted inside the rotor and is fixed on the working surfaces of the rotor and casing of the grinding elements, and provided with feed rollers, characterized in that the feed rolls are made with a comb forming with a step profile of the ridges of t, determined from the expression:

< / BR>
where m is the coefficient of friction between the material and the roller;

d the thickness of the material;

b the angle of protrusion of the roll.

3. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the ridges are made with the angle b defined by the equation