Large lightweight mirror composite construction (options)
(57) Abstract:Usage: optical instrumentation and solar technology, in particular optical mirrors are of composite construction, which is characterized by high rigidity, heat resistance and heat stability, in the manufacture of solar concentrators. The invention is: to improve the manufacturability and regulation forms at high concentrations of the focal spot of a concentrating mirror composite construction in large lightweight composite mirror structure containing the basis bonded together hollow polyhedrons placed on the top of the footing elements with flat optical surface, the mirror is made in the form of a hub, polyhedra made in the form of a right truncated hexagonal pyramids, with their side faces are oriented to the plane of the corresponding upper base of the truncated pyramid at an angle selected from the ratios given in the description. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to an optical instrument engineering and solar technology, namely to the optical mirrors are of composite construction, characterized by the centralizers of solar radiation.Currently, the problem of obtaining clean, affordable and cheap sources of energy rose sharply enough. A special place among these energy sources on the inexhaustible and availability is solar energy. Large mirrors are of composite construction, currently used for concentration of solar radiation are either insufficiently rigid, heat-resistant and thermostable, or the convergence and mutual fastening of the basis elements with the optical surface during the formation of the hub cause is often difficult to overcome obstacles.Known as the hub of the solar radiation, containing the supporting frame and mounted thereon by means of alignment of nodes spaced straight rows of bezel having a cylindrical surface and a combined minimum cross section of the reflected their flows of solar radiation 
However, framing the famous hub of solar radiation has insufficient rigidity, heat resistance and heat stability, resulting in effects on the hub, for example, extreme temperatures, wind, etc. is defocusing facet of the hub is ICIE adjusting device does not allow again to quickly focus a significant number of facet especially with the rapid changes affecting factors leading to rasfokusirovka facet.The closest in technical essence (prototype) is a large mirror composite structures containing in the base is bonded between a hollow polyhedral prism made in the form of an inverted cups, the tops of the reasons which made depressions in the form of sectors of cylinders with a common radius and centers at the points of overlapping peaks and recesses made one hole in each of which includes a pin of the mating disc, made in the form of a cylinder with a radius and height, sootvetsvenno equal to the radius and height of the cylindrical recesses in the tops of the bases of the prisms, and on these grounds and made them flush with the base and made them flush base interfacing disks that form a common continuous plane, the applied layer, the outer surface of which is optically processed, and fixing all of the elements together made through solder 
However, the known large lightweight composite mirror structure does not allow to receive the hub of the solar radiation due to the inability of attachment and mutual mounting bases sostaga layer makes it impossible to create a concentrating mirror of the individual optical elements.The purpose of the invention improve the manufacturability and regulation forms at high concentrations of the focal spot of a concentrating mirror composite construction.The objective is achieved by the fact that in large lightweight composite mirror structure containing the basis bonded together hollow polyhedrons placed on the top of the footing elements with flat optical surface, the mirror is made in the form of a hub, polyhedra made in the form of a right truncated hexagonal pyramids, with their side faces are oriented to the plane of the corresponding upper base of the truncated pyramid at an angle selected from the following equation:
cos where d is the diameter of a circle inscribed in an element with an optical surface;
- minimum clearance between adjacent elements at the location of their optical axis normal to the corresponding upper base of the truncated pyramid;
L the shortest distance from the location information reflected from the optical elements of radiation beams to the respective upper bases of the truncated pyramids at the location of the optical axis of the elements normal to the upper base of the curved shape of the optical surface, when this angle is chosen from the following relationship:
cos where Raboutthe radius of curvature of the optical surface of the element;
h the minimum distance between the optical surface of the element and the upper base of the corresponding truncated pyramid.In Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of large lightweight mirrors are of composite construction; Fig. 2 is the same, with a curved optical elements.Large lightweight mirror in the form of a hub 1 a composite structure includes a base fastened by a hollow right truncated hexagonal pyramid 2 placed on the upper grounds 3 elements 4 flat optical surface 5, mounted for adjustment device 6, while the side faces 7 of the pyramids 2 is oriented to the plane of the upper base 3 corresponding truncated pyramid 2 at an angle selected from the following equation:
cos where d is the diameter of a circle inscribed in item 4 with the optical surface 5;
- minimum clearance between adjacent elements 4 at the location of their optical axis normal to the corresponding upper base of the truncated pyramid;
L shortest Russ is Sevani 3 truncated pyramids 2 at the location of the optical axis of the elements normal to the upper base.In Fig. 2 presents a schematic diagram similar large lightweight mirrors are of composite construction with elements 4 with the curved shape of the optical surface 9, the angle selected from the following equation:
cos where Rothe radius of curvature of the optical surface 9 item 4;
h the minimum distance between the optical surface 9 of the element 4 and the corresponding upper base 3 of a truncated pyramid 2.As element 4 is used, for example, an element with a reflecting surface (reflectance in the visible region of the spectrum 82-84%), made of aluminium alloy AMG-6 and optically processed by standard techniques, for example, by the method of diamond turning.As the correct hollow truncated pyramids 2 is used, for example, plastic injection moulds from aluminium alloy AL-24, cast by the standard technology in the forms for the formation of the side faces 7, oriented at an angle to the upper base 3 pyramids 2 and pastoralist pyramids.Numerical calculation of the hub is shown below.The hub with a flat reflective elements: d=360 mm, =10 mm, L= 3000 mm, angle =91about30'.Con="ptx2">Mount pyramids 2 between them is carried out, for example, by bolts or rivets. Installation and adjustment of the elements 4 is realized by using, for example, widely used in solar technology mechanisms guidance.Large lightweight mirror composite construction operates as follows.Solar radiation strikes the surface of the mirror, representing the hub 1 through the construction of its Foundation from the correct truncated hexagonal hollow pyramids 2 with the side edges 7, oriented in the plane of the upper base 3 corresponding truncated pyramid at an angle . Solar radiation is reflected from the flat optical surface 5 elements 4, pre-adjusted using the adjusting device 6, and sent them to the place of 8 information of the reflected beam solar radiation in the so-called focus F of the multi-element mirror, which focuses the energy of solar radiation and which is located at a distance L from the upper base 3 corresponding truncated pyramids 2 with an angle of inclination of the side faces 7 of the pyramids 2 to the plane of the upper base 3 corresponding truncated pyramid 2.The technical result of the invention are: to improve the manufacturability of a concentrating mirror not less than 20% by ensuring the coupling of the bases in the proper application of hollow truncated hexagonal pyramids with the side edges oriented to the plane of the upper base of the corresponding pyramid at a given angle, depending on the focus of the hub; providing the possibility of various forms of the hub due to the alignment of the optical elements and the surface of the curved shape on the latter; to provide a high concentration of the focal spot due to the alignment of optical elements and a curved surface on the latter. 1. Large lightweight composite mirror structure containing the basis bonded together hollow polyhedrons placed on their bases flat reflecting optical element is e, the base of which is connected with the flat reflecting optical elements, this side faces of the pyramids are oriented to the plane of the smaller base at an angle selected from the conditions of the contacting side faces of the pyramids, the smaller base of which is placed tangent to the sector of a sphere with radius equal to twice the distance from the designated information reflected from the optical elements of radiation beams to the respective upper bases of the truncated hexagonal pyramid, and the reflecting optical elements mounted for alignment.2. Large lightweight composite mirror structure containing the basis bonded together hollow polyhedrons placed on their bases reflecting optical elements, wherein the reflecting optical elements are made curved polyhedra in the form of a right truncated hexagonal pyramid, the smaller base of which is connected with the optical reflecting elements, while the side faces of the pyramids are oriented to the plane of the smaller base at an angle which is chosen from the condition of the contacting side faces of the pyramids, the smaller base of which is placed tangent to the sector of a sphere with radius equal to the distance from the center of curvature optical is
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: at least two dielectric layers are produced with preset thickness. Layers are disposed one onto the other to form pack of layers. Thickness of layer packs is subject to reduction and thicknesses of separate layers are similarly reduced by means of deforming layer packs to keep relation of thicknesses or relation of thicknesses of layers. Layer pack is disposed between two carrying layers before subjecting the layers to deformation. At least one carrying layer is formed from several separate layers, which are supposed to be disposed subsequently at the end of process of partial deformation at any previous layer of carrying layer. Separate layers of carrying layer can be overlayed onto previous separate layers of carrying layer.
EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; improved reflection factor.
FIELD: mirror systems of observation.
SUBSTANCE: coordinates of point of driver's eye and reference point at object to be observed in the driver mirror are measured by rule as well as reference point at mirror of transportation vehicle. Angles of inclination of mirror to coordinate planes are found from relations mentioned in formula of invention. Inclination of driving mirror to coordinate planes is determined. Random point at object of observation is preset and its coordinates are measured by means of measuring tape. Coordinates of point in mirror are calculated where the light beam reflects from the mirror and enters driver's eye. Procedure repeats many times for many random points at object of observation and coordinates of corresponding points of reflection at plane of mirror are found. Shape and sizes of mirror are determined by end points of reflection.
EFFECT: simplified determining of shape and sizes of mirror; improved precision of orientation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: optical instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for wide-band light reflecting. Reflecting surface has dielectric layers A, B and C. A layer is made of material having low refractivity, B layer is made of material with average refractivity and C layer is made of material having high reflectivity. Optical thickness of layers equals to λr/4, where λr is wavelength of middle part of interval having high refractivity. Sequence of layer alternation looks like (CDCABA)KCBC, where K>=and has to be integer. Spectrum range with high reflectivity is widened due to shift in adjacent bandwidths at opposite sides along wavelength scale.
EFFECT: widened spectrum range with higher refractivity.
FIELD: optical industry.
SUBSTANCE: mirror can be used when producing optical reflecting systems in lasers and experimental physics. Mirror has transparent dielectric base. Metal coating is applied onto the base. Coating has to nanoparticles, for example, silver nanoparticles, which have plasma resonance at electromagnet radiation frequency. The mirror intends to reflect the radiation. Linear dimensions are far smaller than the radiation wavelength. Nanoparticles are applied uniformly onto surface of the base to cover 15% of its area. Thickness of mirror is reduced to minimal size; size of spot of reflected radiation in focus is reduced.
EFFECT: reduced thickness of mirror; improved precision.
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: integral micromechanical mirror has substrate to place four electrodes onto it. Four additional electrodes of capacitive movement converters are disposed onto the substrate in such a manner to form flat capacitor with mirror element. One additional fixing plate is disposed under mirror element directly onto substrate. There are torsion beams placed in such a way that they connect mirror element with fixing plate. Mirror element, torsion beams, electrodes of electrostatic drives and capacitive converters as well as fixing plate are made of semiconductor material. Area of substrate used for placing integral mirror is reduced. Position of mirror element is subject to control relatively the substrate.
EFFECT: improved reliability of operation.
FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.
EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical observation devices for use on automobiles and other vehicles. proposed system of mirrors contains rear view mirror 7, outer side mirrors 8, 9 and inner side mirror 5, 6, additional mirrors 10, 11, 12 and front mirror 4. Front mirror 4 and inner side mirrors 5, 6 are arranged in driver's field of vision. Front mirror 4 consists of separate adjustable parts 4а, 4б, 4в and it reflects panorama of spaces behind and at both sides from driver from rear view mirror 7 and outer side mirrors 8, 9. Inner side mirrors 5, 6 reflect directly parts of spaces arranged at both sides from driver which are not seen in outer side mirrors 8, 9.
EFFECT: provision of safety on the road owing to panoramic reflection of rear and side spaces around vehicle.
5 cl, 25 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical devices of automobiles, particularly, to front view mirrors. Front view device for automobiles with steering wheel at right side contains two mirrors installed inside automobile at angle relative to each other with possibility of providing periscopic effect and reflecting front part of road. Like sizes of mirrors and distance between mirrors and between mirrors and driver are in following relationship: B1:B2=(L1+L2):L2 where B1, B2 are like sizes of reflecting surfaces of first and second mirrors, respectively; L1, L2 are distances from first mirror to second mirror and from second mirror to driver, respectively.
EFFECT: improved quality of picture and reliability of front view device.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the group of inventions refer to laser technique and may be used in mirror elements of laser resonators and in arrangements for transmission of laser radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the laser mirror has two identical, not communicating between themselves, symmetrical priming contours of heat-carrying agents located between the front plate on whose exterior side a reflective surface is fulfilled, and the rear plate on both sides of the diagram located in the symmetry plane of the arrangement. Each of the priming contour of the heat-carrying agents is fulfilled in the shape of in-series located, beginning from the diagram, a driving collector, a draining collector, a heat exchanger whose exterior surface adjoins to the inner surface of the corresponding plate. The cavity of the driving collector is connected via channels passing through the draining collector with the heat-exchanger which is connected with the cavity of the draining collector. In the second variant of the arrangement the reflective surfaces of the laser mirror are fulfilled on the exterior sides of the front and the rear plates. The heat exchangers are fulfilled in the shape of identical infiltration elements of the same sizes and forms correspondingly to the front and the rear plates.
EFFECT: reduces thermal distortions of the reflective surface and also increases the service term of the laser mirror.
4 cl, 1 dwg