Automatic temperature control in the greenhouse
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to horticulture, namely, devices for thermal control and ventilation in buildings protected ground. The problem solved by the invention is improving the efficiency and reliability of the controller, the expansion of the range of possible to use boiling liquids, reduction of weight and size and inertia of thermostat. This is achieved by the fact that the power element entirely executed in the form of a closed elastic metal membrane, forming a variable volume filled with boiling liquid and transmitting force to the drive shaft of the rotary transoms. The surface of the power element blacked out, and the power element is placed inside a passive solar collector formed by perceiving radiation blackened flat surface base, insulated from the shady side of the emission layer, and above him the translucent casing. When active solar radiation heat of the power element in a solar collector may exceed the value of 100oWith that allows you to expand the use of the power element boiling range liquids: usually PIoWith, for example, ethyl ether, to 78oWith, for example, ethyl alcohol. For Northern latitudes with moderate sun this range of liquids can be somewhat narrowed. The solar collector can be installed both inside and outside the greenhouses. 3 Il. The invention relates to horticulture, namely, devices for thermal control and ventilation in buildings protected ground.Known regulator thermal regime of the greenhouse along.with. N 1475542, class A 01 G 9/24, Appl. 24.03.87, publ. 30.04.89, bull. N 16.The main drawback of this controller is the impossibility exception leakage of steam-gas formed during boiling boiling liquids and having a high permeability. Put into the design of the cylinder a number of elements such as rubber and oil (lubricating fluid) ring a few slow process gas leaks, what you can assume from the description and principle of operation of the regulator, which States that the tightness will depend on the spatial position of the working body (plunger up or down):
low tightness in one position and a reliable friend. For gas, acting with equal pressure in all directions, the UTVA the Arnica along.with. N 1435196, class A 01 G 9/24, Appl. 21.01.87, publ. 07.11.88, bull. N 41.This invention uses the power element Teploobmennik extensions made in the form of a flexible bag filled with boiling liquid.The disadvantages of this device are:
for vapor boiling liquids among elastic materials, whether special rubber or Plastpolymer, there are no materials with zero permeability. All they "accelerate", and, consequently, their lifespan is very limited.the device does not allow more efficient use of solar energy to achieve higher heat temperatures, which would increase the range of possible to use boiling liquids.Closest to the claimed is the automatic temperature control in the greenhouse under patent N 1812932, class A 01 G 9/24, Appl. 12.07.90, publ. 30.04.93, bull. N 16 (prototype).This control of the temperature in the greenhouse includes a sealed vessel equipped with a flexible diaphragm. Installed on the tank and frame with cover.The actuator vent sash greenhouse contains a stem attached to the diaphragm, the lever and rod. When heated, the air in the tank due to the solar radiation amount took lichnogo radiation shutter is closed.The disadvantages of the prototype:
significant heat loss as in the perception of the incident solar energy, and when you save it: first, a heated surface side of the solar radiation is blacked out; secondly, on the shady side of the radiation of the heated tank is not insulated.air is used as working fluid, like all gases, has a low coefficient of volume expansion, which causes to increase the dimensions of the containers and the associated weight and material consumption.The problem solved by the claimed invention increase the efficiency and reliability of the controller, the expansion of the range of possible to use boiling liquids, reducing weight and dimensions and inertia of thermostat.This is achieved in that in the automatic temperature control in the greenhouse, including the power element made in the form of a sealed container of variable volume filled with the working fluid and kinematically linked with swivel transom (in the prototype, called the vent sash) greenhouses, the power element entirely executed in the form of a closed elastic metal membrane, forming volume, filled the element blacked out, and the power element is placed inside a passive solar collector formed by perceiving radiation blackened flat surface base, insulated from the shady side of the radiation, and above him the translucent casing.In Fig. 1 shows the design of the proposed invention, where Fig.1A power element in the form of a corrugated cylinder (bellows), a closed end, the closed state; Fig.1B of the power element in the form of two closed disk membranes, the status "open", and Fig.2 schematic illustration of the greenhouse and the device located outside of the greenhouse of Fig.3 the same device inside the greenhouse.The power element 1 is extruded or pressed from thin sheet metal: some grades of steel, brass, bronze, etc. All joints (the ends of the bellows; a flange on the disk membrane) is performed by soldering or welding, providing complete sealing. The thickness of the metal, the design parameters of the elements of the bellows or the disk membrane and the outer dimensions of the power element selected from calculation to achieve the necessary elasticity, stroke length and force on the rod. Within the security element is boiling the flat base 2, which is blackened on all surface 3. The entire outer surface of the power element 1 also chernitsa. In the case of use for the base 2 of a material with high heat conducting performance below the base secures the insulating layer 4.To the base 2 is fixed and placed on him the translucent cover 5, for example, fiberglass. To the base 2 is mounted and the bracket 6, performing the functions of a guide for movement of the rod 7 and the axis 8 of the lever 9. Items 2, 3, 4, 5 designs form a passive solar collector 10.Automatic temperature control in the greenhouse works as follows.When the temperature within the solar collector 10 above the boiling temperature boiling liquid enclosed in the power element 1, the latter moving in pairs, greatly increases in volume, the power element 1 expands along its axis and exerts pressure on the rod 7. Its movement through the lever 9 is rotated around the axis 8, and the rod 11 is transmitted to the rotary transom 12, opening it. When lowering the temperature within the solar collector below the boiling point of the liquid, the process is reversed: a pair of liquid treated in the fluid pressure in si="ptx2">The solar collector 10 may be installed outside the greenhouses 13 and inside her. In the first case it is attached, for example, by means of bracket 14. In the second case it is installed in the upper part of the greenhouse, in the free access area of solar radiation, and is fastened, for example, on the beam 15.Absolute temperature in the simplest passive solar collector with the active solar radiation can exceed the value of the 100aboutWith that allows this device to expand the use of the power element boiling range liquids: from commonly used with a boiling point below the 30aboutWith, for example, freon-12 to a number of liquids with a boiling point between 35aboutWith, for example, ethyl ether to 78aboutWith, for example, ethyl alcohol. For Northern latitudes with moderate sun this range of liquids can be somewhat narrowed.As a working body in this device used the boiling liquid having a clear advantage before any gas, such as air opportunities for volume expansion, which creates conditions for reducing the size and weight of the device. The use of a hermetically sealed elastic metal containers for placement p is the difference of temperature in the solar collector and the greenhouse in a Sunny weather due to the low inertia of the device temperature rise in the solar collector (as well as its decline) will always outpace growth (decline) of temperature in the greenhouse, forcing promptly fired power element and its associated drive swivel transom, thereby eliminating the danger of overheating of the plants during the hot hours of the day, and after the decay heat contributing to the conservation of the past day heat.The device is simple to manufacture and is reliable in operation. Its use will save owners of protected structures of soil from the daily care on measures to prevent the plants from overheating. AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURE control IN the GREENHOUSE, containing the power element connected by a rod with swivel transom and filled with the working medium, characterized in that it is equipped with a passive solar collector with flat blacked out and insulated from the bottom side of the base, above which is translucent casing, while the power element is designed as inside a passive solar collector closed elastic metal membrane, the outer surface of which is blacked out, and as a working environment used boiling liquid.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has vented space, apparatus for removal of carbonic acid gas from atmospheric air and carbonic acid gas generator for generating of carbonic acid gas with low content of carbon 14 isotope. Temperature mode inside greenhouse is reliably maintained by air conditioning and by employment of shock resistant light-transmitting covering tending to retain infrared heat energy. Self-cleaning of light-transmitting covering is provided by means of oxide coating. Sealing capacity of greenhouse is not affected by passage of personnel and equipment therein owing to employment of double door, wherein doors are mutually blocked. Soil air drainage is used for preventing gaseous carbonaceous soil decomposition products from getting into inner atmosphere of greenhouse. Intensified ripening of plants is enabled by addition of ethylene into inner atmosphere of greenhouse.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.
14 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of flowers, vegetables, decorative and tropical plants under home conditions.
SUBSTANCE: compact chamber is composed of at least two parts, that is, bath, extension rings-inserts, hood, and pan. Pan is placed into bath, ground is spilled, sown, watered and covered with hood. Said parts are secured to one another by adhesive tape. Compact chamber may have cylindrical or square volume of enclosure vessel subdivided into at least three main parts: lower part with bath for receiving of soil or other nutritive mixture, extension rings-inserts, and upper part with hood for creating closed space, wherein permanent humidity is maintained for creating advantageous conditions for plant growing. In case space is to be increased in vertical direction, ring-insert is positioned between bath and hood. For plant illumination, in case natural illumination is insufficient, lighting device is inserted into hood throat and switched to regulated pulse-duration power unit controlled from automatic program relay, which is turned-on and turned-off in accordance with set season, solar cycle, established at starting time by means of switches. Heating, air and moisture modes are regulated by means of vent windows defined by notches-depressions formed on vessel surface. Vent windows may be removed when necessary. Vent windows may be closed and opened by means of small windows set for predetermined threshold temperature values and automatically controlled by bimetal effect, and in case of necessity, heating system is switched on.
EFFECT: simplified and convenient maintenance, improved development of plants and reliable scientific results, when used in laboratory conditions.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method and equipment used in closed ground constructions, such as block greenhouses, for heating in winter or cooling in summer of useful air volume, as well as for regulating night and day temperature differences in autumn or in spring.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pumping out thermal energy from low-grade heat source into heating system with the use of heat pump; taking out low-grade heat from water of cooling system for cooling said water; spraying said water under roof for absorbing heat and collecting by means of water intake screen for further directing into cooling system tank, from which heat absorbed by water is pumped into heating system tank. Apparatus has heating system with water pump, heat pump equipped with evaporator and condenser, and cooling system comprising tank with heat pump evaporator built into tank, spraying pipes connected to tank through water pump and running to and under greenhouse roof, and water intake screen mounted under spraying pipes. Heating system is equipped with tank having heat pump condenser mounted into tank. Method and apparatus provide for year-round optimal temperature conditions for growing and development of plants.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of greenhouse production, reduced power consumed during heating period, provision for absorbing and utilizing excessive thermal energy during warm period of the year, and increased yield.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating trays and useful volume of greenhouse, with trays being heated with hydroponic solution having initial temperature below 300C and final temperature of at least 150C, when said solution is discharged from trays; keeping air temperature of at least 40C in useful volume of greenhouse; isolating useful volume of greenhouse from remaining volume.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for heating plants in hydroponic units of greenhouse, convenient maintenance and reduced costs of materials.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, constructions for protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has carcass for longitudinal walls, end panels and roof, light-transparent material for covering carcass openings, with part of carcass openings being adapted for closing and opening to provide for ventilation of green house interior, and drive for unit adapted to provide for automatic ventilation. Carcass openings are made in the form of air vents. Drive for automatic ventilation unit is equipped with system of levers pivotally secured to one another and to air vent flaps and rigidly fixed on member for securing of vacuum pipe with counterweight.
EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency in creating of advantageous conditions.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, growing of agricultural crops with the use of multiple-flow apparatuses arranged at different levels for exposing plants growing in containers to light.
SUBSTANCE: lighting apparatus is composed of individual modules, each including light channel, comprising guides, and mini-hotbeds movable along guides. Mini-hotbeds are mounted on wheels of different diameter for moving by gravity so as to provide their horizontal position by placing them onto inclined guides. Each mini-hotbed may be used as independent module, is furnished with light-transparent hood which simultaneously serves as water accumulator and spreader. Lighting apparatus may be mounted in special industrial, household, supplementary and other rooms provided that stabilized temperature of 15-20° is maintained and phyto-sanitary requirements are fulfilled. Apparatus of such construction is characterized in that rigid coupling between mini-hotbeds is avoided and in that gravity is used for movement of mini-hotbeds along inclined guides in light channel. Apparatus of such construction provides year-round growing of pre-basic sanitated seed potato, seedlings of potato and other vegetables and flowers, as well as products of said crops, tree, fungi, algae seedlings and other biological objects under regulated artificial conditions while eliminating conditions for contacting of seedlings with pathogens.
EFFECT: simplified construction, enhanced reliability in operation and reduced consumption of power.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing in protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has at least one greenhouse unit equipped with irrigation device. Greenhouse unit has ventilation device and soil heating device. Automatic control system for controlling said devices has at least one temperature sensor and at least one moisture content sensor, whose outputs are connected through amplifiers-converters to part of inputs of arithmetic-logic device adapted for receiving signals generated by said sensors, comparing resulting data with control data and generating control signals for switching-on said devices. Other part of arithmetic-logic device inputs is connected to outputs of replaceable permanent memory unit wherein program for selected climatic zone and program for growing of selected plant of this climatic zone are recorded. Third part of inputs is connected to position outputs for members of said devices, whose inputs are connected through control unit and amplifiers-converters to outputs of arithmetic-logic device and to inputs of indication unit. Voltage of 12 V is supplied to automatic control unit.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in growing wide range of plants of any climatic zone with automatic system for controlling of irrigation, ventilation and heating procedures.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: agriculture; growing plants at lesser consumption of electrical and thermal energy due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed greenhouse complex includes base, transparent heat-insulating dome-shaped coat with round transparent heat-insulation aperture in center. Coat is secured on load-bearing supports mounted vertically on base; it is manufactured from roofing blocks made from light-tight material at low heat conductivity and provided with through holes in form of truncated cones or pyramids coated from the inside with beam-reflecting material with their vertices directed inside or outside the coat. Holes are closed with inserts from the outside and inside which are made from thin transparent material; surfaces of said blocks directed inside coat and not occupied by through holes and technological holes are coated with beam-reflecting material. Areas with plants being cultivated, main and auxiliary technological equipment and plant life support systems are located inside coat and helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir consists of two vessels: one of them is filled with water and is mounted on base in center of coat and other is mounted coaxially inside first one and is insulated at sides and from beneath with low-conductivity material. Second vessel is closed at the top by its own transparent heat-insulating coat and is filled with common salt, for example. Two light reflectors which are cooled with water are made in form of truncated cones or truncated polyhedral pyramids. First of them with outer side light-reflecting surface is mounted with vertex downward above coat, coaxially with it. Second reflector is hollow; it is provided with light-reflecting surfaces; it is mounted coaxially relative to first reflector with vertex upward inside coat above helio-absorbing heat-insulating reservoir. Flat beam-reflecting panels located on area adjoining the coat concentrically relative to it are arranged in two rows. Each said panel is mounted on output link of its two-coordinated swivel mechanism provided with controllable drive. Base of drive is secured on bearing strut vertically mounted on ground surface. Provision is made for additional energy channel together with two said light reflectors which is made in form of flux of sun beams reflected by beam-reflecting panels of helio-absorbing heat-accumulating reservoir concentrated and directed downward. If necessary, it may be spread over entire surface. Controllable drives of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms are connected by their inputs to output of automatic control unit realized at base of computer center. Electrical inputs of center are connected with sensors of media contained in helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir and in space under coat, as well as with wind velocity and direction sensors and with coordinate position sensors of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements at intensified growth of plants due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
13 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protective complexes for plants, including greenhouses and hothouses equipped with electrotechnical and other equipment for care of plants and heat-loving bushes grown under home conditions or small-scale commercial plant growing conditions.
SUBSTANCE: protective complex has foundation pit with supporting carcass onto which transparent protective casing is put. Plastic walls of foundation pit are slightly extending beyond base of supporting carcass and are secured by means of drop screen. Foundation pit bed has ground provided with thermal layer and soil heating members. Foundation pit bed is connected through pipe to suspended closed reservoir hung under complex roof to define, in conjunction with foundation pit construction filled with ground and top layer of fertile soil, single reservoir with water influx-discharge regulated by means of electronic valves provided on branches as well as on pipe. Water is pumped through lower branch by means of water pump into suspension reservoir, and other branch equipped with electronic valve defines closed semicircle on pipe. Such construction provides water discharge by avoiding first branch from suspended reservoir into pipe equipped with corrugated insert provided at its lower end. Level of discharged water is controlled through bushing equipped with float having water level measuring ruler. Supporting carcass incorporates thermal sensors, humidity sensors, illumination sensors, air heating members, and illumination lamps. Valves are opened and closed by means of electronic device. All parts of protective complex are totally controlled by electronic instrument for maintaining optimal microclimate mode. On the basis of electronic instruments and with the use of communicating vessels principle, protective complex may be created, wherein, apart from setting optimal water level in ground soil and irrigation time, optimal heating and illumination mode may be maintained to thereby regulate plant development. Protective complex allows vegetable and other crops, as well as wild and exotic plants to be grown.
EFFECT: increased yield of vegetables and other crops.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, complex agricultural productions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves process and objects arranged in predetermined manner, and place planned according to relief, with geographic and other necessary factors being taken into consideration so that directions of natural air flows are corrected. Agricultural production includes complex greenhouses, heat accumulator, basin, garden, and wind shield. Air flow directed into garden is saturated with water vapors in gaseous state if increase in temperature is desirable when it is close to minimal admissible value, and in small droplet state when lower temperature is desirable. Processor functions as central controller. Objects of branches in agricultural production are selected so that objects of previous branches make raw material for objects of subsequent branches. Furthermore, joint mutually useful development of these objects at suitable conditions is possible. These conditions are created in complex greenhouse units intermediate with regard to said branches. General-purpose containers with raw material are conveyed through said complex greenhouse units. This results in multiple sequential-parallel utilization of raw materials in number of branches of industry. Method stipulates employment of useful relations between populations of organisms - objects of agricultural branches of industry: symbiosis and, according to kind of symbiosis, natural selection.
EFFECT: increased resource saving, reduced production costs of agricultural product and improved ecology of environment.
5 cl, 2 dwg