The method for obtaining hollow billet and die for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The inventive method for obtaining hollow workpieces is carried out by free extrusion of material from the workpiece by the punch through the gap between the end surfaces of the container and the piercing punch. Extrusion produces associated movement of the piercing punch and the container in the direction of the punch. Forming the walls of the workpiece of variable thickness are produced simultaneously with the extrusion by changing the distance between the end surfaces of the piercing punch and the container, which provides the desired shape and dimensions being formed of a hollow workpiece. The method is carried out in a mould, comprising upper and lower plates, the container is fixed with the possibility of axial movement, a piercing punch pinned to the top plate, and a plug secured in the bottom plate, and lugs. The stamp is equipped with spring-loaded in a radial direction by poloskami with mechanical and reference surfaces and copiers installed on the bottom plate parallel to the outer surface of the container. The container is made at least three radial blind groove profile with a bottom, poloski installed in these slots with the possibility of interaction between the, and the other focusing. The lugs are hinged to the top plate. 2 C. p. F.-ly, 3 ill.

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the production of hollow products using extrusion operations.

To obtain hollow billet with a wall of variable thickness used the method including the planting head and the reverse extrusion [1]

The disadvantage of this method is the inability to obtain in a single operation of the hollow billet with a wall of variable thickness, so apply a machining operation that requires a considerable investment of time and energy. Increasing the intensity, the cost of obtaining blanks.

There is a method of extrusion (without matrix) hollow parts, which receive the workpiece with a deep cavity using the scheme of direct extrusion, while the workpiece is moving along with the plug in the cavity of the container, in contact with the piercing punch and freely deformed with getting deep hollow articles with an outer diameter greater than the diameter of the original piece [2] Experiments have shown the benefits of free without matrix extrusion, consisting in snook in a single operation.

The disadvantage of this method, taken as a prototype, it is possible to obtain only hollow products with a wall of constant thickness.

To obtain hollow billet with a wall of variable thickness used in most cases, the stamps for backward extrusion, in which the matrix and placed in it a rod blank is still in the process of formation and deformation is movable in the axial direction of the punch for extrusion [3]

The stamp consists of the lower and upper plates of the column guides and bushings, gaskets. In the lower part of the stamp fixed lower punch, banded matrix, and in the upper part of the glass, within which is placed the upper punch, finger and guide Bush. Depending on the geometric shape of its cavity to receive a plug of a corresponding profile, and to obtain external wall thickening products are used by several operations or transitions extrusion. This is a flaw of the design. In addition, during extrusion of the material of the billet of carbon steel and hard alloys due to the high specific pressure on the tool life punches and matrixes low.

hnwu plate, the guides of the column and the sleeve, the lower plate is fixed piercing punch and the container and between the container and the end of the piercing punch a gap is provided by setting the container on the supporting ring. On the top plate installed plug, which is included in the cavity of the container with the possibility of axial movement. After you install the billet in the container it under their own weight will move down until it touches the punch of the firmware. The process of indentation will be moving the punch and the workpiece in the axial direction inside the container, the metal will flow into the gap between the ends of the container and the piercing punch. In the deformation will occur forming hollow articles.

The disadvantage of the design of the stamp is the inability to obtain hollow products with external bulges on the wall during one stroke of the press. For this purpose it is necessary for each operation of the extrusion to change the size of the gap between the piercing punch and the end of the container, which increases the complexity of manufacturing such products.

The technical result of the invention is to provide a deep hollow products with variable wall thickness, and reduced the single extrusion of material from the workpiece by the punch through the gap between the end surfaces of the container and the piercing punch, squeezing exercise associated movement of the piercing punch and the container in the direction of the punch and the forming walls of the workpiece in the longitudinal cross section is produced simultaneously with the extrusion by changing the distance between the end surfaces of the piercing punch and the container, which provides the desired shape and dimensions of the cavity and the walls of the hollow billet.

To implement this method in the famous stamp, comprising upper and lower plates, the container is fixed with the possibility of axial movement, a piercing punch pinned to the top plate, and a plug secured in the bottom plate, and lugs on the bottom plate are spring-loaded in a radial direction of poloski end and the support surfaces and copiers installed parallel to the outer surface of the container, the container is made at least three radial blind groove profile with a bottom, poloski installed in these slots interoperable end surfaces with copiers, one control surface with profile bottom of the corresponding groove, and the other focusing, with stops hinged to the top plate.

In the proposed method will have to move the piercing punch and the container in the axial direction at different speeds. The speed of travel of the punch uniform, and the speed of movement of the container is changed in accordance with a given law of motion. It changes the gap between the ends of the piercing punch and the container in the process of forming a hollow workpiece. With the increase of the gap increases as the wall thickness decreases with decreasing. This allows to obtain hollow billet with a wall of variable thickness due to its external thickening that when other methods of extrusion impossible.

For the implementation of this method uses a stamp, in which the movable container is spring-loaded and it is made in the radial direction deaf grooves with profile bottom. In the slots are moved spring-loaded poloski in contact with copiers, surface profile which is made in accordance with the desired law of motion of the container. If the surface of the copier parallel to the direction of movement of the piercing punch, poloski not moved in the radial direction, and the container and the piercing punch is moved with the same speed, the gap between the end surfaces is not changed and the floor of the semi-finished product is formed by a wall of constant thickness and a given cavity size.

Thus the design of the stamp provides the implementation of the proposed method of producing hollow products with variable wall thickness in the extrusion process, which reduces the complexity of manufacturing hollow billets with walls of variable thickness.

In Fig. 1 shows the design of the stamp for extrusion before (Fig.1,a) and in the process of forming a hollow billet (Fig.1,b); Fig. 2 position of the parts of the stamp at the end of the formation; Fig. 3 stages of forming a hollow billet of the proposed method.

The stamp for the implementation of this method of extrusion (Fig.1) has a piercing punch 1, container 2, which is made deaf radial grooves 3 with installed poloskami 4 and springs 5. The container 2 through a special screws 6 interacts with the spring buffer, consisting of studs 7, fixed on the bottom plate 8 of the stamp, disc 9, a spring 10, opoia peasantization 15 and copiers 16. On the upper plate 17 is installed, the base plate 18, a piercing punch 1 fixed in pancontinental 19 tapered sleeve 20 and nut 21. Using axes 22 to pancontinental fasten the hinge lugs 23, copiers 16 are embossed protrusions 24.

The workpiece is placed in the container 2 on the plug 14. Turn the press and the upper plate for guiding columns (not shown) is lowered to the contact between the piercing punch 1 bar stock. Simultaneously lowered hinged lugs 23, which at the same time touching the supporting surface of porzucek 4.

To prevent slippage stops 23 relative to the surface of porzucek last 4 have a cylindrical cavity in contact with the stop 23. The last act through poloski 4 in the container 2, which begins to move in the same direction with the punch, while the spring is compressed buffer, and the end of porzucek 4 slides on the surface of the copier 16.

The initial stage of formation shown in Fig. 1A. Upon further lowering of the container 2, the end of porzucek 4 is in contact with the relief ledge 24 copiers 16 and Polushka 4 begins to move radially in the groove 3. Since the bottom of the groove 3 has a relief Tue, what moves the punch 1. As a result, the gap between the ends of the piercing punch 1 and the container 2 is increased.

This phase of deformation shown in Fig.1B. The result is a thickening of the wall of the hollow semi-finished product. After passing poloskami 4 lug 24 on the Cam 16 is restored to the initial gap between the end of the piercing punch and the container 2, and a hollow workpiece has a variable wall thickness. After extrusion spring buffer through a special screws 6 raises the container 2 to the initial position, and a hollow workpiece is removed. Then the cycle repeats.

To ensure the reliability of the stamp, should the internal cavity of the container 2 to perform taper 15-30'. This will reduce the effort of pushing a hollow workpiece, and when the squeezing of the container 2 will take the load reaction forces of extrusion that will allow you to pick a spring buffer with less effort springs.

In accordance with the proposed method at the time of the approach of the piercing punch 1 to the container 2 by the amount required clearance h (Fig.3,and simultaneously passing the piercing movement of the punch 1 and the container 2 with the same speed V. will Begin formovania 2 to V1for example, it increases. As a result of this increasing gap to h1and are shaping thicker wall section of the hollow billet (Fig.3). When reducing the speed of movement of the container 2 to the value V, the gap decreases and is shaping to reduce the wall thickness of the hollow billet (Fig.3,g). Thus, in the process of extruding the obtained hollow product with a wall of variable thickness.

P R I m m e R. Consider obtaining a hollow billet with a wall of variable thickness aluminum alloy AEO. As the original piece using a rod with a diameter of d320 mm In the extrusion process is necessary to obtain a hollow billet with a wall thickness of 2 mm and 4 mm, and the thickness should be at a distance of 10 mm from the upper end face of the workpiece. The length of the thickened area equal to 5 mm In Fig.2 shows the required configuration of the hollow billet after extrusion, the diameter of the cavity which is 23 mm, the wall thickness of the bottom 3 mm. In size of the hollow workpiece is determined by the volume and dimensions of the original zagotovka-rod, its length is equal to 34 mm Such a workpiece conveniently be obtained by cutting the stamp.

On the basis of equal volumes of blanks and semi-finished main objective of the site. The calculations give the opportunity to build a profile of a copier, in which the protrusion should begin at a distance of 5 mm below the upper end of the bar stock. When the angle of the lifting lugs at 45aboutthe lift area will be of 7.68 mm of the Top of the ledge will be a length of 6 mm, then passes down the length of 7.68 mm After this piercing punch follows a path equal to 5 mm

To determine the magnitude azzara between the ends of the piercing punch 1 and the container 2 was used in regression equation [2] At the initial stage of extrusion gap amount h 2.4 mm, in the area of education thickening in the wall of the h16,24 mm. These equations made it possible to calculate the diameter of the piercing punch, which was equal to 20 mm

The example shows the possibility of obtaining a hollow billet with walls of variable thickness per stroke of the press.

Thus the inventive method and device allow to obtain hollow billet with walls of variable thickness with thickened and thinned sites located at a specified distance along the height of the workpiece during one stroke of the press without the use of separable matrices, with significantly less effort extrusion, which reduces the complexity of receipt of such blanks, increases the durability is otoki and tools.

In the device (Fig.1) copiers 16 and piercing punches can be interchangeable. This allows to obtain hollow workpieces with different diameters and different thickness of the walls during the initial preparations of the same diameter, i.e. the technological capabilities of the device wider than known.

1. The method for obtaining hollow billet by free extrusion of material from the workpiece by the punch through the gap between the end surfaces of the container and the piercing punch, characterized in that the squeezing exercise associated movement of the piercing punch and the container in the direction of the punch and the forming walls of the workpiece of variable thickness are produced simultaneously with the extrusion by changing the distance between the end surfaces of the piercing punch and the container, which provides the desired shape and dimensions being formed of a hollow workpiece.

2. Stamp to obtain hollow workpieces, comprising upper and lower plates, the container is fixed with the possibility of axial movement, a piercing punch pinned to the top plate, and a plug secured in the bottom plate, and lugs, characterized in that it is equipped with spring-loaded in a radial is alleline the outer surface of the container, the container is made at least three radial blind groove profile with a bottom, poloski installed in these slots interoperable end surfaces with copiers, one bearing surface profile with a bottom of the corresponding groove, and the other focusing, with stops hinged to the top plate.

 

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